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ASSIGNMENT

(DIGITAL COMMUNICATION)

SUBMITTED BY:NAME
: NISHANT NAGAR
SCHOLAR NO. : 131114096
SEMESTER : 5TH

Modulation and demodulation of band


limited signals using near Nyquist
Sampling
US 8401108 B1

ABSTRACT
Techniques for modulation and demodulation using nearNyquist
Sampling operate using substantially bandlimited signal. In modulating, the
substantially bandlimited signal is formed by filtering modulated symbol
date to produce a complex sample stream having a bandwidth of less than
the twice the associated symbol transmission rate and with a sample rate
of less than twice the symbol rate. In demodulating, a substantially
bandlimited
signal having a bandwidth of less than twice the associated symbol
transmission rate is sampled at a sample rate of less than twice the symbol
rate of the modulation.

BACKGROUND
Digital communications systems often include a modem. A modem is
used for modulation and/or demodulation of digital data signals. In
modulation, the digital data signal is encoded into an analog format signal
(e.g., a carrier wave or radio signal), and in demodulation, the digital signal
is extracted from an analog format signal. Modulation formats can include,
for example, phase shift keying, amplitude shift keying, frequency shift
keying, and combinations thereof. Modems are often implemented using
digital signal processing techniques which operate on digitized discrete
time samples of the signals. Digital signal processing techniques can be

realized in hardware, software, or a combination thereof. High data rates


are often desired, which in turn translates into high processing speed
requirements on the modem implementation.
Various constraints, such as Nyquist's theorem apply to the digital
sampling of signals, setting limits on the sampling rates which can be used.
Previously, modems have operated using sample rates in excess of two
samples per symbol. Limitations in hardware processing speeds (e.g., the
digital signal processing subsystem, analog to digital converters, and digital
to analog converters) have set upper limits to the data rates at which
modems can operate
.
While continuous advances in technology have allowed for
continually increasing data rates, there is a desire to find more efficient
techniques which allow higher data rates to be provided within existing
technology constraints.
Sign

SUMMARY
Accordingly, techniques to allow processing at lower digital sample
rates, for\ example, sampling at near Nyquist frequencies have been
developed. In some embodiments of the invention, a method of modulating
symbol data having an associated symbol transmission rate includes
processing the symbol data to form a digital sample stream representing
modulated symbol data. The digital sample stream can be filtered to form a
substantially bandlimited complex sample stream having a bandwidth of
less than the twice the associated symbol transmission rate and with a
sample rate of less than twice the symbol rate. The digital sample stream
can be converted into an analog signal.
In some embodiments of the invention, a method of demodulating a
signal having an associated symbol transmission rate can include filtering
the signal to form a substantially bandlimited signal having a bandwidth of
less than twice the associated symbol transmission rate. The substantially
bandlimited signal can be converted from an analog form into a complex

digital sample stream having a sample rate less than twice the associated
symbol transmission rate. The digital sample stream can be processed to
determine a symbol stream having the associated symbol transmission
rate.
In some embodiments of the invention, a modulator is capable of
converting
digital data into a modulated signal having an associated symbol
transmission rate. The modulator can include a bit to symbol mapper, a
digital pulse shaping filter, and a digital to analog converter. The bit to
symbol mapper can convert the digital data input into symbol output which
is filtered by the digital pulseshaping filter to produce complex bandlimited
samples having a bandwidth less than twice the associated symbol
transmission rate at a sample rate of less than two samples per symbol.
The digital to analog converter can convert the bandlimited samples to an
analog output.

