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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Interests were the things that concern, involves, draws the
attention of, or arouses the curiosity of a person. There were many
reasons why a person becomes interested on a particular thing. An ECE
student has its reasons to be technically interested their course. There
were three major considerations namely:

Skills, Background and

motivations. They may be interested because its their skill, they may be
interested because its what people around them is doing, and they may
be interested because they are being motivated and eventually get hooked
up to it. Skills, Background and Motivation nowadays were big factors for
students to choose their course. Sometimes these three were the basis of
student for their own technical interest.

Skills, background, and motivation, these three things were what


strives an ECE student to have its technical interest on its course. These
can also be the trigger of a student to have self-esteem. These can also be
the source of their knowledge, which could be their edge in their

respective technical interest. But how really does this three aspect affect
the whole of the technical interest of an ECE student

Background

Technical interests of BSECE students while studying can be


affected by many things. These things that affects technical interest
causes great effect to the student, it may cause them great it may cause
them bad. It is mainly because these things may encourage or discourage
them. There were many factors that could affect the interest of BSECE
students but as based on the research we will mainly be focusing on the
Skills, background, and motivations of BSECE students that strives
them to their technical interest. Technical Interest comes from two words
Technical and Interest. According to the Merriam and Webster dictionary
technical is having special knowledge especially of how machines work or
of how particular kinds of work is done, and interest is a quality that
attracts one persons attention and makes them

want to learn more

about something or to be involved in something. To sum up technical

interest is attracting one persons interest on special knowledge of


particular thing.

Students sometimes choose their course base on its demand on


the world scene.
Sometimes they would not consider checking on their skills, background
and motivation which would sometimes end up them not liking the
course they are taking or the worst case scenario is they are going to
shift on their more preferred course. The technical interests of BSECE
student were not just from nowhere there were definitely factors that
would greatly affect

It has been a long time that people has been considering their
talents in everything they are doing. Talents may show your capabilities
but based on studies conducted motivations and backgrounds were
already a factor today. Since people nowadays has been considering
psychological capacities of a person to be affected by neither their
background nor the people that is motivating them to be interested on it.
This research will show us how this three (Skills, Background and
Motivations) as it affects the technical aspect of interests of BSECE

students,

knowing

that

the

course

they

choose

has

so

many

technicalities especially in the field where they would be working.

Conceptual framework
INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Random students
of different year
and section

Survey
Questionnaire

Knowledge on
how Skill,
Background, and
Motivation affects
thetechical
interests of ECE
students.

Fig. 1

Paradigm on the effects of Skill, Background, and Motivation on the technical

interests of ECE students.

The researcher chose Random students from different year and section
as respondent for this research to be unified, and to have a wide
perspective on how Skills, Background and Motivations affect each
student surveyed. The said respondents will undergo a survey in which
they will answer questionnaire. The researchers will then after analyze
the gathered data and then interpret the results according to the needs
of this research

Theoretical Framework

As based on Jean Bapiste Lamarck's Theory of Use and Disuse,


whatever characteristic the organism acquires during its lifetime, this
can be passed on to its offspring. And this trait is strengthened or
developed with constant use during its lifetime. Otherwise, the trait is
lost. Applying it outside the box once a student has a skill perhaps a
background on its interest or better say technical interest it may cause
him to develop it as he grows or in his college years show in the theory as
passing to the offspring. This shows that as they get to gain something
such as skills they get to have it reflect on the next stage of their life. For
example when

person get to have a skill, motivation , or background

during its high school or elementary days it would greatly an impact on


the things they would do or the things they will like to do on their college
days. Using the following representation, characteristics gained during
lifetime is the things they gained, such as skill, and the background they
grow in and the motivations they get as they age. While the passing of
characteristics to the offspring could be represented as their college
years. Getting all the principle once a student has gained a skill or being
affected by its background. He acquires it, develop it and once he goes to
college he find himself being attracted on the technicalities of the course
the student has chosen from its past skill or background gained.

Statement of Problem
The main question in this research is, could Skill, Background,
and Motivation really affect the technical interest of an ECE student?
This research project was guided by the following research questions:
1.) What are the technical interests acquired by the respondents?
2.) What are the skills, background and motivation that are applied by
ECE students in their technical interest?
3.) Do the skills, background and motivation affect the technical
interest?
4.) In what way these skills, background and motivation affects their
technical interest?

