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Chapter 10

Rotational Motion

r
O P Reference
line

(a)

P
r s
u
O Reference
line

(b)

F I G U R E 10.1 A compact disc


rotating about a fixed axis through O
perpendicular to the plane of the
figure. (a) To define angular position
for the disc, a fixed reference line is
chosen. A particle at P is located at a
radial distance r from the rotation axi s
at O. (b) As the disc rotates, point P
moves through an arc length s on a
circular path of radius r. The angular
position of P is .
y

,t f

r
,ti

θf
θi
x
O

F I G U R E 10.2A particle on a rotating


rigid object moves from to along
the arc of a circle. In the time interval
t tf t i , the radial line of length r
sweeps out an angle f i.
ω

FIGURE 10.3 The orange disk


rotates in the directions indicated.
The right-hand rule determines the
direction of the angular velocity
vector.
y

P
r s
u
x
O

Figure 10.4
As a rigid object rotates about the
fixed axis through O, the point
has a tangential velocity :v that is
always tangent to the circular path
of radius r.
y
at

P
a

ar

x
O

F I G U R E 10.5 As a rigid object rotates


about a fixed axis through O, a particle
at point P experiences a tangential
component at and a radial component
a r of translational acceleration. The
total translational acceleration of this
particle is : a :
at : ar , where
:
ar a c r̂.
z axis
v

vi

mi
ri

F I G U R E 10.6 A rigid object rotating


about the z axis with angular speed .
The kinetic energy of the particle of
mass mi is 12 m i v i 2. The kinetic energy
of the rigid object is called its
rotational kinetic energy.
T A B L E 10.2 Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous Rigid Objects With Different Geometries
Hoop or thin Hollow cylinder
cylindrical shell
I CM = 1 M(R 12 + R 22) R1
I CM = MR 2 R 2
R2

Solid cylinder Rectangular plate


or disk
R I CM = 1 M(a 2 + b 2)
I CM = 1 MR 2 12
2
b

Long thin rod Long thin


with rotation axis rod with
through center rotation axis
through end
I CM = 1 ML 2 L L
12 I = 1 ML 2
3

Solid sphere Thin spherical


shell
I CM = 2 MR 2
5 I CM = 2 MR 2
3
R R
y

b
m M
M M
x b
a a a
b

O
m
a b

M m
(b)
F I G U R E 10.7 (Example 10.3) Four
spheres form an unusual baton. (a) The
baton is rotated about the y axis. (b)
(a) The baton is rotated about the z axis.

dr
r

L
F I G U R E 10.8 (Example 10.4)
The geometry for calculating the
moment of inertia about the
central axis of a uniform solid
cylinder.
L

Pivot

Mg
F I G U R E 10.9 (Example 10.5) A uniform rod
rotates freely under the influence of gravity
around a pivot at the left end.
F1

F sin φ
F
d1
r
O φ
d2 O φ F cos φ
r
Line of
d action

F2
:
F I G U R E 10.10 A force F is applied
Figure 10.11 to a wrench in an effort to loosen a
:
The force F 1 tends to rotate the bolt. The force has a greater rotating
object counterclockwise about an tendency about O as F increases and
:
axis through O, and F 2 tends to as the moment arm d increases. The
rotate the object clockwise. component F sin tends to rotate the
system about O.
z

τ = r F

O y
r

P
φ
x
F

Figure 10.12

The torque vector : lies in a direction


perpendicular to the plane formed by
the position vector :
r and the applied
:
force vector F .
Right-hand rule

C = A × B

–C = B × A
: :
F I G U R E 10.13 The vector product A B is a third
:
vector C having a magnitude AB sin equal to the area of
:
the parallelogram shown. The vector C is perpendicular to
: :
the plane formed by A and B, and its direction is
determined by the right-hand rule.
y

T1
R1

R2
x
O

T2

F I G U R E 10.14 (Example 10.6) A


solid cylinder pivoted about the z axis
:
through O. The moment arm of T1 is
:
R 1, and the moment arm of T2 is R 2.
F F

(a)

F
2r
r 2F
O

(b)
F I G U R E 10.15 (a) The two forces
acting on the object are equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction.
Because they also act along the same
line of action, the net torque is zero
and the object is in equilibrium.
(b) Another situation in which two
forces act on an object to produce zero
net torque about O (but not zero net
force).
53.0°

8.00 m

(a)
R T

θ 53.0°

200 N

600 N
(b)

R sin θ T sin 53.0°

R cos θ T cos 53.0°

2.00 m 200 N

600 N
4.00 m

(c)

F I G U R E 10.16 (Example 10.8) (a) A


uniform beam supported by a cable. A
man walks out on the beam. (b) The
free-body diagram for the beam – man
system. (c) The free-body diagram with
forces resolved into horizontal and
vertical components.
P

θ
θ
O fs mg
g

(a) (b)

