Hamid ShokrollahTimorabadi
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Abstract
This thesis investigates the application of a Voltage Source Inverter based controller for the regulation of voltage and fiequency of a standalone selfexcited induction generator. The stedy state
and dynarnic system equations are formulated and the system behavior is snidied. Based on the
model, the design of the VSIbased controller is obtained. The design and rating of the controiier
theoretical results and the technical feasibility of the VSIbased controller, various tests are conducted. The test results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed concept.
1 would Like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Professor R. Bonert. my supervi
sor, for his guidance, and financial support throughout the entire p i o d of this degree program.
1 also th&
KY. Namjoshi and P. Lehn for their useful advise, and help during this
thesis.
Finally, my specid appreciations are extended to A.G. Acuna for her help, and support.
To my parents,
Ali and Kobra
Table of Contents
Abstract
Acknowledgment
Table of Contents
List of Symbols
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 CooventionaI Control Scheme
3.4.1 Control Range for VSI witb Constant DC Source and no tosses
3.4.2 Influence o f VSIBased Controller Losses on Power Chart
3.4.3 VSIBased Controller with Variable DC Voltage
due to DC Side Resistor
3.4.4 Required Control Range of a VSIBased Controller
3.5.2 Inductor
3.5.3 Minimum and Maximum DC Voltage
3.5.4 DC Side Resistor Selection
3.5.5 Switches
3.5.6 DC Capacitor
5.1
5 4 Software
5.5 perational Considerations
5.5.1 Filter Capacitor
5.5.2 Startup
Chapter 6 R d t s
6.1 Resistive Load (Test 1)
6.2 Resistive Inductive Load with Power Factor 0.8 (Test2)
Chapter 7 ConcIusions
7.1 Contributions
References
Bibliography
D.2 hextab1e.h
List of Symbols
 Equivaient capacitance of VSI.
 Magnetizing current.
 Space vector of rotor current in the r
 Space vector of stator cunent in the
model.
r model.
 Load inductance.
 Magnetizing inductance.
 Pardel inductance.
 Load resistance.
 Equivalent parailel resistor.
 Rotor resistance referred to stator side in the r model.
 Stator resistance.
 Shah torque.
 Magnetuing Voltage.
 DC side voltage of VSI.
 Space vector of generator voltage.
6
O
n
A
 Flux Linkage.
Y
A
V ~ RW,t l
A
VSR,SI
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
In remote areas of Canada where it is impossible or too expensive to access main power lines, one
solution to obtain electric power is to use a small standalone hydro power plant. In such a situation, the turbine is driven by a steady flow of water in a river. It is preferable to use a selfexcited
induction generator, due to its low cost and ruggedness. When the induction machine is driven by
a prime mover, the residual magnetism in the rotor produces a small voltage in the stator wind
ings. If a bank of capacitors is connected to the stator winding, the small voltage causes a capacitive current to flow. This resulting current provides a positive feedback that causes a further
increase in the voltage. This process is called selfexcitation which is evennially iimited due to the
magnetic saturation of the machine [ 11.
The voltage and frequency of such an induction generator in standalone operation are very sensitive to load changes. Methods to control the voltage and frequency of a selfexcited induction
generator have k e n proposed in [2.3]. These methods employ a controlier consisting of a phase
controlled bridge and a DCchopper to achieve the regulation. The disadvantage of such an
approach is that the control range of this configuration is severely limited and the controiler c m
supply neither real nor reactive power to the system. This results in a large AC side capacitor for
the excitation of the induction generator. Furthemore, the controiier is unable, even for a short
tirne, to compensate for fast Ioad rransients generated by power surges.
To overcome these disadvantages this thesis proposes a power controiler which includes a Voltage Source Inverter for regulation of the voltage and frequency of the standalone seifexcited
induction generator. The proposed controller uses IGBTs dong with fast integrated electronic
It is shown, that the proposed controller provides a much wider range of control. In particdar it
can provide reactive power and, during aaosients for a shorttirne,red power depending upon the
DC side configuration of the VSI. As a consequence, the thephase AC side capacitor c m be
eliminated.
react fast enough to transients. Therefore, the regulation of voltage and frequency has low performance.
On the other hand, the voltage and frequency regulation requires a smoothly variable reactive
power source. In conventional schernes, switched capacitors are used which provide poor voltage
and frequency regulation.
Worcr
Controlled
Capcitors
Lod
controlIer.
Such a scheme as proposed in [2,3,4] consists of a bridge rectifier, chopper. and DC side resistor
(Rd=)as shown in Figure 1.2. The impedance controller will be connected to the induction generator in pardel to the load. The basic idea of an impedance controiler is to keep the total real and
reactive power seen by the induction generator constant. Therefore, the prime mover requires no
regulation and can be always operated at the required fixed power, voltage. and frequency.
hitialiy, a large AC capacitor bank is introduced into the system to meet the capacitance required
for operating the system at the required power demand with a desired power factor. Whenever
there is a reduction in the power demand, the impedance controller will redirect the excess power
to Rdc and adjust for the total reactance of the system. The excess power that is not absorbed by
the load wilI be consumed in the resistor Rdc Depending upon the nature of the changes of the
load, the impedance conuoller will compensate for any additional real and reactive power not
used by the load. The result of this adjusmient is that the induction generator will always observe
the same impedance and operate at the same fmed apparent power.
The descnbed impedance controller concept provides an excellent regulation of both voltage and
frequency, and elirninates regdation of the prime mover. Unfomnately, the impedance controlier
scheme requires large AC capaciton for the excitation process. Moreover, the impedance controlIer offen a limited control range. It can ody absorb reactive power (inductive) and cannot provide
real power not even for a very short time.
Gare
'
Water
Excitation
capacitors
Figure 1.2. Impedance controller consisting of bridge rectifier, chopper, and Rdc.
1.3 Improved Voltage and Frequency Control with a Voltage Source Inverter
Li order to avoid the problems of the previous control schemes the use of a Voltage Source
Inverter (VSi) for load goveming and impedance control is proposed in this thesis. The system is
similar to the one in Figure 1.2 with the VSIbased controller connected in paraiiel to the load as
the new impedance controlier but without the large AC capaciton. Figure 1.3 depicts the sche
matic of the VSI used as the proposed connolier unit. The AC side is comected in parailel to the
load. The DC side can be c ~ ~ g u r in
e dvarious ways. It can be connected to a general DC source,
which is an unredistic scenario for the intended purpose, but provides hsight into the principle of
the proposed controUer. The DC side as proposed for the selfexcited induction generator consists
tion uses only a large size double layer capacitor, which wodd provide short time energy storage
(hundreds of Joules).
Gate
'?
tion generator is achieved. More specificaily, to achieve the thesis objectives the following
research is conducted:
1 The control range of the VSI will be snidied. The possibility of bidirectional real and reactive
power flow delivered or received by the controlier unit will be investigated.
2 The reactive power required for selfexcitation of the induction generator will be provided by
the VSI. The a h is the total elimination of the AC capacitor bank. Moreover, the VSI will connol
the injection of reactive power into the induction generator, depending upon the load variations,
such as to maintain the induction generator terminal voltage and fiequency ai any desired value.
3The VSI will control the flow of the real power such that the induction generator is loaded with
a constant reai power. This eliminates an expensive mechanical govemor which conventionally
controlled the speed of the prime mover. The outcome is a constant desired frequency and voltage.
