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i

ABBREVIATION:

ii

CBS

Central Bureau of Statistics

CGI

Corrugated Galvanized Iron

CR

Contribution Ratio

DPR

Detail Project Report

DUDBC

Department of Urban Development and Building Constriction

DO

Division Office

GoN

Government of Nepal

HH

Household

KH

Karnali Highway

Km

Kilometer

KVTDC

Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee

LAM

Locational Attribute Matrix

LDP

Land Development Process

LD

Land Development

LP

Land Pooling

LP/R

Land Pooling/Readjustment

PP

Land Pooling Projects/Programs

LSMC

Land Management Steering Committee

LSGA

Local Self Government Act

MHH

Mid Hill Highway

NTPCO

New Town Project Coordination Office

PCO

Project Coordination Office

PRA

Participatory Rural Appraisal

RCC

Reinforced Cement Concrete

NT

New Town

ROW

Right of Way

SWOT

Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats

TDC

Town Development Committee

TDCA

Town Development Committee Act

TOR

Terms of Reference

UC

Users Committee

UDLE

Urban Development through Local Level

ULD

Urban Land Development

VDC

Village District Committee

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PROJECT INFORMATION:

Name of the Project

Partial Implementation of Land Pooling Programs


Burtiwang New Towns

Name of the Client

Government of Nepal
Ministry for Urban Development
Department of Urban Development and Building
Construction
New Town Project Coordination Office
Babar Mahal, Kathmandu

Name of the

GOE Consultants (P) Ltd.

Consultant

JV ECoCODE

Project Code

SUBMISSION INFORMATION:
Name of the Report

Inception Report on Partial Implementation of Land Pooling Program in


Burtiwang New Town

Nos. of Volumes

Version No

2.0

Date of Submission

February 2016

Submission Type

Hard Copy/ Soft Copy

Copies Produced

For Client : 7 (Seven)

Consultants' Team

Name

Team Leader
Architect
Civil Engineer
Environment Engineer
Sociologist
Economist
Senior Surveyor