Significance of the Study


This study will be significant to the ECE students for them to have
interests in the course they are studying by acquiring skills, motivation
and background related to their course. This study will also help ECE
professors as it can be applied so that their students can be interested in
relation to the students skills, motivation and background. Moreover,
this gives students idea what skills, motivation and background to
acquire and where to get these to develop their technical interests. Also,
this study will identify how ECE students skills, motivation and
background affect their technical interests.

Scope and Limitation


The study will be performed at the Department of Electronics and
Communications Engineering, Polytechnic University of the Philippines,
month of September in the year 2015. The research will run for three (3)
weeks and the respondents must be complete for statistical data. The
respondents for the research will come from and limited to the ECE
Department students. They will be surveyed and interviewed regarding
the problem with similar questions and the data gathered will be kept to
be analyzed.

Definition of Terms
Background - the circumstances or situation prevailing at a particular
time or underlying a particular event.
Electronics - the science dealing with the development and application of
devices and systems involving the flow of electrons or other carriers of
electric charge, in a vacuum, in gaseous media, in plasma, in
semiconductors, in solid-state and/or in similar devices, including, but
not limited to, applications involving optical, electromagnetic and other
energy forms when transduced or converted into electronic signals.

Motivation- the general desire or willingness of someone to do something.

Skills - the ability to do something well; expertise.


Technical Interest - is attracting your interest on special knowledge of
particular thing.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Related Foreign Literature
During the last decades, students science-related interests,
attitude, and images of science and scientists, and their differentiations
according to gender, culture, and socio-economic status have been
investigated by a multitude of research studies (Vasilia C., 2014). There
are many qualities and skills and individual needs to become an effective
engineer and to have a successful career. Engineering is dynamic so it
needs people who can work across disciplines, with other, and
continually adapt to new challenges. There is the personal statement of
AJS in 2013 application. They always had a creative ability and
fascination with how things work. The challenge of solving practical
problems inherent in the field of engineering appeals directly to the
traits. They are particularly interested in electrical and electronic
engineering (EEE) because it is such rapidly evolving discipline. The
potential to integrate new technologies into real life application and the
opportunity to develop practical skills in the sphere is exciting. They
spent a week within the Electronics Department at the British Geological
Survey and was shown the diversity of the work they undertake. Their
job is to use electronics to investigate the properties of rock using

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invasive and non-invasive techniques. What most entrusted me was them


designing their own experiments and using their PCB layout and design
skills to build circuits to achieve this .
According to Vasilia written in International Journal of
Environmental and Science Education Vol.6 no.2 in 2011. The students
science-related interests, attitude, and image of science and scientists
were investigated. These are factors for effective learning. As related in
the website try engineering.org, an engineer must have many qualities
and skills to be successful. But a mere skills and qualities is not enough,
as stated in the personal statement of AJS, an interest is required for an
effective learning that will lead an engineer to success.
Related Foreign Studies
Khalid (2013) in his research Improving Student Interest in
Engineering Curricula- Exciting Students about their Classes, he
explores what events, activities, and teaching styles invoke student
interest in engineering courses. At the end of his research he formed
several conclusions. Some techniques have been highlighted that
professors can use in their engineering classes to promote active
learning. It is shocking when one professor mentions to another
professor that they share a student during the semester, and the other

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professor has no idea who they are talking about. The first professor
ends up having to describe what the student looks like, what he/she acts
like, etc. before the other professor says yes. This happens more often
than not. A professor might teach over 100 students per semester. It is
not that hard to get to know ones students and appreciate them as
individuals. A good professor avoids being a talking head. It is often seen
in engineering classes that the professor is standing in front of a class
and is talking, talking, talking. The students are lined up in their rows,
and most of them have glazed over looks on their faces. In order to have
an engaged class, a professor must engage the students. If a professor
believes that their field of expertise does not allow for discussion, then
the best faculty members interviewed in this study disagree. In the
honors program, mathematics professors have taught discussion-based
classes that are very effective for both the professor and the students. It
takes some give and take and learning on the part of the professor, but
we all can learn how to encourage our students in discussions which
leads to much more meaningful learning experiences.
In 1997, Besterfield-Sacre M. et al in their research
Characteristics

of

Freshman

Engineering

Students:

