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communicate; both verbally and nonverbally. There arealso differences in body language
across cultures.Time sensitivity: cultures largely determine what timemeans and how it
affects negotiations. For example,comparing North American time consciousness with thatof
China or Latin Americans.Risk propensity: Cultures vary in the extent to which theyare
willing to take risks. Some cultures tend to producebureaucratic, conservative decision
makers who want agreat deal of information before making decisions.Groups versus
individuals: cultures differ according towhether they emphasize the individual or the group.eg
theUnited State is very much an individual-oriented culture.Nature of agreements: culture
also has an important effectboth on concluding agreements and on what form thenegotiated
agreement takes.Emotionalism: culture appears to influence the extent towhich negotiators
display emotions. These emotions maybe use as tactics, or may be a natural response to
positiveand negative circumstances during negotiation.
THEN INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON NEGOTIATION:
Research perspectivesA conceptual model of where culture may influencenegotiation has
been developed by different scholars, forexample Jeanne Brett, suggested that culture
willinfluence, setting of priorities, and strategies, theidentification of the potential for
integrative agreement,and the pattern of interaction between negotiators.Researchers also
explore how intracultural and crosscultural factors will influence the outcome of
anagreement. It has also been suggested that overallnegotiation process and outcome will be
influenced bycultures.
CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE NEGOTIATING STRATEGIES
Stephen Weiss has proposed a useful way of thinkingabout the options we have when
negotiating withsomeone from another culture. Weiss observes thatnegotiators may choose
from among up to eightdifferent culturally responsive strategies. These strategiesmay be used
individually or sequentially, and thestrategies can be switched as the negotiation
progresses.Weisss culturally responsive strategies can be arrangedinto three groups, based on
the level of familiarity (.low,moderate, high):
LOW FAMLIARITY:
Employ agents or advisers (unilateral strategy)Bring in a mediator (joint strategy)Induce the
other negotiator to use your approach (jointstrategy)
MODERATE FAMILIARITY:
Adapt to the other negotiators approach (unilateralstrategy)Coordinate adjustment (joint
strategy)
HIGH FAMILIARITY:
Embrace the other negotiators approach (unilateralstrategy)Improvise an approach (joint
strategy)Effect symphony (joint strategy)Lastly, there has been considerate research on the
effectsof culture on negotiation in the last decade. Findingssuggest that culture has important
effects on severalaspects of negotiations, including planning, thenegotiation process,
information exchange, negotiationcognition, and negotiator perception of ethicalBehaviour.
UNIT IV
COUNSELLING
In general the counseling is to help individuals toovercome many of their problems. It
involves two factors.
TERMS INVOLVED IN COUNSELING
1. Counselor2. counselee
DEFINITIONAcc.to Smith(1955):

A process in which the counselorassists the counselee to make the interpretations of


factsrelated to choice, plan or adjustments which he need tomake.
Acc.to Perez(1965):
The counseling is an interactiveprocess conjoining the counselor who needs assistanceand the
counselor who is trained and educated to give theassistance.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EMERGENCE OFCOUNSELING
1. Technological factors2. Psychological factors3. Educational factors4. Human factors
TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS
Technological changes have made a major impact uponthe peoples lives and work. Because
of the rapid change inthe technology the need of counseling arises and it comesinto existence.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
The growth of counseling isalso because of Psychologicalfactors. As a part of broaderfield of
psychology thecounseling is being introducedfor the development into it.

Prof. Amit Kumaramit040985@gmail.comFIT Group of Institutions


23
EDUCATIONAL FACTORS
Modern counseling is a productof education system especiallyAmerican education system.
Ithas deep roots in the concernfor an individuals freedom,rights, and dignity.
Thedevelopment of counseling can bestbe appreciated by analyzing thevarious issues that
affected andinfluence its development.
HUMAN FACTORS
There are several mutuallyopposed conceptions of the basic human nature. Ishuman nature
either evil, orgood, or neutral? This factorof human nature also helpsin the emergence of
thecounseling.
GROWTH OF COUNSELING
The growth of counseling is divided into four phases. Theyare:1.
1850-19002.
1900-19303. 1930-19404. Second world war and after
1850-1900
Under this period the innovations in the field of psychology were made. under this period
thethe first psychological laboratory was founded atLeipzig by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879.
However, itwas Jesse b. Davis who first used the termcounseling in this period.
1900-1930
During the first few years of the twentieth century severalsignificant events took place. These
movements boostedefforts to develop knowledge and services in order toassist the
individuals. Unfortunately there is a wrongimpression that counseling is a poor mans
psychotherapy.All these factors helps in the emergence of the counseling.
1930-1940
Under this era the workers needs the guidance forsuitable tools and techniques to understand
theconcept of counseling. There were very fewPsychological tests available and few persons
weretrained to use them at that time.
SECOND WORLD WAR AND AFTER
In this era a book was published as
counseling andpsychotherapy
by
Carl Rogers
in 1942. Before thisthere was a hesitation regarding the acceptability of counseling as a form
of psychotherapy. In this eracounselingobtained the recognition by the American
Psychologicalassociation(APA). The APA accepted the recommendationof meeting and
designated counseling psychology as itsseventeenth division.
LASTLY
Over the past five decades counselors havegained overwhelming acceptance from society.A
large number of sub-specialities havedeveloped to serve in setting such as schools,mental
health clinics, rehabilitation centers,colleges.
APPROACHES OF COUNSELING
1.
Psychoanalytic approach2.
Bahaviouristic approach3.

Humanistic approach
PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
Psychoanalysis was originated by
SIGMUNDFREUD,
who developed his theory from hispast experiences as a therapist and wroteabout his work. In
this the client is ignorantAnd unaware of the reasons for his difficultiesor suffering which are
deeply embedded inthe unconscious. The client is thereforehelpless and it is the therapist
who has to playthe role of interpreting the material. Thisprinciple is known as
psychologicaldeterminism.
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH
Counseling and psychotherapy areconcerned with behavior change.learning here is
understood as changesin the behavior which are relativelylong-lasting and which are not due
tothe psychological factors like fatigueetc. one such application is in the formof
Bahaviouristic approach. Its purposeis to change the ineffective and self defeating behavior
into the effectiveand self winning behavior.
HUMANISTIC APPROACH
The practical application of the humanisticPsychology made a great impact on theacademic
scene. According to
ROGERS
inany kind of psychotherapy the basic themeis the helping relationship. In all
humanInteractions such as mother-child,teacher-pupil, therapist-client The
helpingrelationship is fundamental. Thisrelationship is one in which the counselorseeks to
bring about a better expression of the clients inner resources. Thus thehelping relationship
helps in the growth of person.