iv

Signature

Date
30 Jan 2016

Report Checked By
Official Stamp

CHAPTER 1:- GENERAL


1.1

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Nepal is going through rapid change, and the pressure of urbanization is intense in the cities and small
towns. Due to rapid urbanization the population growths rates in the 58 designated municipal areas,
especially those in the central region of Nepal, are as high as 6% per annum, and is roughly four times
the average national population growth rate (1.35%). Due to the rapid growth of urban areas, serious
urban environmental issues are emerging: lagging basic urban infrastructure, services and
uncontrolled urban or physical development. Similarly, the growth trend is unbalanced and
concentrated mainly either on Kathmandu Valley or on other larger cities of Terai or on the fertile
Valleys, and this is visible either ecologically or developmentally. However, there was a negligible
attention of the government in building and planning of urban areas as demanded due course of rapid
urbanization, though on modernizing process, Nepal initiated to build planned cities in terai and in
headquarters of five development regions (e.g. Rajbiraj, Mahendranagar, Surkhet, Dipayal, Pokhara
etc). But the demand in most of rapidly developing cities including capital was so high that the
initiated process of supplying sufficient urban infrastructure and other facilities was inadequate due to
the poor planning approach and the result is haphazard, uncontrolled and unplanned development. In
the absence of a strong planning and regulating tools, lack of proper housing facilities and
development of economic and social activities, degradation of environment and the undesirable urban
sprawl is ever spreading. Houses are being built with no proper provision of road, water supply,
drainage, electricity and telephone facility. Therefore, the rapid urbanization has instigated a high
demand of serviced land and housing units including provision of physical, social and emergency
amenities. At the same time, the Government of Nepal's and the private sectors' ineffective and
inadequate supply of housing and urban infrastructures, creating an unsustainable and vulnerable
urban form through haphazard building transformation, clearly demonstrates the limited capacity of
the existing mechanism in managing the growth process.
In order to respond to the unbalanced, rapid, haphazard and uncontrolled urbanization, as well as the
increasing demands of housing, infrastructure and other public amenities in the cities of Nepal, the
Government has decided to plan and build ten new towns in the junction or in around 3 km distances
of Mid hill highway (MHH) and North /south corridor roads and established New Town Project
Coordination Office (PCO) under DUDBC, MUD. This initiation, in addition, once it succeeds will
help to mitigate the increasing trend of migration to the capital and other rapid urbanizing cities with
all its negative environmental and social consequences. The towns are selected on the basis of
balanced urban development (National Urban Policy 2007), access to transportation, drinking water,
availability of land, potentials for economic development, settlement in vicinity, population, migration
trend, non-agriculture activities, literateness, availability of electricity and others. The New Towns
will attract the population growth through planned development in the upcoming years, by creating
economically vibrant towns as a place to live, work and entertain. This will delineate a rural urban
boundary and create an environment of city development with an integrated approach that consists of
all physical, social, economic and other anticipated urban facilities. The New Town PCO acting as a
planning and coordinating body cannot only guide the future development of selected towns but also
solve some of the existing urban problems, if some of the pre-requisite conditions are fulfilled. The
government brought forth this ambitious task of developing modern new cities to reduce growing
human pressure in the big cities including the capital city, Kathmandu. It is believed that with the
completion of the task, migrations to the new cities would grow and settlements would rise. The
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project aims to bring about sustainable urban development in the ten cities outside Kathmandu Valley
by improving essential urban infrastructure and services, and strengthening the relevant institutions.
As a result, personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, and overall quality of life are expected to
improve in the ten areas. To address the corresponding urban spatial growth demands, land required
for the road, drainage and water supply development subcomponent will be managed through the
mechanism of land pooling (LP) too. This is to reduce haphazard development and urban sprawl and
land speculation. The locations were chosen taking into consideration the current population, their
willingness to participate in LP process, economic importance, road alignments approved by the
government and future expansion. Thus as a long-term policy initiative, GON is providing technical
and financial support to study and implement different land development tools as a part of urban
development process in the designated 10 new towns. So efforts have to be done to implement Land
Development Programs in different feasible areas through Land Pooling Programs with people's
participation and cost recovery basis. Hence, the New Town Project Coordination Office (PCO),
DUDBC now invites LoI form local consulting firms for the preparation of Detail Planning Report
(DPR) and Implementation Works of Land Pooling Projects of New Towns.
Consulting services is required to assist Project Office (PO) of New Towns in preparing of DPR and
implementing the Land Pooling Projects. It is envisaged that the appointed Consultant will be
recruited by the PCO, Kathmandu in accordance with the prevailing rules and regulation of
Government of Nepal. Similarly, the consultant has to report the PCO through PO as and when
required.
The main concept of Land Pooling (urban land development) Project is accumulating several odd
sized un-serviced parcels of land and to plan each and every plot so that they are well serviced, with
provision of roads, drainage, open space and other necessary infrastructure services. The total cost for
development is converted into the equivalent area of land and deducted equally from each parcel of
land. The ratio of land to be contributed is decided by
The landowner and peoples representatives based on the location, shape, available urban services and
GoN's contribution in infrastructure development. In this way the land-pooling project is a good
example of government-private-community partnership in urban development. The landowners cooperate with the project management in the process of planning, implementation and operation of the
project. The consultant shall conduct detailed land development planning, detailed engineering design
for infrastructure, workshops & implementation of Land Development in close coordination with
POs, Town Development Committees (TDCs), PCO as suggested in "Land Pooling Manual"
published by Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) and
Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee (KVTDC). PCO, TDCs and POs will support
liaising and other necessary works to be done on behalf of New Towns and Government.
Feasible Potential Site of Burtiwang
According to the feasibility report, the proposed site were Shera and Tari Khet. From close
coordination with the local stakeholders and TDC the consultant has found that obstacles could be
increased if Shera site was selected. The main constrain is that it is very fertile land of Burtiwang and
other is that the landowners had decided not to provide consensus until the mid-hill highway
alignment has been finalized. Hence the Tari Khet site was finalized. The Tari Khet lies in ward 2 of
Burtiwang VDC.