PATENT HISTORY:
Publication number
Publication type
Application number
Publication date
Filing date
Priority date

: US8401108 B1
: Grant
: US 12/209,144
: 19 Mar 2013
: 11 Sep 2008
: 11 Sep 2008

CLASSIFICATIONS
U.S. Classification
International Classification
Cooperative Classification

: 375/295
: H04L27/00
: H03D2200/006, H03C3/403, H03D3/006,
H03D1/00, H03C1/00

Sampling System
US 20150061865 A1

ABSTRACT
The present invention uses a wireless memory/communication device
at least on the one or more sample storage devices, preferably on both the
one or more sample storage devices and the sampling holder, optionally the
port on the equipment as well. Data such as that relating to the vessel, the
location of the port on the vessel, the device, its manufacture date or lot
number, the date of the installation, sterilization and/or taking of a sample
along with the person who installed the device and/or took the sample can he
read and preferably added to the wireless device when a read/write type of
device as these events occur through a scanner/reader/writer device (fixed or
hand held). The sample storage device in the laboratory can also then be
read and recorded to track the sample storage device's life.

BACKGROUND
Traditional sample systems for pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical
processes use large stainless steel systems that include steam traps and
the like to at least aseptically clean the system between uses.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,02,543 introduced to disposable sterile sampling
system comprised of a carousel or holder into which one or more septum
containing sampling collection devices are attached. This is sold as the
Nova Septum sampling device available from Millipore Corporation of
Billerica, Mass. The devices have a sample taking device, in this instance a
septum surrounding a needle at the front end with the rear portion of the
needle being attached to a flexible conduit such as a tube or hose which in
turn is attached to a sample storage device such as a bag.

The internal area between the septum and sample storage device, in
the first instance a bag and in the syringe its inner volume, is isolated from
the environment and sterilized (gamma or beta radiation, ETO, etc) before
assembly into a holder. The holder is liquid tightly attached to a port of a
bioreactor or other piece of equipment such as a storage vessel, mixing
vessel and the like, the septum based sample taking devices are loaded
into the holder and then the face of the system (holder and septum of the
sample taking device is sterilized along with the rest of the interior of the
equipment. The vessel is then filled and samples are taken as needed
during processing. Information concerning the sample, when and where it
was taken and by whom is recorded by hand either onto a paper label that
is then attached to the sample storage device or in a notebook..As with the
Nova Septum design discussed above, the information is recorded
separately and then attached to the sample holder or placed in a notebook.
What is needed is a better method and device for tracking such
information in a fullproof manner.

SUMMARY
The present invention uses a wireless memory/communication device
at least on the one or more sample storage device such as bags, bottles or
syringes, preferably on both the one or More sample storage device and
the sampling holder, optionally the port on the equipment as well. The use
of RFID, Zigbee, Bluetooth and other wireless systems is acceptable.
In one embodiment, a read only tag, such as a read only RFID tag is
used on the one or more sample storage devices. The tag(s) contain an
identity code for the sample storage device. This is then used with a
scanner (hand held or fixed) to track the usage of this sample storage
device such as the date of installation and on which sampling holder, the
date a sample taking and the like.

Preferably, the sample storage device utilizes a read/write memory


device, such as a RFID, Zigbee, Bluetooth and other wireless read/write
tag. Data such as that relating to the vessel, the location of the port on the
vessel, the date of the installation, sterilization and/or taking of a sample
along with the person who installed the device and/or took the sample can
be added to the tag on the sample storage device as these events occur
through a scanner/reader/writer device (fixed or hand held). The sample
storage device in the laboratory can also then be read and recorded to
track the sample storage device's life.
More preferably, the system itself, such as the holder also has a
memory/ communication device and it can transfer its information to the
device on the sample storage device, either directly or through an
intermediate reader/writer

PATENT HISTORY
Publication number
Publication type
Application number
Publication date
Filing date
Priority date

:
:
:
:
:
:

US20150061865 A1
Application
US 14/537,185
Mar 5, 2015
Nov 10, 2014
Aug 2, 2007

CLASSIFICATIONS
U.S. Classification
International Classification
Cooperative Classification

: 340/539.13
:G01N35/00
:G01N35/00732, G01N1/18,
G01N2035/00801, B01L3/505,
B01L2300/022, B01L3/545, G01N2001/1031,
C12M33/00,