Models

for

Determining Student Attrition in Engineering, they undertook a three-

12

year research effort to learn more about the attitudes of students and
how they impact upon retention. First they identified attitudes incoming
students have about the field of engineering, their perceptions about the
upcoming educational experience, and their confidence in their ability to
succeed in engineering. These attitudes were then related to performance
and retention in the freshman engineering program. To accomplish this,
a closed form survey was developed, tested and administered to the
199394 and 199495 freshman engineering classes. This study
demonstrated that student attitudes can provide an effective means for
evaluating aspects of their freshman engineering program, particularly
those relating to issues of attrition. They developed regression models to
predict attrition and performance in their freshman engineering program
using quantified measures of student attitudes. Implementation of the
models has allowed freshman advisors to better inform students of
opportunities that engineering offers, to devise better programs of study
that take advantage of students' varied interests, and to set retention
goals that are more realistic.

Related Local Literature

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The new age in which we live is characterized by a high-priority


concern for development (Bauzon P., 2009). Today schools are esblished
to develop skills that include speaking and listening, writing and reading,
and arithmetic. These are called rudiments of learning (Bauzon P., 2009).
Last March at the Schneider Philippines Finals, the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines (PUP)-ECE students beat the two finalist
from Dela Salle University and Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela,
receiving a total of Php100 000, held at F1 best Western Hotel in Taguig
City, Thus earned them a slot at the East Asia Finals. Their project called
Electrifilter, short for Electricity Generation from filthy water, is a device
that generates electricity from waste water, The produce electricity can
operate energy stations, run appliances at home and provide lightings for
the community, especially in the remote areas. (Concepcion C.J., 2015).
There is no doubt that individuals have preference for engaging in one
activity over another and that many such preference can be appraised
guide reliably. This tendency to give selective attention to once activity or
activities rather than to others is interest (Aquino G., P. Razon, 1993). It
is also recognize that learning outcomes cannot be achieved efficiently
unless there is high learner motivation (Aquino G., P. Razon, 1993).

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Once in the life of the people we adore today; Wright Brother, Steve
Jobs, Jocrales, Galileo, and many more, holding back to showing the
world their ideas has been an issue. Situtaion is critical, tears about
peoples skeptics is even so. The good in this is that they pursue it. They
had thought of something new and believed it could be useful for the
society (Brimon A., A.J. Aquino, 2015).
In 2009, Bauzon stated in his book Fundamental Philosophies of
Eduacation that the age we are right now is an advance age where
humans are always seeking for development. He also stated that the
schools are established for the development of students to their skills.
Thus with enough skills, student which will be a professionals in the
mere future may have develop something new. But a mere skills is not
enough, a high motivation is needed. This is what Aquino G and Razon R
explained in their book Educational Psychology in 19993. According to
them, outcome gained during learning cannot be fully achieved if the
person learning has no motivation, an interest may develop after having
enough skills and background and a high motivation towards learning.
According to Aquino G. and Razon R., every individual have different
preferences for engaging in one activity. Each have tendency to give a
selective attention in different activities which makes everyone having

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different excellence than others. This is explanation of interest, an


example of this is the research of two ECE students that led a victory for
PUP as written by Concepcion CJ in Spectrum Vol. 22, No.2 in 2015.
Because of their skills and motivation, they made an Electrifilter which
someday may develop again human lives.

Related Local Studies


Batoc (2011) investigated the level of Anxiety and Academic
Performances of third and fourth year college students this fiindings
shows that the total level of anxiety of the respondents revealed that 97
or 37.30% have expected anxiety scores; 89 or 34.23% mild elevation
anxiety level scores; 35 or 13.46%. Scored in low anxiety level; 25 or
9.61% have clinically significant anxiety performance of the studentsrespondents with regards to the Grade point average of their preliminary
and midterm grades, the following result were determined; 92 or 24.23%
of the respondents have a grade point average percent rating of 80.84, 79
or 15.76% of the respondents have 75 to 79 grade point percentage
rating, 35 or 13.46% of the respondents have below 75 GPA percentage
rating, 41 or 11.53% have 85 to 90 GPA percentage rating, 11 or 2.691
have 91 to 96 percentage rating, and only 2 or 0.38% have 97 to 100 GPA