4 The VSI controls the startup process by injecting adequate reactive power (capacitive) into the
induction generator in order to initiate the selfexcitation process. The stamip process requires an
initial DC voltage.
5 Several load configurations, including the startup of induction motor load, are considered to
verify the proposed control concept and to demonstrate the system performance.
In chapter two, the modeing of the hydro turbine, induction generator, and load is described. The
required reactive power at no load or full load is detexmined.
Chapter three develops the details for the VSIbased controller dynamic. and steadystate behavior. The control range of the VSIbased controller is determined and verifed experimentally.
Chapter four discwes the type of disturbances and the control strategy.
Chapter five describes the experimental setup including the prime mover, induction generator,
load, microprocessor, and software. The stamip process is ako discussed in this chapter.
Chapter six presents the measured results and demonstrates the achieved excellent performance,
even with a direct switchon of an induction motor load,
FinaIiy, chapter seven discusses the conclusions and offen suggestions for further s ~ ~ d i e s .
System Description
This chapter presents a general description of the system equations including the induction generator. hydro turbine, and load. It dso provides the necessary formulae for calculation of the reactive power for excitation of the induction generator at no ioad and fidi load.
per unit unless otherwise specified. Appendix A Lsts the base values for a l l the quantities used.
according to a given head and volume of water. The turbine characteristic can be modeled as:
(2.1.1)
where 10,Ro is any point on the saight line of toquespeed characteristic comsponding to the
The dynamic behavior of the induction generator, which is a squirrel cage induction machine, is
represented by the equivalent circuit [5] shown in Figure 212. The differential equations are
expressed in the synchronous frame where the generator voltage (V,)is chosen as the reference
such that the imaginary component of the generator voltage is zero and this voltage is aligned to
the real axis. The differential equation of the stator and rotor flux linkages, and mechanical speed,
The induction generator feeds power to a load consisting of a senes resistor and an inductor as
shown in Figure 2.1.3. In addition, a source of reactive power to excite the induction generator
and to provide the reactive power for the load is required. This source of reactive power is modeled as an equivalent capacitor Cvsp The differential equations descrbing the load in synchronous fiame are:
Due to the selection of reference frame, the equivalent capacitor (CvsI)results in one differential
equation as,
Figure 2.13. The equivalent circuit of a senes RL load with equivdent capacitor (CvsI).
To solve the differential equations 2.1.2 to 2.1.9 the following algebraic equations have to be
included. These equations formulate the flux M a g e , the current relations for the equivalent circuit of the Figures 2.1.2, and 2.1.3 and the characteristic fwiction of the magnetic saturation of the
induction generator.
The current relations derived from the nodes of Figure 2.1.2 are:
The magnetizing characteristic for the induction machine is approximated by two equations. The
linear region is,
for O I,i li,
v,
kz
= klio+ batan [b(i,  io)]
for io S im
where i, b, and k[ are constants which result in the best approximation of the measured magnetuing characteristic. Thus, the functionf is wxitten as 121:
f(v,) = ,i
= i,
+ bl  t
a b
(2

 io))
Substituthg for the stator flux iinkage nom the fouowing equation (2.1.23) and for the magnetiz
ing current from equation 2.1.22 into equation 2.1.19 results in equatioo 2.1.24.
vm
Lm =
CO[io
+ g tan
((2
 i,))]
Although the dynamic mode1 c m be used to determine the steadystate performance, it is convenient to formulate the steadystate equations by setting the tirne derivatives of variables in equa
tions 2.1.2 to 2.1.9 to zero. This set of steadystate equations defmes the combined system
inciuding the hydro turbine. induction generator, the RL load, and the equivaient excitation capacitor (CVSI).
The steadystate equivalent equations follow as:
The reactive power is calculated for a desired operating point with known generator voltage (V')
Step 3:
Equang the reactive power of the generator system with the equivalent VSI capacitance for the
reactive power balance yields:
This equation combined with 2.2.5 allows CvsI (Xcvs,) to be solved for, if the magnetizing and
parael inductances are known. These inductances can be calcuiated as described in steps 4 to 6.
Step 4:
In the parailel equivalent circuit the resistor I$ is a negative resistance and generates real power,
while the resistor RICOconsumes this real power. These two resiston are in parailel and the magnetizing voltage appears equaiiy across both of them, hence, from a real power balance it follows
that:
RI,, = R,
Substitution of this equation in equation 2.2.3 wili yield a quadratic equation that resuits in the
following expression for the mechanical speed:
where the speed equation does not depend on the magnetizing or turbine characteristic.
Step 5:
Substituting the mechanical speed obtained into equation 2.2.4 the inductance Lp cm be deter
Step 6:
The equation 2.1.22 gives the magnetizing inductance in terms of magneUzing voltage (V,).
Hence, V, is expressed in tenns of generator voltage (V,)such that:
Substituthg equation 2.2.10 into equation 2.1.24 gives the magnetizing inductance in terms of
excitation capacitor (Cvsl) Step 7
:
Knowing the inductances Lp, and Lm the required excitation capacitor can be detennined from
equation 2.2.8. Therefore, the total no load reactive power for excitation of the induction generator can be calculated as:
Furthemore, the reactive power required for the full load can be calculated in the same manner as
for the no load [2]. Nevertheless, a simpler method of caiculating total reactive power for a paral
le1 RL load is given by 131. This method c m be modified, thus, the total reactive power requkd
only for the induction generator is:
It is convenient to choose the induction generator rated voltage, and current as the base values
which results in further simplification of equation 2.2.12 to:
Qgcn
~:ored
(2.2.13)
The VSIbased controller will be designed to provide the required reactive power for the excita
cussed.
troller should be able to respond rapidly to the control commands, and drive the operating point of
the system to the desired one.
In this method the modulation index is defmed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the modulath g sine wave ( f, ) to the peak amplitude of the viangular c h e r wave (
The frequency of the triangular carrier is kept constant and detemiines the switching frequency.
When the switching fiequency is much higher than the generated fkequency and for m S 1 ,which
indicates operation in the hear region, low frequency harmonies cannot appear in the PWM
waveforms. Hence, the distortion is minimal and it is reasonable to neglect higher hannonics and
consider only the fundamental components for subsequent calculations.
Figure 3.3.1 shows the circuit of a VSIbased contrder including the controiier inductor (L,& a
parasitic resistor (R,), the DC capacitor (Cd=),and the DC side resistor (Rd=).The con~ollerunit
is comected to a threephase star comected voltage source and the terrninal voltage of the VSI is
synchronized to the source voltage by the gating controiier of the VSI.
The magnitude and phase of the terminal voltage is adjusted by setting the modulation index (m),
and the phase angle ( 6 ) respectively.
Fipre 33.1 The VSI with the controiier inductor (L,), resistor (R,,), DC capacitor (Cdc),
and DC side resistor (Rdc).
sient behavior of the VSIbased controuer. Where co is the fundamentai frequency and the source
V, = V,LO,
VP = VpLG
and
vsc(t)
= V,
 (Ot  Y
)
COS
And
vpo(t)=
Vp 
+6)
COS (ut
w here:
Also:
w here:
 Kct
L,,
di,, p =
dt
.