CHAPTER 2:- OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF WORKS


Concept of Land Pooling
The land-pooling scheme is regarded as one of the best readjustment technique for planned provision
of urban environmental infrastructures and supply of urban land without external investment. It is a
proven and successful land development scheme in the country with a history of more than a dozen
successfully implemented projects within the Kathmandu Valley only. The concept of land-pooling
consists in acquisition of a plot of land divided into a large number of small parcels belonging to an
equally large number of land owners; plan and provide all necessary infrastructure such as road, water
supply, drainage, electricity and telephone, open spaces, community service area; consolidate and
replot the parcels and give back to the owners. The cost of planning and providing infrastructure is
covered from the land itself to be contributed by each landowner. Thus the owner gets back about 1230% smaller piece of land but with all necessary infrastructure including parks and open spaces.
Moreover, the original irregular shape plot is converted into a nice regular geometric shape. Thus,
land-pooling can be defined as a land management technique for carrying out unified design,
servicing and sub-division of a group of separate land parcels for their planned urban development
with the sharing of the project costs and benefits between the land owners and recovery of the project
costs by the sale of some of the developed plots.
The concept of land pooling can be explained with the help of two key words, unification and
partnership. Unification indicates the consolidation of separate land parcels, the unified design,
infrastructure provision and subdivision of these parcels and a unified preparation and implementation
of the scheme under a single management. The word partnership indicates the partnership between
government, private and community for urban land development. It should be borne in mind that for
any scheme to be successful, it should offer sufficient benefit to the stakeholders so that they are
willing to actively participate to make the project successful. In this context the land-pooling scheme
offers the following benefits to the landowners.

A significant net increase in the market value of his land

Well-serviced housing plots easy to sell if needed.

A government agency / local government use its governmental power and


status to benefit him.

Retain part of his original land after its conversion from rural / semi-rural to
urban uses.

All of the above could never be possible by individual effort.

The main objective of the consulting service is to provide technical services that includes: Preparation
of Detail Planning Report Support for project approval, Detail Engineering Design reports, Social &
Environmental analysis, Economic & Financial analysis, Preparation Design/Working drawing,
Contract Document, and Demarcation Lay Out of land parcels according to road networks &
readjustment plan for the execution of LP project in New Town of Burtiwang.

1.1.2 Objective of the Land Pooling


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The objective of the Land pooling is to prepare a master plan, providing basic infrastructure such as
road, electricity, telephone, drainage, potable water supply, open spaces, parks making it suitable for
an ideal urban residential, commercial and other or mixed blocks and redistribute the planned plots to
the land owners who agree to share the cost of development by contributing a part of their land parcel.
The main objectives of urban planning by land pooling are:

To provide maximum number of developed plots and to conserve agricultural


land, cultural heritage and environment.

Maximum participation of local people in the process of urban planning


making them aware of the importance of planned urban development.

To control the rapid unplanned urban growth and its impact on environment
and to emphasize the importance of the concept of planning in modern
urbanization.

To provide employment opportunity to local people.

To set an example that unified development efforts are successful only through
active participation of the local people.

To set an example of a planned urban residential area with all necessary


infrastructure and clean environment.