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percentage rating. The study revealed that the fourth year respondents
appear to experience stress and social concern anxiety compared to the
third years which means that have they are highly reactive to stress and
excessively concern about others opinion, and have weak support
system.
Andres (2011) investigated the effectiveness of the professional
elective

courses

of

the

Bachelor

of

Science

in

Electronics

and

Communications Engineering in selected Higher Education Institution in


the Philippines. His findings revealed that there were significant
differences on the following; Power Electronics, when group according to
type

of

school

profile;

communications,

microelectronics,

Power

electronics and Biotech/Biomedical Engineering when group according to


Major

specialization;

Instrumentation

and

and
control

communications,
and

Power

Information

and

Electronics,
computing

technologies when grouped accounting to year graduated. The results


showed that the extend of gains elicited from the Professional Elective
Courses of the BSECE curriculum as assessed by the respondents when
they are grouped according to profile posted a verbal interpretation of
To an Average Extend or Effective rating.

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Synthesis of the Reviewed Related Literature & Studies


The above literatures provide ideas on how the skills and
motivation help students to have an effective learning. A student with
effective learning may be successful in the future is he have an interest
on what he is doing. The interest of the students, which the researches
intended to find, is properly explained by the above literature. The
studies above provide significant role for study of the researchers. The
finding about the anxiety and academic performances can be a basis on
the negative factors that prevent students to be motivated. While the
study about the effectiveness of elective courses of BSECE can help the
researchers to have a basis about the skills and background of the
research sample which are BSECE also. In the research made by Khalid
in 2013, he explore what events, activities, and teaching styles invoke
student interest in engineering courses. Some procedures from what he
did will be the basis to analyze what are other factors makes the research
samples be interested in their course. While the study made by
Besterfield-Sacre M. et al which they examine the about the attitudes of
students and how they impact upon retention. This study can be also a

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basis of the research to find out the idea of the research samples about
their course.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the steps and processes used by the researchers in
this study. This chapter also contains the methods used by the
researchers, the way of selecting the respondents, population of the
respondents, description of the respondents, instruments used, and the
statistics.

Research Design
A descriptive research methodology was used for this study. A
survey was administered to a selected sample from a specific population
identified as BSECE students in PUP. The term survey is commonly
applied to a research methodology designed to collect data from a specific
population, or a sample from that population, and typically utilizes a
questionnaire or an interview as the survey instrument.

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Description of Population and Respondents


For this study, twenty-five sections were identified in PUP BSECE
by the researchers. The methodology used for this study is stratified
random sample of the twenty five sections in PUP BSECE. Gay (1987)
reports: Random sampling is the best single way to obtain a
representative sample. No technique, not even random sampling,
guarantees a representative sample, but the probability is higher for this
procedure than for any other. (p. 104) 24 Gay also agrees that stratified
random sampling is an appropriate methodology in order to make
proportionate, and therefore meaningful, comparisons between subgroups in the population. Robson (1993) tells us that sampling theory
supports stratified random sampling as an efficient choice because the
means of the stratified samples are likely to be closer to the mean of the
population overall. Finally, Leary (1995) indicates that a stratified
random sample will typically reflect the characteristics of the population
as a whole

Research Instrument

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Data collection instruments refer to devices used to collect data


such as questionnaires, tests, structured interview schedules and
checklists. The questionnaire was designed to gather information about
technical skills background and motivation of BSECE students to the
course. The researchers will make sure that the selected respondents can
help in providing the answers needed through the questions regarding
the study. The questions on the questionnaire are all based on the
problem stated.

Date Gathering Procedure


The data for this research were collected using a survey questionnaire.
The survey was created using suitable questions modified from related
research and individual questions formed by the researcher. The survey
was comprised of questions, which were related to the respondents
skills, background and motivation. The researchers also understood that
peoples consciousness may also affect their honesty and effectiveness in
answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave the respondents the
option of being anonymous. The participants were then given time to
respond and then the researchers collected the survey forms after an
hour.