'
'c4
Assuming zero losses in the VSI. the reai power balance results in:
w here
And:
vpo 'icro +
Using equations 3.3.12, to 3.3.14 it can be shown that the AC side power in the stator hune is:
'a,
(3320)
or
vPp =
V'  sin ( o t + 6)
= cos (ut)sin ( o r )
where D =
1 cosot
L sin ot
sinotl
cos ofj
6. The terminal voltages in equations 3.3.22, and 3.324 are transformed from the stator to the synchronous fiame by using equation 3.3.27 and algebraic identities. Hence,
1
where V, = k m . Vdc and k = 2
Furthemore, the differentid equations 3.3.15. 3.3.16, and 3.3.21 c m be transformed to the syn
km
 cos6
Cd,
krn
cd,
 sin6
1'
cdcRdc
The VSIbased controller is capable of providing ail the reactive power required for the induction
generator and the ioad. Hence, the set of differential equations 3.3.29 is adequate for the dynamic
study of the system. Nevertheless. a filter capacitor is required to compensate the harmonies
present in the system. Due to this capacitor the differential equation 2.1.9 and the algebraic equation 2.1.10 are reintroduced into the system as the equations descnbing the fdter capacitor. Therefore, for the dynamic study of the overall system including the fdter capacitor, the differentiai
equations in 3.3.29 and 2.1.2 to 2.1.9 dong with the algebraic equations 2.1.10 to 2.1.18 wili
define the overall combined generating system and the controiier unit.
This equation and 3.3.28 together with equations 2.1.25 to 2.1.32 resulu in overdl steadystate
equations goveming the combined system.
X iLrd+jicsq)*
The imaginary component of the generator voltage (vSq) will be zero in equations 3.2.29, 3.3.30,
and 3.3.32 if the generator voltage is considered as the synchronization reference.
3.4.1 Control Range for VSI with Constant DC Source and no Losses
In order to have some insight into the VSIbased controller. the losses in the VSI and the controller inductance are neglected. The steadystate controller reai 'and reactive power flows are studied
as a hinction of the modulation index (m)and the phase delay angle (6 ). The configuration under
consideration is shown in Figure 3.4.1. A phasor diagram presenting the voltages and currents for
the controiier with no losses is shown in Figure 3.4.2.
Source
Jsing equations 3.3.28.3.3.30, and 3.3.32 the reai and reactive power can be caiculated as a func
,
tion of the modulation index and the phase delay angle dong with the parameters L
operating point variables V ,and o.The results are shown as the "power chart" of the controiier
in Figure 3.4.3. The parameters used for this example are given in Table 3.4.1.
Per Unit
peter(
W w
Figure 3.43. The power chart of the lossless VSI with constant DC voltage (Vdc).
The dependency of the controiler reai and reactive power on the modulation index and phase
delay angle is shown in Figure 3.4.3. Constant values of rn form concentric circles in the power
chart with a center at point "m& which is determined by m=O, or Vp=O and is calcdated as:
On the other hand, constant values of 6 are radial lines out of the point mo The maximum reactive power is determined by m=I and occun at 6 =O. This point is calcdated as:
It cm be seen by studying the power chart that, real and reactive power are coupled and are functions of the modulation index and the phase delay angle. However, it can dso be observed that 6
is usuaily very small (Le. 6 < 12' for P, < I p.u). Furthermore, if
higher up. the circles of rn=comtant become nearly horizontal lines in the important power conno1 range of I I per unit for real and reactive power. This aiiows. as a f i s t approximation, the
reactive power to be considered a function of m and real power a function of 6.
The power chart aiso provides a fmt insight into the rating of the controuer parameten. To
achieve a certain power, Vd,has to be chosen adequately, depending on the given AC voltage. In
addition. choosing L,, determines mo and by this the sensitivity of the controls with regards to m.
A small L
, makes reactive power quite sensitive to rn and provides a high gain to the control m,
Generally. the affect of R,, is such that at modulation index zero the red power is not zero any
more. This wil1 shift the point rno in the power chart to positive reai power. Au example for the
case of R, = 0.IO6 per unit is shown in Figure 3.4.5. AU the other parameters are as indicated in
the previous case. The new coordinates of the point "nio" wdi be:
Figure 3.45. The power chart of the VSIbased controuer with constant DC source
including the losses.
state load governing. A block diagram of the VSIbased controiIer for this configuration is shown
8
Figure 3.4.6. Block diagram of the VSIbased controller with variable DC voltage.
In this configuration the DC side voltage (V&) is no longer constant and will vaiy depending upon
the amount of real power dissipated by the VSIbased controuer in Rd, As seen earlier from the
power chart, a change in Vd,will change the diameter of the concentric circles of constant modulation index, thus, affecting r d and reactive power. As Vd,increases the diameter of the concentric circles also increases, thus, extendhg the power range.
controller will be limited to the fourth quadrant. The real and the reactive power which have to be
reguiated in the fourth quadrant by the VSIbased controller are determined by the desired operath g point of the induction generator along with the load.
Figure 3.4.7. The VSIbased controller power chart divided into four quadrants.
Load Power Reouirements
For the purpose of the load real and reactive power requirernents, two typical cases of resistive
Considers a maximum power factor change, that varies fiom one to zero while the corresponding
real power changes fkom maximum to zen, such that the total apparent power ( S I ] )remains constant.
Sll L p h ,
Here the worst case apparent power will traverse the curve s h o w in Figure 3.4.8(a).
Care 2: Constant real power and variable power factor.
The worst case apparent power (SI*) of this type of loads includes a certain power factor for a
given maximum real power (Ph).
Figure 3.4.8(b) illustrates this load with the point "Bu as the
worst condition.
If an equal maximum real power is considered for both types of loads, then:
Sli < s
1
2
(344)
 Ph,taW
(3.4.5)
Figure 3.4.8. Two typical cases of resistiveinductive Ioads where SII < S12
(a) constant apparent power with variable PF, and (b) constant real power and variable PF.
Minimum Dower reouirements of load aoverninp scheme
Due to the DC side configuration of the VSIbased conaoller a minimum power (Pmh) dissipa
Pctm i n
Y dcmin
  Rdc
The generator has to provide the reai power for both the conmuer and the load.
(3.4.7)
where the induction generator voltage and current are chosen as the base values.
Total Dower reauired
The VSIbased controller has to supply this reactive power and compensate for the maximum
therefore,
(3.4.9)
Figure 3.4.9 shows the mapping of the required conmller control range into the power chart
where points A, and B represent the worst case. Note that Figure 3.4.8 shows power as observed
by the generator while Figure 3.4.9 illustrates power as seen be the controller.
Figure 3.4.9. Combined real and reastive power of both types of loads, induction generator,
and VSIbased controller with the worst cases s h o w as A, and B.
At a modulation index of one. mainly the DC voltage and L,, will detexmine the reactive power
control range. Consider only rractive power required for the induction generator, Figure
3.4.10(a). When the system load is at a maximum and the PF is unity. then the controller operates
at minimum power (Pcmh) requiring minimum DC voltage. At this operating point. the DC bus
voltage must still be sficiently high to supply the reactive power for the induction generator
(Q,,,). Considering the fmt type of the load, if the PF now decreases to zero, for the same appar
ent power. then the controiler must dissipate the unwanted real power. by increasing the DC voltage to Vdcm
Vdcma
'dcmin
idly and, therefore, covers any desired control power requirements. This is s h o w in Figure
3.4.10(b).For 3.4.10 a voltage ratio of 1 to 3 has been chosen, which stretches the modulation
index control range. This indicates that a large voltage ratio requires a high W A rating of the
VSIbased controller.