F I G U R E 10.17 (Example 10.9) (a) A uniform ladder at rest,


leaning against a frictionless wall. (b) The free-body diagram for the
ladder.
M, R

m1
+

+
m2

(a)

T1
T2

+
m1
m2

+
m 1g
T1 T2
m 2g
Mg
(b)

F I G U R E 10.18 (Example 10.10) (a) An Atwood


machine with a massive pulley. The pulley is
modeled as a disk. (b) Free-body diagrams for the
two hanging objects and the pulley.
F

φ
ds
P

r

F I G U R E 10.19 A rigid object


rotates about an axis through O
under the action of an external
:
force F applied at P.
M

R
T

mg
F I G U R E 10.20
(Example 10.11) An object
hangs from a cord wrapped around a
wheel. The tension in the cord produces a
torque about the axle passing through O.
z

L = r × p

O y
r m p
φ
x

Figure 10.21
:
The angular momentum L of a
particle of mass m and linear
momentum : p located at the position
: :
r is given by L : r :
p . The value
:
of L depends on the origin about
which it is measured and is a vector
perpendicular to both :r and : p.
(© Stuart Franklin/Getty Images)

F I G U R E 10.22 Angular momentum


is conserved as Russian figure skater
Evgeni Plushenko performs during the
2004 World Figure Skating Champion-
ships. When his arms and legs are close
to his body, his moment of inertia is
small and his angular speed is large. To
slow down for the finish of his spin, he
moves his arms and legs outward,
increasing his moment of inertia.
O R
vi
m

F
(David Malin, Anglo-Australian Observatory)

F I G U R E 10.24
(Example 10.13) When
the string is pulled downward, the
speed of the puck changes.

F I G U R E 10.23 The Crab Nebula, in the constellation


Taurus. This nebula is the remnant of a supernova
explosion, which was seen on Earth in the year A.D. 1054. It
is located some 6 300 lightyears away and is approximately 6
lightyears in diameter, still expanding outward.
z

CM (a)
n

r
Mg y
O

∆L

Li Lf
(b)

F I G U R E 10.25 Precessional motion


of a top spinning about its symmetry
axis. (a) The only external forces acting
on the top are the normal force : n and
the gravitational force M : g . The
:
direction of the angular momentum L
is along the axis of symmetry. The right-
hand rule indicates that
: : : :
r F r M:g is in the xy
:
plane. (b). The direction of L is
:
parallel to that of in part
: : :
(a). That L f L i L indicates that
the top precesses about the z axis.
(Courtesy of Henry Leap and Jim Lehman)

F I G U R E 10.26 Light sources


at the center and rim of a
rolling cylinder illustrate the
different paths these points
take. The center moves in a
straight line (green line), whereas
a point on the rim moves in the
path of a cycloid (red curve).
P′
2 v CM

vCM
CM

F I G U R E 10.27
All points on a rolling
object move in a direction
perpendicular to a line through the
instantaneous point of contact P. The
center of the object moves with a
velocity :
vCM, whereas the point P
moves with a velocity 2:
vCM.
M

ω
x
h

θ vCM

Figure 10.28
(Example 10.15) A round object
rolling down an incline. Mechanical
energy of the object –surface – Earth
system is conserved if no slipping
occurs and there is no rolling
resistance.
Crank
Sprocket
Chain

Figure P10.11
y

4.00 kg y = 3.00 m

x
O

2.00 kg y = –2.00 m

3.00 kg y = –4.00 m

Figure P10.14

Figure P10.15
(John Lawrence/Stone/ Getty Images)

Figure P10.16 Problem 10.16

R
I

m1

2h

m2 Figure P10.17
Figure P10.19

2.00 m 20.0°
37.0°
20.0°

100 N

Figure P10.20

10.0 N

30.0° a
O
12.0 N
b
9.00 N

Figure P10.21

2.00 m

Fg1 Fg 2

Figure P10.26
d
2

m1 m2
P
O CG

Figure P10.27

30.0 cm

Single point
30.0° of contact

5.00 cm

Figure P10.29

2L
Figure P10.31

1.00 m
(3 000 kg)g
B
2.00 m 10 000 kg

6.00 m

Figure P10.32
Figure P10.35

Figure P10.36

2.00 m/s2

T1
T2

15.0 kg
m1
m 2 20.0 kg

37.0°

Figure P10.37
Figure P10.44 Problems 10.44 and 10.50.

I2

ωi
ωf
1

Before After

Figure P10.45

ωi ωf

(a) (b)

Figure P10.48
1.50 m/s

(a) (b)

Figure P10.49

North Star

Cone of
precession

(NASA)

(a) (b)
Figure P10.52 (a) At present, the spin axis of the
Earth points toward the North Star. (b) Torque on the
spinning Earth will cause it to precess, so the spin axis
will no longer be pointing in this direction in the future.

Figure P10.55