SCOPE OF SERVICES
The main scope of this assignment is to prepare a detail planning report for feasible alternative of LP
scheme, support for local and GoN approval of project, preparation of detail engineering design report
for major infrastructure sub-projects, land readjustment plan, and to conduct pegging works for the
demarcation of land plots according to land readjustment plan of proposed LP projects/schemes (total
area should be not less than 25 Ha) of New Towns. The scope of work has been grouped in two
stages as described but not necessarily be limited to the following:
Stage I: Planning and Project Approval
a. Collect all required maps, drawings (digital, hard), and reports, studies of related New Towns
useful as references for the preparation and implementation of LP Projects. Similarly, Collect
all necessary acts, regulations, directives related to LP Projects and review them in present
context. Moreover, collect Cadastral maps; GIS based digital base maps, survey-coordinating
system (GoN) and others. If necessary, digitize in AutoCAD or other format, establish GIS
system and prepare base maps with contour interval of one meter or less (based on GIS base
map prepared by NTPCO).
b) Locate and demarcate boundaries of the proposed LP sites in the base maps including overlays
of cadastral maps and coordinating system. The base map should show all natural and
manmade features with identification of the environmentally sensitive areas. The scale of such
maps should be 1:500 or as agreed during preparation period.
c) Support Project Office/ TDC to decide implementation of LPP within the selected boundary,
and help to publish notice for public comments and suggestions. Meanwhile, support office to
get application for LP project from majority of landowners and tenants.
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d) Conduct an intensive discussion with landowners to develop understanding and decide the
project area. Formulate different committees and sub-committees such as users committee,
land management committee and others in close coordination with Project Office to facilitate
the planning and approval process as per Land Pooling Manual & Town Development Act/
Directives.
e) Support TDC to issue moratorium notice to prevent sub-division & construction for the project
period as per Town Development ACT 2045. Publish project introductory brochure with
tentative program schedule.
f) Prepare Land use zoning map (existing and proposed) of whole Land Pooling Sites and
analyse it,
g) Collect maps and other updated detail land information such as name/address of land owners,
tenants and area of each land parcel (Government, Guthi, Private etc all types) of LP sites with
close coordination of Project Office and prepare updated log sheet. Conduct a traverse survey
of the project area to compare and confirm the total area according to landownership
certificate.

h) Prepare alternatives of Block Plans with three different options ofall feasible Land Pooling
Sites with exact location of existing features, built up areas and others. The Block Plan should
consist of physical, social and economic infrastructures such as Road/ drainage networks,
water supply, electricity, open spaces, greeneries, etc. to make it suitable for ideal urban
residential, commercial and other or mixed blocks.
i) Determine the land needed for required infrastructures, and rearrange the planned plots for the
landowners who agree to share the cost of development (project financing) by contributing a
part of their land parcel.
j) Recognize and estimate unit land/plot price of both developed and undeveloped land parcels,
k) Evaluate proposed infrastructures and conduct preliminary cost estimate for construction and
work out the plan of expenditures to implement the LP schemes,
l) Determine size and quantity of service plots and allocate them for sale to recover the expenses
of project administration, management and other services.
m) Conduct proper analysis, selection of the appropriate LP scheme/area and infrastructures
alignment,
n) Propose land contribution ratio based on land position, value and infrastructure level for each
block and get approval from land owners/committees. Based on the policy propose/calculate
the area of each land parcel to be returned to each landowners.
o) Deliberate LP design and discuss as required with land owners, land management committee
or other stakeholders with close coordination of Project Office on the proposed Block Plan,
land contribution ratio, overall plan and other technical and administration parameters and
collect comments and suggestions.
p) Improve the design incorporating comments and suggestion of stakeholders, and get approval
from them. Recommend LP schemes to implement if the sites are technically, financially and
socially feasible with all required documents,
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q) Support for the approval of the improved draft planning report from TDC, and submit the
report to GoN/ MoUD for final approval.
r) Support project office to all the managerial and administrative procedure of LP project such as,
committee formation, organizing consultation meeting, confirmation of project from land
management committee/ TDC, and submission of LPP proposal for GoN approval
s) The consultant should be fully available and responsible to provide necessary document, extra
information, clarification, presentation where & when necessary as per request from DUDBC
& MoUD during project approval from GoN (even in holiday period).
t) Support Project Office/ TDC to get approval of proposed LPP from GoN/ MoUD, and issue
notice of approval of LPP.