For the second type of Ioads. if it is desired to maintain the maximum load real power dernand
capability with a given PF, the Vkmin has to be selected such that it covers the point "B" of Figure
3.4.1 1. This means a larger Vdnnn than the frst type of the Ioad. Consequently, selecting the Vdc,in
for the load case 2 will automatically cover for both types of Ioads.
0.5 O
0.5 1
1.5
2
(b) Pct (Pu)
Figure 3.4.10. Mapping the first type of loads into the power chart VSEbased controiler
with (a) Vdcmin=2.34
pu, and (b) Vk=6.68
p.u.
2
1.5 1
Figure 3.4.11. Mapping the second type of loads into the power chart of the VSIbased
controller where the worst case of SD (point B) is covered by increase in Vhk.
Vdcm,
) ratVdcmin
Valve
Figure 3.5.1. The block diagram of generator system used for parameter ratings.
the induction generator and the turbine are selected. This stipulates the required reactive
3.5.2 Inductor
The inductor (Lcg)is selected to reduce the hannonics in the cumnt waveforms. If this value is
chosen too small, it will result in harmonies in the current wavefonns. Nevertheless, it causes a
better desouplhg between rn and 6. On the other hand, a large value of the inductor wiU be
costly and a factor of increase in coupling. The practical value is typically a per unit reactance of
0.1 to 0.3 [6].
V',is selected for the VSIbased controller such that it permits enough reactive power to
load. In other words point B of Figure 3.4.1 1 has to be satisfied The Vhur requires a constant
,
power (Pcmin) to be dissipated constantly in the Rdc. This P
The selection of the DC side resistor (R&) for the load goveming scheme. considering,
Pdcmax
pdcmin
In order to lower Vh
for the same P, ratio, a two stage resistor is proposed. This consideration
employs one fixed resistor (Rkl) and one (Rk2) wh"h is switched on during operation. see Fig
ure 3.51.
Case One:
This case considers only one of the resistors (Rdci)in Figure 35.1. Therefore, given the values for
the Vdnnn and Pm,.
Hence, the VdC is calculated from equation 3.5.3 and the dissipated power ratio.
Case Two:
and PC
has an impact on the Vdc ratio. If for a given P,, ratio a Iower
is desired then the option of introducing a second switched DC resistor (Rdc2)is consid
The RdcZ c m be switched onloff during the operation by monitoring the phase delay angle (6)
which is proportional to the consumed real power in the controller. Figure 3.5.2 shows the Vdc
The result of equation 3.5.7 compared to equation 3.5.3,indicares the improvement of real power
Figure 3 5 . 2 The DC voltage (V&) versus controller real power (PJ for two parailel
resiston where Rdd is switched on/off at the point P ,
3.5.5 Switches
The switches can be selected by considering the maximum blocking voltage Vk
rent rating required. Furthemore, the frequency of switches is given by the desired switching fiequency of the system.
35.6 DC Capacitor
The rating of the DC capacitor (C&)depends on the DC voltage ripple (VdCf),and the peak amplitude of the cment drawn (1'). The voltage ripple is affected by the switching frequency
higher,f
a).
The
the lower the relative DC voltage npple. This capacitance for the wont case of the
where kh is a correction factor given in [6] as 1.25. This factor is mainly introduced since sinusoida1 waveforms are considered for the calculation of the DC capacitor while the actual harmonies
P,
= 1246Pl,,
This indicates an induction generator with the rathg given in Appendix B. The induction generator rating is somewhat larger than the requirements, however, the rating of the prime mover is
w i t h the specifications. The controiier inductor is selected as 0.27 per unit.
The rating example is given for the case of single stage resistor (Rdcl) Selecting Vdonn as 210
volts and considering the Pmh, one can calculate RkI as:
It is decided to use a voltage ratio of approximately 1 to 3 which gives a P, ratio of 1 to 9 for the
The DC capacitor can be calculated using equation 3.5.9 for a switching fiequency of ZlcHz, a
maximum modulation index of one, and Vd,ripple of 1 volt, dong with the rated current of the
induction generator as the maximum current d r a w by the VSIbased controller.
CHAPTER 4
Control Strategy
The regulation of the voltage and fiequency of the standalone induction generator is very sensitive to the load and prime mover variations. These disturbances can be categorized into slow and
fast types [2].
The slow disturbances represent srnail or slow changes in the system model, changes in operating
parameters, and srnaii variations in the head of water. A feedback regulator as proposed in [2] can
be used to control these slow disturbances but this is not considered in this thesis.
water flow is slow, then the major disturbance is due to sudden changes of real power and/or
power factor of the load. These are the fast disturbances that can be best controlled by immediately compensating the load current changes by adjusting the controller current as proposed in [2].
This compensation scheme is illustrated in Figure 4.1.1 where the relation among controller
generator (< ), and load
(z
),
Figure 4.1.1 The relation m o n g controiier, generator, and load currents for
an arbitrary resistive and inductive load.
In order to compensate for the fast disturbances of the system a feedforward regulator is considered. Figure 4.2.1 demonstrates the relations among system space phasor currents. The controlier
'*
ctd
i*
=tq
'Td  ild
= i;, + ilq
=
The load currents ild, and ilq are calculated using measured values of the currents ila. and ilb and
transforming hem into a synchronous h
e [2].
The modulation index (m) and phase delay angle ( 6 ) can be related to the controller tenninal voltages (vpdq) of equation 3.3.28 such that:
where the
vpdq
are calculated by substituting the controller comrnand currents into the steady
Fxperimental Setup
Experiments are performed to smdy and verify the steadystate and transient behavior of the overail generating plant based on the developed model. Figure 5.1 shows the overail experimental
setup.
A DC machine emulates the prime mover and an induction machine is used as the generator. A
series RL load parallel with the controuer is connected to the terrninals of the induction generator.
Furthermore, a VSI connected to a DC capacitor, and a resistor on the DC side as well as capacitor on the AC side configures the VSIbased controller. This AC capacitor has smali capacitance
which together with the controiler inductance (L,) forms a fdter that attenuates higher order harmonics.
In order to process the sampled data from the system and output the desired switching pattern for
the VSIbased controller a General Propose Controlier (GPC)available in the laboratory is used.
Furthermore, the s t m p process is considered where the DC capacitor is precharged by an externa1 source.
voltage of 1 15 volts and a current of 3 1 amperes. The DC machine supplies the real power into the
induction generator. The assumption is made that the river has a constant head of water and the
turbine gate is opened to a fixed desired position. The torquespeed characteristic of the hydro tur
Figure 5.1.1 shows the setup for the DC motor which exhibits a torquespeed characteristic simi
Garing Signais
50A
Resinon
DCMotor
+
vf
Bridge
Rectifier
Figure 5.1.1 The DC motor setup which represents the hydro turbine.
1l0V
The induction generator is a 3.7kW induction machine with a terminal voltage of 110 volts. This
squirrel cage Cpole induction machine is coupled to the DCmotor. Due to the smaiier ratings of
the DC motor the induction generator is always operated lower than its rated power. Appendix B
in section 5.4.1.
