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Chapter 14 Superposition and Standing Waves

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) y 1
y 2

y 1 + y 2 y 1 + y 2 y 2
y 1

Figure 14.2

( Left) Two pulses traveling in opposite directions with displacements that are inverted relative to each other. When the two overlap as in (c), their

displacements subtract from each

of the

other. ( Right)

superposition of two symmetric pulses traveling in opposite directions, where one is inverted relative to the othe r.

Photograph

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) (Education Development Center, Newton, MA)

(e ) y 2
y 1 y 2
y 1 y 1 + y 2 y 2
y 1

(e )

Figure 14.1

( Left) Two pulses traveling on a

stretched string in opposite direction s pass through each other. When the

the

net displacement of each element of the string equals the sum of the displacements produced by each pulse. Because each pulse produces positive displacements of the string, we refer to their superposition as consrtuctive interference. ( Right) Photograph of the superposition of two equal and symmetric pulses traveling in opposite directions on a stretched spring .

in

pulses overlap,

as

(b)

and (c), (Education Development Center, Newton, MA) y
y 1 and y 2 are identical
y
x
φ
= 0°
(a)
y 1
y 2
y
y
x
φ = 180°
(b)
y
y
y 1
y 2
x
φ = 60°

(c)

Figure 14.3

The superposition of two identical waves y 1 and y 2 . (a) When the two waves are in phase, the result is constructive interference. (b) When the two waves are rad out of phase, the result is destructive interference. (c) When the phase angle has a value other than 0 or rad, the resultant wave y falls somewhere between the extremes shown in (a) and (b).  . r
2
S
P
R
r
1
Speaker

F IGUR E

An acoustical system for

demonstrating interference of sound waves. Sound waves from the speaker propagate into the tube and the energy splits into two parts at point P. The waves from the two paths, which combine at the opposite side, are detected at the receiver R. The upper path length r 2 can be varied by sliding the upper section.

14. 4 1.15 m 3.00 m 8.00 r 1 0.350 m P m O r 2 1.85 m 8.00 m

F IGUR E

14. 5

(Example 14.1) Two speakers create a minimum in the sound intensity at point P.
v
v
F IGUR E
14. 6
Two speakers emit

sound waves toward each other. Between the speakers, identical waves traveling in opposite directions combine to form standing waves.

Multiﬂash photograph

of a standing wave on a string. The vertical displacement from equilibrium of an individual element of the string is proportional

to cos t. That is, each element vibrates at an angular frequency . The amplitude of the vertical oscillation of any element on the string depends on the horizontal position of the element. Each element vibrates within the conﬁnes of the envelope function 2A sin kx.

F IGUR E 14.7   A nt i no de
A nt i no de
Node
Node
2 A sin kx y
1
y 1
y 1
Figure 14.8
Standing wave patterns at various
y
y
2
2
y 2
A
A
A
A
y
y
y
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
A
(a) t = 0
A
A
A
(c) t = T/2
times produced by two waves of
equal amplitude traveling in
opposite directions. For the
resultant wave y, the nodes (N) are
points of zero displacement and
the antinodes (A) are points of
maximum displacement.
(b) t = T/4

Figure 14.9

(a) A string of length L ﬁxed at both ends. The normal modes of vibration form a harmonic series. In each case, the shape of the string is shown at several instants within one period:

(b) the fundamental frequency, or ﬁrst harmonic; (c) the second harmonic; and (d) the third harmonic.

f 1

 L (a) A N N 1 n = 1 L = – 2 λ 1 (b)

N

n = 2

N

A

n = 3

A

N

N

(c)

A

(d)

N

A

N

L = λ 2

A

3

L = –

2

N λ
3 L
λ 1 = 2L
A
N
A
v
v
f 1 = — = —
λ
2
L
1
λ 2 = L
A
N
A
N
A
v
f 2 = — = 2f 1
L
2
λ 3 = — L
A
N A N A N A
3
3
v
f 3 = — = 3 f 1
2
L
(a) Open at both ends
λ 1 = 4L
A
N
v
v
f 1 = — = —
λ
4L
1
4
λ 3 = — L
3
A
N
A
N
f 3 = — 3v = 3f 1
4
L
4
λ 5 = — L
5
A
N A N A N
5
v
f 5 = — = 5f 1
4L

(b) Closed at one end, open at the other First harmonic
Second harmonic
Third harmonic
First harmonic
Third harmonic
Fifth harmonic

Motion of elements

of air in standing longitudinal

waves in an air column, along with graphical representations of the displacements of the elements. (a) In an air column open at both ends, the harmonic series created

consists of all integer multiples of

the fundamental frequency: f 1 ,

(b) In an air column

closed at one end and open at the

other, the harmonic series consists

of only odd-integer multiples of

F IGUR E 14.1 0

2f 1 , 3f 1 ,

the fundamental frequency: f 1 , 3f 1 , 5f 1 , f = ?
L
Water
(a)
F IGUR E
14.1 1 λ/4
3λ/4
5λ/4
First
resonance
Second
resonance
(third
harmonic)
Third

resonance

(fifth

harmonic)

(b)

(Example 14.5) (a) Apparatus for

demonstrating the resonance of sound waves in a tube closed at one end. The length L of the air column is varied by moving the tube vertically while it is partially submerged in water. (b) The ﬁrst three normal modes of the system shown in (a).

(a)

(b) y
y

t

t

Figure 14.12

Beats are formed by the combination of two waves of

slightly different frequencies.

(a) The blue and black curves

represent the individual waves.

(b) The combined wave has an

amplitude (broken line) that oscillates in time. (a)
t

Tuning fork (b)
t

Flute (c)
t

Clarinet

F IGUR E

Waveforms of sound

produced by (a) a tuning fork, (b) a ﬂute, and (c) a clarinet, each at approximately the same frequency.

14.1 3 Clarinet
Tuning
Flute
fork
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Harmonics
Harmonics
Harmonics
(a)
(b)
(c)
F IGUR E
14.1 4
Harmonics of the waveforms shown in Figure 14.13. Note the variations in intensity of the various
Relative intensity
Relative intensity
Relative intensity

harmonics.

f f + 3f
3f

f

(a) f + 3f + 5f
5 f
3f

(b) f + 3f + 5f + 7f + 9f
Square wave
f + 3 f + 5f + 7f + 9f +

Figure 14.15

(c)

Fourier synthesis of a square wave represented by the sum of odd multiples of the ﬁrst harmonic, which has frequency f. (a) Waves of frequency f and 3f are added. (b) One more odd frequency of 5f is added. (c) The synthesis curve approaches the square wave when odd frequencies up to 9f are combined.

y (cm)

4

2 2.00 cm/s
–2.00 cm/s
A
B
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Figure P14.2

x (cm) L d Figure P14.10
y
(x, y)
A
9.00 m
10.0 m

Figure P14.11

x

Vibrator

P

L

µ

m

Figure P14.20 T is vibrating at its fundamental frequency. What

L

θ

M

Figure P14.25 f

R

Figure P14.34 Figure P14.44 