Stage II: DPR preparation and Land demarcation


a. Conduct detail topographical and cadastral survey of LP sites. Prepare developed cadastral
map in close coordination of district survey office/NTPO on agreed or 1:500 scales with all
topographical features and existing land plots. Similarly, conduct detail engineering
(road/drainage/water supply/electricity network/ Communication), social and economic survey
of LP sites, and conduct proper analysis of them.
b) Select appropriate infrastructures alignment and design them, Prepare detailed networking
design and development of all required infrastructure with the future expansion/growth of the
project area. Prepare detailed engineering designs, technical specifications, cost estimate, bid
document, etc for the selected major prioritized infrastructures such as road, drainage, water
supply, electricity, open spaces etc. In addition, calculate actual cost of the project
incorporating infrastructure cost and project management cost. Prepare a financial plan and
cost sharing mechanism based on different scenarios, detailed economic and financial analysis.
c) Prepare land readjustment plan by plotting and assigning new numbers/land owners detail/land
areas etc of each land parcel within agreed framework. Based on this plan produce new
detailed long sheet of land parcels of each Block.
d) Discuss as required with land management committee, Town Development Committee or
others with close coordination of Project Office on the developed maps (Block by block) and
detail long sheet of land parcels, overall plan and other technical and administration parameters
and get approval from them,
e) Conduct detail layout of all Blocks and road network of approved LP sites. Demarcate all
Blocks, individual land parcels and road network with concrete pegs,
f) Prepare Building By-Laws, proposed Land Use/Physical/Social Infrastructure/Economic
Activity Maps for Project area,
g) Update developed/approved cadastral map in close coordination of district survey office and
Project Office, and
h) Others as stated in "Land Pooling Manual".
Stage III: Implementation arrangements
The executing agency for the Project is the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) through the
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Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC). A Project Coordination


Office (PCO) has been established to support and manage the execution of the project at the centre
under the guidance of Project Steering Committee (PSC). The Project Director will be the Chief
Executive Officer of the Project.
Project Offices (POs) have been established in each town to execute the project activities under the
guidance of PCO, TDCs and DOs/DUDBC. The proposed assignment will be managed as following:

Coordination with NTPCO/ POs/TDCs/ DOs-DUDBC/ VDC


The project manager of the POs, under the New Towns will administer all administrative works and
supports to consultant in the field of designing Block Plan, Track opening and detail engineering
design works of the consulting services. The consultant in parallel will produce Block Plan, cadastral
maps etc and other necessary technical documents to discuss and get approval of local peoples and
committees with the administrative and other legal work from the PO. The PO will play a leading role
in formulating the committees, arranging local level/different committees meetings, collecting land
parcel's details, bridging with district government offices and PCO. The consultant team shall be
responsible for technical jobs and maintaining coordination with all the stakeholders/ offices involved
in the project. The consultant shall have its site office with fully equipped human resources,
equipment and vehicles in New Town and will perform the task under the guidance of the Project
Managers of the POs.
Phasing of the Assignment
As described in the scope of consulting services, the procurement of the services will be carried out in
two different stages i.e. Planning & Project Approval, and DPR Preparation & Land Demarcation. In
case of communities' unwillingness, or GoN's directions, PCO may direct to halt services at the end of
any stages of the assignment of any LP projects. The payment in such case and on reduction of LP
area will be subjected to proportionate deduction of estimated person-months (5.12) and other
parameters.

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1.1.3 Procedure of Land Pooling


The major steps of the activities are schematically given in the task flow diagram in Figure 2.

Figure 2: General Process of Land pooling Scheme


The short description of each of the activities follows.
1.1.3.1 Approval
After receiving the requested of the landowners for land pooling of the areas through the concerned
municipality and in concurrence of local offices, the Ministry of Transport and Public works approves
the land pooling of the area and constitutes the users committee, representing the stakeholders and the
management committee, representing experts and local officials.
1.1.3.2 Surveys and Mapping
I)

Topographical Survey:

The methodology adopted to carry out the topographical survey is as per the specification of
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Survey Dept. Nepal which is briefly outlined below.


- Instrument Used: - Total Station or other EDM instruments are used for the topographical survey.
The data storing are downloaded in AutoCAD environment, and maps are prepared in AutoCAD.
- Control Points: - The control points trig points and benchmarks established by Geodetic
Survey Branch within the project area are obtained, identified and used in the field with the help of
the description cards. The coordinates are in modified UTM projection system and the Bench Mark
heights are. Mean sea level height of Bay of Bangal. The new additional control are established at an
accuracy of about 1:50000. The accuracy of existing geodetic control points are also checked found
reliable of 10cm.
- Contours: - The topographical survey is planned to produce final maps at 1:500 and with contour
interval of 0.50 m.
- Features: - All the manmade and natural features is shown in the topographical map.
- Boundary: - Boundary of the project area is identified clearly with the help of the users
Committee and delineated on the maps. Any minor controversy regarding the boundary is resolved at
the time of survey in the field itself.
II)