Parameter
("I"I
high speed The GPC also includes a Time Rocessor Unit (TPU) that generates many different
gating patterns including sinusoidal pulse width which is used for the VSIbased controiIer [8].
Figure 5.3.1 illustrates the microprocessor based instrumentation employed to monitor and con
Gating Signais
Sync unir
LP.F
Conversion
to Square Wme
Sync.
TL
Oscilloscope
Figure 53.1. The microprocessor based instrumentation for the experimental tests.
5.4 Software
Appendices C.and D include the flow chart of the program and the program algorithm. This program is written in C language using fmed point numben. Furthemore, the program takes advantage of lookup tables for calculations of square mot, and sine functions, to avoid calling C library
v. =
V,LO
rising edge of the generated voltage. This signai will triggeranintempt which registers the time
of the zero crossing and sets a nag. The aigorithm wiU not process this event immediately. However, the program accounts for the delay t h e by measuring the difference between the intempt
and the a m a l process time. In addition, the frequency of the VSI terminal voltage is always
locked to the frequency of V, by using the time between two consecutive zero crossing of V'. This
The fdter capacitor is connected to the terminais of the induction generator. The worst case design
scenario yields a combined model of the induction generator and the VSIbased controiier at no
Ioad. This model cm be simpMed and is shown in Figure 5.5.1. This simplification is mauily due
to the large inductance of the induction generator compared to L,, Table 5.5.1 shows the parmeters used for this model. The transfer fuaction for this mode1 follows:
(S.S. 1)
Figure 5.5.1. The simplified model used to detennine the filter capacitor.
Pararneter
Given the data Table 5.5.1 and the worst case fkquency of 1880Hz, the magnitude of the transfer
5.6
function becomes:
Reference [9] gives the foliowing ratio for the worst case of Vk=2 l OVolts and modulation index
of one (m= I ) .
Therefore,
Figures 5.5.2, and 5.5.3 illustrate the generator voltage (Vsd) and current (i,)
the filter capacitor respectively.
Figure 5 5 2 . The generator voltage Vsab (a), and current,i with the filter capacitor.
Figure 55.3. The generator voltage Vsd (a), and current,i without the fdter capacitor.
An important issue in the excitation of the induction generator employing semiconductor elec
tronics rather than a fixed bank of AC capacitors is the stariup process. The fdter capacitor does
not innoduce enough reactive power for the selfexcitation of the induction generator. The VSIbased conwller has to initiate the selfexcitation process either in the presence or the absence of
the filter capacitor. Thus, an initial DC voltage on the DC capacitor is required. There are two
configurations suggested for precharging of the DC capacitor.
Method I .
Figure 5.5.4 depicts the circuitry for startup where t h e car batteries at 12 volts each are connected in series.
The modulation index (m)and phase delay angle (6) wiil be controlled by the keyboard such that
builds up and the diode Dl wiU be reverse biased to protect the batteries.
Method 2:
In this method, a car bartery together with a boost converter is employed to precharge the DC
capacitor to approximately 300 volts. The boost converter only uses one battery and can provide
any level of Vdc.
O~en
Loo~
Contrul
The VSIbased controiler is started immediately afker the precharging of Cd, is camed out. The
control command for the modulation index and start of the VSI gating is entered from the keyboard.
In the former method the modulation index is set to approximately half its maximum value (ie.
40%)and, after the gating signais are switched on, will be increased to a higher value (i.e. 80%).
Figure 5.5.5 shows the voltage and frequency during the startup process where the time interval
between switch on of the gating signals and the increase of the modulation index is mainly due to
The synchronization unit show in the block diagram of 5.3.1 wiil provide the synchronization
signal for the tenninal voltage of the VSI (Vp). This signal is generated if there exists enough
residual magnetism in the induction generator ( Vmb s 0.6 volt). However, the absence of the synchronization signal during stamip wiil have almost no eflect on the process, since the required
voltage for the synchronization unit is very small and generator excitation is very fast. Initially, no
synchronization is required as there is no initial voltage to synchronize to.
(b)
r(sd
Figure 5.55 The voltage (V')and frequency during startup using Method 1 with three
batteries in series, (a) with the fdter capacitor, (b) without the fdter capacitor.
vs 0.71
and
02
O 4
O 6
O8
(d)
12
14
16
18
t ( 4
Figure 5.5.6 The voltage (V')and frequency during stamip using Method 2 with Vk=300 volts,
(a) with the fdter capacitor, (b) without the Nter capacitor.
Many experiments were performed to verify the control capability of the VSI applied to the selfexcited induction generator. The induction generator is driven at approximately 80% of its rated
power throughout ail the experiments, due to the limited m a x i m m power of the DC motor. During these tests oniy a feedforward controller was employed to regulate the voltage and frequency
of the selfexcited induction generator. The steadystate errors present in the results can be eliminated by employing a feedback controiier. M a y tests were canied out, some typicai results have
been selected to demonstrate the performance of the VSIbased controller. These experiments are
discussed in the foiiowing sections.
generated is directed to be consumed in Rd, by the controIIer such that the fkquency (B remains
unchanged. As shown in Figure 6.1.1 no noticeable transient appears in the voltage (VJ, fie
quency ), or generator (4)ctment. Figure 6.1.2 illusnates the components of the load in the synchronous reference frame, and the coatroiier currents. The instantaneous controller and ioad
currents are shown in Figure 6.1.3.
OD2
O M
On6
rime of change
rime of change
O M
Of
0D8
006
0 4
016
018
(b)
t (sec)
(c)
t (sec)
(4
O08
Of
02
01 4
t (sec)
Figure 6.1.1. The results of pure maximum resisiive load (T'est 1) where the load is
totaiiy disconnected fkom the generator system, (a) voltage,
(b) frequency, (c) instantaneous voltage, and (d) generator cumnt.
.O5
0.05
0.1
0.1s
O2
(a)
v
O25
t (sec)
I
2
3
0 05
tirne of change
0 .os
0.1
0.1s
02
02s
(b)
0 .os
O .OS
t (sec)
0.1
0.15
02
(d
1
056 h
OZ
t (sec)
I
b
I
4
V
u
*
i
.
O
0.0s
id
l
rime of change
0.05
O 1
0.1s
02
(4
0.25
t (sec)
Figure 6.1.2. The results of pure maximum resistive load (Test1) where the load is
totdy discomected fiom the generator system, (a) real, and (b) reactive components
of the load cumnt, (c) reai, and (ci) and reactive components of the controlIer current.
r .
am
OM
006
om
fime of change
001
*
01
013
014
(a)
O M
O D6
t (sec)
008
01
OU
0 14
(b)
t (sec)
Figure 6.1.3. The results of pure maximum resistive Ioad (Test 1) where the load is
totally disconnected fiom the generator system for,
(a) instantaneous controuer current, (b) instantaneous load current.
A m e r load change is appiied by recoanecting the fui1 resistive load to the system. The voltage
and frequency waveforms in addition to instantaneous generator and load currents are s h o w in
Figures 6.1.4 and 6.1.S. The cornparison of the voltage wavefoxms indicates that the sudden connection of the full resistive load to the generator system creates more transients than the disconnection of the load.
01
O 2
0.15
(4
025
t (sec)
1C
a
*
8
1.
G0.5
.
