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Welding Current and Arc voltage
It controls the melting rate of the electrode and thereby the weld deposition rate. It
also controls the depth of penetration and thereby the extent of dilution of the weld
metal by the base metal. Arc voltage, also called welding voltage, means the
electrical potential difference between the electrode wire tip and the surface of the
molten weld puddle. It hardly affects the electrode melting rate. Welding Speed and
Heat input Welding speed is the linear rate at which the arc moves with respect to
plate along the weld joint. Welding speed generally conforms to a given
combination of welding current and are voltage. If welding speed is more than
required 1. Heat input to the joint decreases. 2. Less filler metal is deposited than
requires , less weld reinforcement If welding speed is slow 1. Heat input rate
increases. 2. Weld width increases and reinforcement height also increases more
convexity [9].

HEAT INPUT RATE= J/mm V=arc voltage in volts I=welding current in ampere, v
=speed of welding in mm/min.


Conventional Metal Cutting Parameters for LATHE

1) Material machinability:

The machinability of a material decides how easy or difficult it is to cut.

The materials hardness is one factor that has a strong influence on the
machinabilty. Though a general statement like "a soft material is easier
to cut than a harder material" is true to a large extent, it is not as
simple as that. The ductility of a material also plays a huge role.
2) Cutting Tool Material:
In metal-cutting, High Speed steel and Carbide are two major tool
materials widely used. Ceramic tools and CBN (Cubic Boron Nitride) are
the other tool materials used for machining very tough and hard
materials. A tools hardness, strength, wear resistance, and thermal
stability are the characteristics that decide how fast the tool can cut
efficiently on a job.
3) Cutting speed and spindle speed:
Cutting speed is the relative speed at which the tool passes through
the work material and removes metal. It is normally expressed in
meters per minute (or feet per inch in British units). It has to do with
the speed of rotation of the workpiece or the tool, as the case may be.
The higher the cutting speed, the better the productivity. For every
work material and tool material combo, there is always an ideal cutting
speed available, and the tool manufacturers generally give the
guidelines for it.
Spindle speed: Spindle speed is expressed in RPM (revolutions per
minute). It is derived based on the cutting speed and the work
diameter cut (in case of turning/ boring) or tool diameter (in case of
drilling/ milling etc). If V is the cutting speed and D is the diameter of
cutting, then Spindle speed N = V /(Pi x D)
4) Depth of cut:
It indicates how much the tool digs into the component (in mm) to
remove material in the current pass.
5) Feed rate:

The relative speed at which the tool is linearly traversed over the
workpiece to remove the material. In case of rotating tools with
multiple cutting teeth (like a milling cutter), the feed rate is first
reckoned in terms of feed per tooth, expressed in millimeters
(mm/tooth). At the next stage, it is feed per revolution (mm/rev).
In case of lathe operations, it is feed per revolution that states how
much a tool advances in one revolution of workpiece. In case of milling,
feed per revolution is nothing but feed per tooth multiplied by the
number of teeth in the cutter.
To actually calculate the time taken for cutting a job, it is feed per
minute (in mm/min) that is useful. Feed per minute is nothing but feed
per revolution multiplied by RPM of the spindle.
6) Tool geometry:
For the tool to effectively dig into the component to remove material
most efficiently without rubbing, the cutting tool tip is normally ground
to different angles (known as rake angle, clearance angles, relief angle,
approach angle, etc). The role played by these angles in a tool
geometry is a vast subject in itself.
7) Coolant:
To take away the heat produced in cutting and also to act as a lubricant
in cutting to reduce tool wear, coolants are used in metal-cutting.
Coolants can range from cutting oils, water-soluble oils, oil-water spray,
and so on.
8) Machine/ Spindle Power:
In the metal-cutting machine, adequate power should be available to
provide the drives to the spindles and also to provide feed movement
to the tool to remove the material. The power required for cutting is
based on the metal removal rate the rate of metal removed in a
given time, generally expressed in cubic centimeters per minute, which

depends on work material, tool material, the cutting speed, depth of

cut, and feed rate.
9) Rigidity of machine:
The rigidity of the machine is based on the design and construction of
the machine, the age and extent of usage of the machine, the types of
bearings used, the type of construction of slide ways, and the type of
drive provided to the slides. All play a role in the machining of
components and getting the desired accuracy, finish, and speed of
Thus, in getting a component finished out of a metal-cutting machine
at the best possible time within the desired levels of accuracy,
tolerances, and surface finish, some or all the above parameters play
their roles. As already mentioned in the beginning, each of the
parameters can create a positive or negative impact on other
parameters, and adjustments and compromises are to be made to
arrive at the best metal-cutting solution for a given job.
In turning, the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters. These
parameters are selected for each operation based upon the workpiece material, tool material, tool
size, and more.

Cutting feed - The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution
of the spindle, measured in inches per revolution (IPR). In some operations the tool feeds into the
workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool. For a multi-point tool, the cutting feed is
also equal to the feed per tooth, measured in inches per tooth (IPT), multiplied by the number of
teeth on the cutting tool.

Cutting speed - The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool
during a cut, measured in surface feet per minute (SFM).

Spindle speed - The rotational speed of the spindle and the workpiece in revolutions per
minute (RPM). The spindle speed is equal to the cutting speed divided by the circumference of the
workpiece where the cut is being made. In order to maintain a constant cutting speed, the spindle
speed must vary based on the diameter of the cut. If the spindle speed is held constant, then the
cutting speed will vary.

Feed rate - The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool
makes a cut. The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the
cutting feed (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM).

Axial depth of cut - The depth of the tool along the axis of the workpiece as it makes a cut, as
in a facing operation. A large axial depth of cut will require a low feed rate, or else it will result in a
high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. Therefore, a feature is typically machined in several
passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut for each pass.

Radial depth of cut - The depth of the tool along the radius of the workpiece as it makes a
cut, as in a turning or boring operation. A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate, or
else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. Therefore, a feature is often
machined in several steps as the tool moves over at the radial depth of cut.

metal cutting, there are many factors related to process planning for machining
operations. These factors can be classified as: i. Type of machining operations
(turning, facing, milling, etc.), ii. Parameters of machine tools (rigidity, horse power,
etc.), iii. Parameters of cutting tools (material, geometry, etc.), iv. Parameters of
cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, etc.), v. Characteristics of
work pieces (material, geometry, etc.). Among these factors cutting parameters
(speed, feed rate and depth of cut) and tool geometry (back rake, side rake) are
evidently dominating ones in a machining operation. Cutting Speed (v): The cutting
speed of a tool is the speed at which the metal is removed by the tool from the work
material. In a lathe it is the peripheral speed of the work part in m/min. V =
DN/1000 (m/min) Where D, N are diameter of work piece (mm) and cutting speed
(rpm) respectively. Feed (f): The feedof the cutting tool in lathe work is the distance,
the tool advances for each revolution of the work piece in mm. Depth of cut (d): The
depth of cut is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to
the uncut surface of the work piece in mm. Back rake angle: It is the angle provided
from the cutting edge to the shank of a single point cutting tool, back rake is to help
control the direction of the chip, which naturally curves into the work due to the
difference in length from the outer and inner parts of the cut. It also helps
counteract the pressure against the tool from the work by pulling the tool into the

work piece. 5. Side rake angle: It is the angle provided between front face to the
side of the single point cutting tool. Figure-1 Two rake angles of single point cutting
tool Side rake along with back rake controls the chip flow and partly counteracts the
resistance of the work to the movement of the cutter and can be optimized to suit
the particular material being cut