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Traditional File Processing System


Program Data Dependence

Duplication of Data
Limited Data Sharing
Lengthy Development Times
Excessive Program Maintenance

Database Approach
It emphasizes the integration and sharing of data throughout the organization.
Advantages of Database Approach
1. Program Data Independence the separation of data descriptions (metadata) from the
application that uses the data is called data independence. With the database approach, data
descriptions are stored in a centralized location called repository. This property of database
systems allows an organizations data to change and evolve without changing the application
programs that process the data.
2. Minimal Data Redundancy the design goal with the database approach is that previously
separate data files are integrated into a single, logical structure.
3. Improved Data Consistency by eliminating data redundancy, we greatly reduce the
opportunities for inconsistency.
4. Improved Data Sharing a database is designed as a shared corporate resource. Authorized
internal and external users are granted permission to use the database.
5. Increased productivity of Application Development a major advantage of database approach is
that it greatly reduces the cost of time for developing new business application.
6. Improved Data Quality the database approach provides a number of tools and processes to
improve data quality. Ex. A database designer can specify integrity constraints that enforced by
the DBMS.
7. Reduced Program Maintenance within limits we can change either the data or the application
programs that use the data without necessitating a change in the other factor.
Cost and Risk of Database Approach
1. New, Specialized Personnel organizations that adopt the database approach need to hire or
train individuals to design and implement databases, provide database administration services
and manage a staff of new people.
2. Installation and Management Cost - a multiuser database management system is a large and
complex suite of software that has a high initial cost, requires a staff of trained personnel to
install and operate and also has a substantial annual maintenance and support cost.

3. Conversion Cost the term legacy system is widely used to refer to older application in an
organization that are based on file processing system. The cost of converting these older
systems to modern databases measured in terms of dollars, time and organizational
4. Need for Explicit Back-up and Recovery a shared corporate database must be accurate and
available at all times. These requires that comprehensive procedures be developed and used for
providing backup copies of data and for restoring a database when damage occurs.
5. Organizational Conflict a shared database requires a consensus on data definitions and
ownership as well as responsibilities for accurate data maintenance.

Database Management System (DBMS)

Provides interface between the various database applications for organizational users and the
database. The DBMS allows users to share the data and to query access and update the stored data.

The Range of Database Applications

Databases ranges from those designed for a single user with a desktop computer or personal
digital assistant to those hosted on mainframe computers with thousands of users.
It can be divided into five (5) categories:
1. PERSONAL DATABASES they are designed to support one user. Personal databases long
resided on personal computers including laptops. Personal databases are widely used because
they can often improve personal productivity. However, they entail a risk; the data cannot easily
be shared with other user.
2. WORKGROUP DATABASES is relatively small team of people who collaborate on the same
project or application or on a group of similar projects or application. A workgroup typically
comprises fewer than 25 persons. A workgroup database is designed to support the
collaborative efforts of such a team.
3. DEPARTMENT DATABASES a department is a functional unit within the organization.
Department databases are designed to support information and activities of a department.
4. ENTERPRISE DATABASES is one whose scope is the entire organization or enterprise (or at least
many departments). Such databases are intended to support organization wide operations and
decision making. An enterprise database support information needs from many departments.
5. WEB-ENABLED DATABASE (Internal & External Database) the most recent change that affects
the database environment is the ascendance of the Internet, a worldwide network that
connects users of multiple platforms easily through the interface known as web browser. Each
Of these applications requires database require universal access key.


Type of Database
Web Enabled

Typical no. of users

>25 100

Type of Architecture
Desktop, Laptop, PDA

Components of Database Environment

1. Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools Automated tools used to design databases
and application programs
2. Repository centralized knowledge base for all the definitions, data relationships, screen and
report formats and other system relationship.
3. User Interface languages, menus and other facilities by which users interact with various
system component.
4. Data and Database Administrators data administrator are persons who are responsible for
overall management of data resources in an organization.
5. System Developers such as system analyst, and programmers who design new application
6. End Users Persons throughout the organization, who add, delete and modify data in the
database and who request and receive information from it.