I
j dtime
of change
O .O5
AB
O 02
rimofchange
0.1
(b)
0.15
O 2
O 25
t (sec)
O D4
O06
O D8
O1
O U
014
(d
t (sec)
(4
t (sec)
Figure 6.1.4. The results of comecting a pure maximum resistive load (Test 1) to
the generator system. (a) voltage, @) frequency,
and (c) instantaneous voltage. and (d) htantaneous generator current.
Pm
rime of change
O 04
008
On6
01
O U
(a)
014
t (sec)
2
Y
05
na
rime$change
O M
On6
008
01
O U
014
(b)
t (sec)
Figure 6.1 S. The results of connecting a pure maximum resistive load (Test 1) to
the generator system for the instantaneous, (a) controller, and (b) load currents.
The values of load resistor and inductor are chosen such that a power factor of 0.8 is obtained. A
sudden change in the load impedance is applied by connecting a series RL load where:
The resulting voltage and frequency are shown in Figure 6.2.l(a,b). Figure 6.2.l(c,d) shows the
generator and load currents. Figure 6.2.2 illustrates the instantaneous voltage and controller current in addition to load currents in the synchronous frame.
rime of change
,
OM
a
i
OD4
006
OD8
01
0.U
014
O16
018
(4
12
02
t (sec)
L
ODb
008
014
O16
O .i8
I
I
l
I
,
O
OD3
'Qi
O M
OM
On1
001
O M
001
0.U
OD1
OLn
(4
03
t (sec)
003
004
ODS
0
(4
rime of change
0M
(dl
O M
0D8
t (sec)
0113
O M
0115
ODo
O M
t (sec)
0118
rime of chunge
t (sec)
(b)
tin& of change
033
3
L
.2
 +
t (sec)
1
:.
rime of c h g e
,:LY
0
ns
O0 s
01
(d
OB
02s
03
t (sec)
Figure 6.3.1(a,b) shows the voltage and fiequency. The real and reactive components of load are
reflected in Figure 6.3. l (c,d).
r (sec)
1
I
'
tirne of change
iI
003
OD1
OD6
0D8
016
018
O2
t (sec)
02
0.2s
t (sec)
O2
t (sec)
022
Figure 6.4.1 (c.d) show the instantaneous value for the generator voltage (V&,) and current (i,,).
The induction motor empioyed is a star comected, wound induction machine with the ratings
show in Table 6.4.1. Figure 6.4.2(a,b) shows the instantaneous and real components of the load
current respectively. As seen due to the huge in rush current of the induction motor the ioad current rises to about 1 per unit. The real and reactive components of the controiler current are s h o w
in Figure 6.4.2(c,d).
Parameter
Value
v d
115 Volts
Rated Speed
3600 rpm
O .OS
0.1
fa)
0.15
02
t (sec)
025
B
t
B
B
I
B
rime of change
'
t (sec)
O2
(4
r/me of change
orn E/ am
006
rrme of change
om
01
(4
t (sec)
a u
O 14
O J ~
O ~8
t (sec)
.Figure 6.4.1. Motor ioad test (Test 4) results, (a) voltage, (b) hquency. (c) instantaneous
generator voltage, and (d) instantaneous generator current.
01
02
03
rime of change
0s
OA
05
06
O?
OS
t (sec)
(a)
&
3
O
<
tirneOf C?
O1
03
03
O4
(6)
05
O*
03
09
t (sec)
Agure 6.4.2. The result of the motor load test (Test 4), (a) instantaneous load current,
@) real component of the load current, and (c) real component,
and (d) reactive component of controller cumnt.
6.5 Discussion
The experimental resuits show the excelient transient behavior of the selfexcited induction generator when regulated by the VSIbased controller. The cornparison of the test resuits indicates
almost no transients on the generated waveforms with an RL load. Some ansients arr observed,
if an abrupt change of a pure resistive load. Even with a sudden change of 100%in the resistive
load, the transients are minimal This type of load change is very unrealistic, since under normal
operationai circumstances, the maximum typical change for such a s m d generator system is in
the range of 10% to 15%. The VSIbased controller regulates the generator system even under
CHAPTER 7
Conclusions
This thesis demonstrates the feasibility of employing a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to control
the flow of reai and reactive power in a standdone induction generator plant. The VSIbased
controller wiU maintain the impedance observed by the induction generator at a constant value.
Hence, reguiation of the prime mover is not required.
A mode1 is used to detennine the behavior of the hydro turbine, induction generator, and load.
The differential equations describing the behavior of the VSI cootroUer are developed. These
equatioos can predict the dynamic and steadystate performance of the conwller. The overail system has been verified experimentaily.
7.1 Contributions
The major contributions of the thesis are:
1 Introduction of a VSIbased conaoller for regulation of voltage and frequency of selfsxcited
induction generator.
2 Total elimination of the large AC capacitor bank required for excitation of the induction gener
ator employed by the earlier methods. The VSI controuer wiil provide not only the reactive power
required for the excitation of the induction generator at fidl load, but dso will compensate for any
inductiveresistive load. Nevertheless, a small fdter capacitor is comected to the generator output
terminais so as to eliminate the higher frequency harmonies.
3 Development of the control range and the rating of the VSIbased conwiler which provides
rating niles for the design engineer.
stamip
5 The experimentd results c o d i the predicted performance of the VSIbased controlier. The
experimental results also demonstrate the direct switchon capability of an induction motor load
for the proposed system. To the best of this author's knowledge such a feature has not been
reported for the existing methods.
1Energy Conservation: It is possible to store the unwanted energy due to unloading for a short
duration of time in a bank of capaciton connected to the DC side of the VSI. The capacity of this
bank of capacitors is designed such that the gate on the hydro turbine cm be adjusted. The stored
energy is discharged into the load when the power dernand rises. Thus, adequate time is provided
for readjusnent of the gate.
References
[l] Elder, J. M., Boys, J.T., and Woodward, JL., 'The process of selfexcitation in induction gen
eraton", IEEE Proceedings. Pt. B. vol. 130, pp. 103 108, No. 2, March 1983.
[2] R.M.A.S. Rajakaruna, Conmol of a StandAlone SelfExcited Induction Generator Drven by
an Unregulated Turbine, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 1993.
[3] G.D.Hoops. Terminal Zmpedrce Control of a Capacitor Excited Induction Generator, Ph.D.
nolled Induction Generator System, Diplornaufgabe Thesis, Elehotechnixhes Institut Universitat Karlsruhe, 1995.
[SI G.R. Slernon, ''Circuit models for polyphase induction machines", Electric Machines and
Power Systems, No. 8, 1983. pp. 369379
[6] R. Wu, Analysis And Control of Pulse Width Modulated A C to DC Voltage Source Conver
R. B o n e ~
S. Rajakaruna "Selfexcited induction generator with excellent voltage and fkquency control", IEE Proc. Gener. Tranm DLnrib. Vol. 145. No. 1. January 1998.
M. Tartibi, A Controlled Series Capacisor Schemefor Power Transmission Line,M.A.Sc. Thesis, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto.
D. Zhu. SmallSignal Modelling and Analysic of GTO Bused Static VAR Compensator, Solid
State Series Capacitor. und Sfatic Phase ShjFter. M.ASc. Thesis. Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, University of Toronto.