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Statistical Treatment
The researchers used the formula of percentage to know the
statistics of the data and information gathered from the respondents
through survey questionnaires. The formula is:

P (%) = _f_ x 100


N

Where:

P (%) Percentage
f Frequency of the answers
N Total number of respondents

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
DATA

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In this chapter an analysis of the data collected for the study was
made. Statistical techniques were applied and interpretation of the data
was made in order to draw the conclusions of the study.
1. Technical Interest Acquired By The Respondents
Table 1
Technical/Subject Interest of ECE Students according to the Curriculum
Subject

No. of Students

Percentage

that chose

Math Related

155

51.67%

Gen. Science related

93

31%

Research related

48

16%

Computer/Programmi

117

39%

ng related
Others

28

9.3%

Table 1 shows that every respondents chose each subject interest


and another interest which is Electronics. Math related have the most
respondents that answered having 51.67% of the respondents, followed
by computer/programming related with 39% of the respondents and
general science related with 31% and also research related having 16%.
Lastly, the other interest which is electronics is with 9.3%. In summary,
the data gathered shows that the respondents chose all of the given

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interests. The two most common interest for ECE students are the math
related and computer/programming related.
2. Skills, Background And Motivation Applied By ECE Students In Their
Technical Interest

Table 2
Skills of ECE Students Prior to the Course
Skills

No. of

Percentage

Students that

Problem Solving

chose
201
108

67%
53.73%

skills
Computer Skills
Circuit Design/

19
72

9.45%
35.82%

2
99

0.99%
33%

Yes

Troubleshooting
skills
Others
No

Table 2 shows that 67% of the respondents answered that they


have skills prior to the ECE course. The table also shows that 33% of the
respondents said that they do not have skills prior to ECE course. In
those that answered yes, 53.73% said they have Problem Solving skills.
9.45% of those that answered yes said that they have Computer skills.
35.82% of those that answered yes said that they have Circuit

24

Design/Troubleshooting skills. 0.99% of those that answered yes said


that they have other skills. In this table, more students answered that
they have skills prior to the ECE course. The most common skill to the
students is Problem solving skill.
Table 3
Background and Motivation of ECE Students Prior to the Course
Background/

No. of

Percentage

Motivation

Students that

Seminars and

chose
139
36

46.33%
25.98%

the course
Any professional

39

28.06%

engineer related
High school

84

60.43%

Family
Friends
Life Goals
Teacher/Instructo

1
161
87
34
92
8

0.72%
53.67%
54.04%
21.12%
57.14%
4.97%

r
Others

13

8.07%

Backgroun
d

talks related to

subject related to
ECE
Other
Motivation

25

Table 3 shows that 46.33% of the respondents said that they have
background prior to the course. Those that have background to ECE,
seminars and talks related to ECE course are the background of 25.98%
students. To those that also have background to ECE, any professional
engineers related are the background of 28.06% students. High school
subject related to ECE is the background of 60.43% students. Only
0.72% has other background prior to the course. The table shows that
53.67% of the respondents have motivation prior to ECE. Family is the
motivation of 50.04% of the students. Friends are the motivation of
21.12% of the students. Life goals are the motivation of 57.14% of the
students. Teachers/ Instructors are the motivation of 4.97% of the
students. 8.07% of the students have other motivation. In this table,
there are more students that have background to ECE thru high school
subject that is related to the course. Family and Life Goals are the most
common motivation to ECE students.

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3. If the skills, background and motivation affect the technical interest

Table 4
Answer of ECE Students If Skill, Background and Motivation Affect
Their Technical Interest
Answer if the three

No. of

Percenta

affect their technical

Students

ge

interest

that

Yes

chose
273

91%

No

27

9%

Table 5 shows that, 273 of the respondents which is 91% of the


students said that the skills, background and motivation have an
effect to their interest in ECE. The table also shows, that 9% of the
respondents said that the skills, background and motivation have
effect to their interest in ECE.

In this table, almost all of the

respondents answered that the skills, background and motivation


affect their technical interest while less than ten per cent of the
respondent answered that the three did not affect their technical
interest.

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4. The way skills, background and motivation affect the ECE students
technical interest

Table 5
Effect of Skills, Background and Motivation to Students Interest in ECE
Effects of Skills,

No. of

Percentage

Background and

Students

Motivation
Good Grades

that chose
71

26.01%

Able to help fellow

61

22.34%

students
Gains advance

176

64.5%

knowledge prior to ECE


Other

1.01%

Table 5 shows that Good grade is the effect to 26.01% of the ECE
students. Being able to help their fellow students is the effect to 22.34%
of the ECE students. Gaining advance knowledge to ECE is the effect to
64.5% of the ECE students. There are effects to 1.01% of the ECE
students. In this table, most of the respondents said that the skills,
background and motivation affect their interest in ECE. Gaining advance
knowledge is the most common effect of the students skills, background
and motivation.