LShndhar, B. Singh, CS. h a , B. P. Singh and S. S Murthy, "Selection of capacitors for the
self regulated short shmt self excited induction generatoi', IEEEPES winter meeting, 93 W M
226 1 EC.
V,Blasko, V. Kaura, 'A New Mathematical Mode1 and Control of a ThreePhase ACDC Voltage Source Converter", IEEE Tram. on Power Electronics. vol. 12, No1, Jan 97, pp 1 16123.
Appendix A
vl, = gvm..II
Volts
Considering the rated values of induction machine employed for the experirnental setup (given in
Appendix B)the base values for the generating system c m be derived as:
Vb = 89.81 Volts
Ib = 36.77 Amps
Zb = 2.443 R
Sb,rot = 4953.5 Volt .Amps
Q,
= 0.002653 sec
= 0001086Farads
Rb = 188.5 racsec
Jb = 0.0003698 Watt. s e 2
Experimental Apparatus
B.1 The Induction Generator
The induction generator used for the experimentai setup is a squirrel cage machine with the following ratings:
Vmed = 110 Volts. nnr. hetuline
irated = 26 Arnps,
fmrcd
nns
= 60 Hz
Prated
= h~
Number of Poles = 4
Rated Speed = 1730 rpm
= 0.34pu
Appendix C
Define Constants
and Variables
w
FeedForward
Yes
61
+
Calculate
Update
Microprocessor Programs
'program
keyb controls :
* a amplitude in % of amax set in program. One decimal
*
fraction is possible * p phase s h i f t from 35 to 3 5 degrees. One decimal
*
fraction is possible.
R +un
GT1 turn gatings on
*
S stop
D On/Off feedforward
*
*
>Y
>R
>Y
>G11
>Y
>a80
>Y
*
Then i f the excitation h a s taken place can turn on the feed forward:
" >D
= >Y
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
switch n m e s
TPU channels
10 20
30
 > sl
s3 s5  > ch2 ch4 ch6
11 21
31
s4
s6 s2
ch3 ch5 ch7
ch O switch pexiod
ch 1 sample period
ch 27 gating charnels
ch 8 ITC input capture for sync. time base T t R 2 (Msec)
ch 9 OC for Stop watch
/
* t ~ t ~ t t t ~ * * * ~ r t r t i * t * * r * ~ t r t * t f * * * t * < c t * t * r ~ * + * * * * * * * * * * t * t * ~ t *
/ * hardware m e m o r y map
#include "memap332.hm
/ * ====== constants,
variables ======== * /
#include "hextabls.hn
/ * table sine function 0360 degrees * /
/ * global variables
*/
*/
e x t e n void tepsaO(),teplaO(),tepsa40,tepla40,
ppsetup0 ,qsmsS82O ,keybi00 ;
/ * ===
FUNCTIONS
&
/ * int TPU ch 1 * /
#pragma interrupt ( )
void diosamp()
{ / * interrupt TPU ch 1 for
timing of s a m p l i n g and 1 / 0 through QSPI
analog input l a s t cycle,
analog output and telegrams in next cycle
analog 1/0 data format:
for fxp 1 . 0 p.u. > signed short var = *pRXDF >> 3;
m i t e fxp to ch *pTXDE = (signed short var fxp) > 1;
if program QSMs582 is used, then :
analog in : in7, .  6 ,  5 , .  4
in0
*pRXDF, . .C, . . 9 , , .6 *pRXD3
analog o u t : out7..6..5..4..3..2,
out9   8
*pTXDE..D..B..A..8.7
*pTXD5..4
celegr 16 bit t o slave *pTXDO.1
"pTXDO = ;O
*pTXDl = 0 x 5 5 5 5 ;
/*
telegram # 1 dunany * /
*pSPCR1
/ * Analog in * /
valpha = 'pRXD6 >> 3 ;
vbc = *pRXD9 >> 3;
ialpha = 'pRXDC >> 3 ;
ib = *pRXDF >> 3;
vdc = 'pFCD3 >> 3 ;
/ * Analog out * /
*pTXD7 = out2 >> 1;
'pTXD8 = out3 >> 1;
/ * Freq
*/
/*ictI
*/
! */
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
*pCHSp46
*pCH3p46
+pCH4p46
*pCH5p46
*pCH6p46
*pCH7p46
valpha * /
vbeta * /
vl
*/
vavl * /
vav2 * /
vav3 * /
maintvoid)
{
/*
pin
PF3
2
setting
function
1 = on
ch2. ,ch7 gating on/off
ch3,5,6 inv for 4Qchop 1 = inv
I
ch3,5,7 inv for VSI
1 = inv
O
mod with ch0
1 = no mod
PC7
chD,C gating on/off
1 = on
1 = on
4
chB,A gating on/off
f = on
3
ch9,8 gating on/off
2
chS,B,C inv for 4Qchop 1 = inv
1
ch9,B,D inv for VSI
1 = inv
O
mod with ch0
I = no mod
for pwrn control of IGBTVSI using ch2..7 for gating
> no mod, ch3,5,7 inverted, PF3 pulses on/off
> ch8D no inv, on, no mod * /
*pPortf = 0x03; / * 0x03 off, OxOB on * /
"pPCDR = 0x99;
/ * initialize and start QSM
i n t ID $10, intv $50 > $140 offset
no interruprs used * /
qsm5820; / * Ts = 180 + 0 x 2 5 * 1 . 9 = 250 usec * /
/ * init output data
ruri one cycle to set flag, get 1. data * /
'pTXDE = 0;
*pTXDD = 0 ;
'pTXDB = 0;
'pTXD8 = 0;
*pTXD7 = 0;
*pTXDS = 0;
*pTXD4 = 0;
*pTXDO = 0;
*pTXDI = 0;
* p S P C R l = 0x9025;
/ * start QSM * /
TEflg = *pSPSR; / * c e s c end of QSM cycle * /
while ((TEflg & 0x80) == O 1 { TEflg = *pSPSR;}
/ * general set up * /
*pTMCR = OxlAC1;
/ * 0.24 usec; int ID $1, presc=l
> 16.777216 MHz/4 > 0238 418 5 usec
../16 > 0.953 674 3 usec
Also TCR2 is set up to 262144 Hz * /
*pTICR = 0x0640;
/ * int req 6, intv $ 4 >
~ $100 offset * /
/ + CAUTION 332Bug trap at $108 ! ! ! * /
0.94
3 kHz 0xOF09
0.87 max for 9 kHz OxODEB
for 1 H z OxOFAD * /
phi1 = 0; / * phi per unit = OxFFFF due t o
table structure of TBLS command
fxp 24.8 for resolution * /
xl = (Ox00041852*60) >> 16;
phiincr = ( ((swpercnt*4*xl) >> 12) *fsmax);
/ * fxp 2 4 . 8 for better resolution * /
*
scart frequency 0.2 % of fmax
incr = OxFFFF
Tsw
fsine */
phi240 = OXFFFF/3;
phil20 = phi240f2;
/*
x2 = ( 0 ~ 0 0 2 8 F 3 3 3 ~ 1>>
) 16;
ams = (amax ' x2) >> 1 2 ;
swotcnt = 10;
26
17
IS
10
/*
cnt
cnt
cnt
cnt
is
is
is
is
6.2 usec
4 usec measured 3.2 usec
358 usec
2.38 usec * /
/ * pw ideal,
pwlcnt =
(swpercnt
"(
pw2cnt =
pw3cnt =
(swpercnt
(swpercnt
swlocnt =
(pwlcnt
vavl) ) >>l3 ;
(1vavl)/2) >> 12
OxOFFF + vav2)) >>13;
OxOFFF + vav3 ) )
;
OxOFFF
(swpercnt
/*
(
(
*/
swllcnt =
+ ( (swpercntpwlcnt+swotcnt) >> 1) ;
(pwlcnt + swotcnt)
16)
+ ( (swpercntpwlcntswotcnt) >> 1) ;
/ * Tsw = Tsa /
*pCHlp46 = ( 0x00640000 + (swpercnt200));
/ * coherent write, hightime 25 usec, del 50 usec * /
'pCHlpr8
= 0x0200;
/ * adr 1, adr 2 ch O + /
/ * ch2 = switch 10, SPWM mode 1 linked * /
/ * f low, TCRl * /
*pCH2prO = 0x0092;
= swlocnt;
/ * coherent write , pw, del * /
'pCH2p46
/ * adrl, adr2 of ch O * /
*pCH2pr8 = 0x0200;
*pCH4prO
'pCH4p46
*pCH4pr8
= 0x0092;
= sw2ocnt;
= 0x0200;
/ * f low, TCRl * /
/ * coherent write , pw, del * /
/ * adrl, adr2 of ch O * /
/ * ch5 = switch
*pCHSprO
'pCHSp46
*pCHSpx8
*pCH8prO = 0x0047;
*pCH8pr2 = Ox000E;
*pCH8pr4 = 1;
/*
*pCPRO
= 0x1555;
*pHSQRO = Ox2AA9;
= 0x0002;
/ * enable c h l i n t * /
movew #$2500,SR " ) ;
/ * int vec ch1 o f f s e t 0 x 4 1 * 4 = 0x104 * /
*pCIER
asm("
/+
syncflg = *pCISR;
/
*pCfSR = OxFEFF; / * clear int bit ch8 * /
/ * other initializations * /
loopflg = 0x8888;
cntdio = 0;
phi1 = 0;
phicO = 15; / * 16*/
phicin = 182'phicO;
(ml)*/
phic = phicin;
/*
'"""''
TCR2cnt = O;
T C R l c n t = 0;
synccntO = 0;
pAddress = (unsigned short
*)
0x0880;
ffw = 1;
ILRR = 3400;
ILIR = 3400;
*/
/*
sync * /
syncflg = *pCISR;
if ((syncflg & 0x0100) == OxOlOO 1
{
phil = 0;
/ * stopwatch * /
*pHSRRO = 0x0004;
TPUflgs = 'pHSRRO;
while((TPUflgs & Ox000C) ! = 0)
TPUflgs = "pHSRRO;
T C R S c n t = 'pTCR2;
/ * correction + /
corcnt = T C R 2 c n t  'pCH8pr8;
i f (corcnt < 0)
corcnt = OxFFFF + corcnt;
phicor = corcnt*IS:
/ * Frequency lock * /
syncper = 'pCH8pr8  synccnt0;
if(syncper < 0)
syncper =OxFFFF + syncper;
phiincr = 2199023616/syncper;
out2 = 16515072/syncper;
synccntO = *pCH8pr8;
*pCISR = OxFEFF; / * clear int bit ch8 '/
1
/ * Limit vdc to 175 to 615 volt DC. '/
/*
C:
*pHSRRO = 0x0800;
*pPortf = 0x03;
*pPADR = 0x00;
1
/ * vdc=400 => sl/on * /
if(vdc > 0x00000924)
*pPADR = *pPADR
0x04; * /
if ( f f w == 1)
vbeta = (Ox093D
(valpha + 2*vbc)) >>12;
vl = ((valpha * valpha) + (vbeta vbeta)) >>12;
if (vl <= OxOFFF)
{
tabpos = vl <<4;
asm ( ' MOVE. L tabpos ,DO * ) ;
asm(' TBLSL sqrttab,DO " 1 ;
asm(" M0VE.L DO,result " ) ;
VI = result;
1
else
C
tabpos = vl ;
asrn(" M0VE.L tabpos,DO " 1 ;
asm(" TBLSL sqrttab,DO ' ) ;
a s m ( " M0VE.L DO,,result
") ;
vl = result << 2 ;
1
if (vl==O)vl = 1;
ibeta = (Ox093D
(ialpha + 2*ib)) >>12;
ilRl = ((ialpha'valpha) + (ibeta'vbeta))
/ vl;
il11 = ( (ibeta'valpha)  (ialpha'vbeta) ) / vl;
tabpos = del;
asm(" M0VE.L tabpos,DO " ) ;
asm(" TBLSW arctantab,DO
asm(" M0VE.W DO,tabres " ) ;
delta = tabres;
");
t
case 1: out4=ictR; out5=ictI>>l;
break;
case 2 : out4=0;
out5=0;
break;
case 3: out4=ictR; outS=ictI>>I;
break;
case 4: out4=0;
out5=0;
cntdisp = 0;
break;
1
am =
mm;
phic = phicin
delta;
1 / * end of ffw * /
else
(
phic = phicbk;
am = amsbk;
1
*/
tabpos = phiO
asm( "
asm( "
asm( "
vav2 = (ams *
/*
+ phil20;
move. 1 tabpos, DO " ) ;
TBLS.W sintab,DO ' 1 ;
movew DO,tabres" 1 ;
tabres) >> 12;
*/
16)
swlocnt = ((pwlcnt  swotcnt)
+ ( (swpercntpwlcnttswotcnt) >> 1);
swllcnt = {(pwlcnt + swotcnt) << 16)
+ ( (swpercntpwlcntswotcnt) >> 1);
if (kbflg == 01
switch (letter)
I:
case ('R') :
*pHSRRO = 0x0400;
break;
case ( ' S ' ) :
1
/*
if (letter == ' E u )
( rnlo = O; letter = OxEE;
*pHSRRO = 0x0800 ;
*pPortf = 0x03;
/ * exit to 332Bug
.*/
end main * /
==================== * /
/********************************************************
* this file provides functions for the table look up
*
command TBLS. Each table has 257 values (and 7 fiIl
*
up values O).
The tables are in per unit based
*
on a 4.12 fixed point number (signed 2's complement)
*
OXOFFF = +1.0 p.u. , O X F O O O =  1  0 p . u .
*
The tables are generated with the program tabgenpas
*
which generates any desired function in p  u . values,
*
f irst in decimal format and then generates the f ixed
*
point format, which can be readily imported to the
*
constant declaration of the Cprogram.
**********************************************************/
0x02AC,0x02C8,0x02E4,0x0301,0x031D,0x033A,OxO356,OxO3728
0x038F,0x03AB,0x03C7,0x03E3,O~O4OO,O~O41C,OxO438,OxO4S4,
0x0471,0x048D,0x04A9,0x04C5,0x04E~,O~O4FD,OxO5l9,OxOS36,
0x0552,0x056E,0x058A,0x05A6,0x05C2,0x05DE,OxO5F9,OxO6l5,
IMAGE EVALUATION
TEST TARGET (QA3)
APPLIED
J M G E . lnc
=
1653 East Main Street
.
Rochester. NY 14609 USA
=
,
Phone: 716/4824W
F m 71612885989
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