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Chapter 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of Findings
The researchers have answered the question presented in the study
of effects of skill, background and motivation to the technical interest of
ECE students. There have been 300 respondents with a percentage error
of 5% that answered the questionnaire.

1. Math related subjects interest most of the ECE students by having


the

highest

percentage

of

51.67%

of

ECE

students.

Computer/Programing related subjects in the second with 39% of


the ECE students while the General science in the third with 31%.
Research related subject is the fourth with 16% of ECE students
and lastly, other subjects with 9.3%.
2. 33% of the respondents said that they do not have skills prior to
ECE course. In those that answered yes, 53.73% said they have
Problem Solving skills. 9.45% of those that answered yes said that
they have Computer skills. 35.82% of those that answered yes said
that they have Circuit Design/Troubleshooting skills. 0.99% of those
that answered yes said that they have other skills. More students

29

answered that they have skills prior to the ECE course. The most
common skill to the students is Problem solving skill.
3. 91% of the students said that the skills, background and motivation
have an effect to their interest in ECE. 9% of the respondents said
that the skills, background and motivation have no effect to their
interest in ECE. Almost all of the respondents answered that the

skills, background and motivation affect their technical


interest while less than ten per cent of the respondent
answered that the three did not affect their technical interest.
4. Good grade is the effect to 26.01% of the ECE students. Being able
to help their fellow students is the effect to 22.34% of the ECE
students. Gaining advance knowledge to ECE is the effect to 64.5%
of the ECE students. There are effects to 1.01% of the ECE students.
Gaining advance knowledge is the most common effect of the
students skills, background and motivation.

Conclusions
1. Based on the data collected, the students of ECE interested the
most in Math related subjects.
2. More respondents answered they have skills prior to ECE course.
And the most common skill is problem-solving skills. The most
common motivation applied by the respondents are family and life

30

goals. And lastly, the most common background the ECE student
have is thru high school subject that is related to the course.
3. The skills, background and motivation did have an effect to the
students technical interest on the ECE course.
4. From the data gathered, we can conclude that most students used
their skills, background and motivation as to gain advance
knowledge prior to the ECE course.

Recommendations
1. The current or incoming ECE students must have at least have an
interest in the subjects of ECE course.
2. The students must have at least a skill, background and motivation so
that it may have a good effect in the course. And also that they may not
lost interest in the course.
3. Skill, background and motivation must be possessed by students in
order to affect the interest on the ECE course and help them to survive
the course.
4. The researchers can recommend to the students to have skills,
background and motivation in order to gain advance knowledge to the
course.

31

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Andres B., Effectiveness of the Professional Elective Courses of the


Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Communication Engineering in
Selected Higher Education Institution in the Philippines, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines Graduate School

Aquino G., P. Razon, Educational Psychology, Philippines, Manila City,


p.147, 149

Bauzon P., Fundamental Philosophies of Education (3rd Ed.), Philippines,


San Juan City, p.1-2, 2009

32

Batoc V., Levels of Anxiety and Academic Performances of Third and


Fourth Year College Students, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Graduate School

Concepcion C.J, Spectrum, Vol. 21 No.2, Polytechnic University of the


Philippines

Drimon A., A.J Aquino, Spectrum Vol. 21 No.1, Science and Technology,
Polytechnic University of the Philippines, p. 7

Besterfield-Sacre M. et al, Journal of Engineering Education Volume 86


Characteristics of Freshman Engineering Students: Models for
Determining Student Attrition in Engineering, Issue 2, p.139 149, April
1997

Concepcion C.J, Spectrum,Vol. 21 No.2 , , Polytechnic University of the


Philippines

33

Khalid A., Universal Journal of Educational Research 1(1) Improving


Student Interest in Curricula Exciting Students about their Classes:
20-25, 2013

Vasilia C., International Journal of Environmental and Science


Education, Vol. 6 No.2, p. 141-159