Cadastral Survey:

- Existing Cadastral Map: - Existing Cadastral Maps of the project area is available from the District
Survey Section and the records of the land holding, certificates are available with the district Land
Revenue Office. The cadastral maps are isle land type 38 districts out of 75 districts and at the scale of
1 inch = 100 ft (1:1200) to 1 inch = 400 ft and 1:500 to 1:2500, surveyed during 1965-1997. They are
scanned and joined into one sheet electronically. The surveying method was used the chain survey for
distance measurement and plain table with or without geodetic control points. Therefore, it is natural
to expect error in both area computation and the shape of the plot in the map
- New Cadastral Survey: - A new cadastral survey was carried out with cooperation with
Cadastral Survey Party (Napi Goswara) using geodetic control points as described above.
The new cadastral plans of the area are prepared at the scale of 1:500, digitized and be overlaid on the
topographical map. The surveying method used are tapes for distance measurement and plain table
surveying for the preparation of the cadastral maps. These plans with existing plots and topographical
details are be used for planning.
III)

Land Records

The land records are field book, plot register and ownership records, and cadastral plans. The field
book consist of the records of parcel number by each ward of Municipality or Panchayat
(VDC now), name and signature of tenant, name and signature of land owners, adjoining parcel
numbers land use, land class, area, date of survey and remarks by tenant and survey office (in remarks
column).
The Photocopy of field books and plots register and list of owners were received from respective
offices e.g. survey office and Land Revenue Office of the district. The area of parcel and owners are
checked with records as well as re- measuring the areas from existing maps and new maps.
The average size of parcels is calculated and generally landowner or tenants has 2-4 parcels either in
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one location or in different locations. The parcel sizes and their distribution are used to decide the plot
depth of the block.
1.1.3.3 Planning of Infrastructures
The process of planning started by dividing the entire area into blocks by roads. Plots for open spaces,
parks, and community facilities are delineated. Other service industries like hotels, entertainment
catering tourism, market place, IT parks be added to create job opportunities. The total area of such
open spaces will be in the range of 3 to 5% of the total project area. The remaining area will be the
residential mixed and commercial areas and future housing reserve area, which will be divided into
smaller block areas by providing smaller roads. These smaller blocks will be subdivided into
individual housing plots in such a way that each plot will have access to road, drainage, water supply,
electricity, telephone.
I)

Roads

The width and right of way of the roads are designed based on the available norms and standards and
are finalized after discussion with the users committee. The pavements are designed based on
prevailing engineering practices. Thickness of the base course will depend on the property of the subgrade. Construction works are carried out without disturbing the environmental situations. The
stakeholders will decide which costs are to include for the purpose of deriving the contribution ratio.
The design speed is of 60km/hr and 40km/hr for main road and other roads respectively and
maximum gradient of the road is 1:10. The road will be planned on the basis of land use, road type
(one way or both way) and number of service plots on the road hierarchy basis. The 9 m diameter and
12 m. hammerhead will be maintained to junction of road longer than 25 m. The
width of road on commercial and institutional areas will be better than 9 m.
The road hierarchy will be as following: - Main Road 11 m.
- Secondary Road 9 m.
- Small Road 7.5 m.
II)

Drainage and Sewerage

The storm water drainage and domestic sewage both will have to be taken care of by providing sewers
along each road. There will be serious problem of flooding by rainwater in the southern part of
country during the monsoon period. Adjoining to town have problem of sewerage and waste pollution
problems. Many culverts along the main roads and highways require to be fully operational during the
period. It is required to separate the drain water and sewerage and treat them before interring into the
stream or river. The suitable methods of treatment and locations Sewerage Treatment Plants are
planned. It is required to reserve land for settlement of the persons affected from the plant. The
sewerage line will run mostly along centre of the road.
III)

Electricity

The supply of electricity and high- tension lines are critical for planning. The electricity authorities
are requested to provide sufficient electric power and generally, single pole 11
KVA lines are translocated along the main road. The roads and open spaces are planned along the HT
lines.
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IV)

Drinking Water

The existing ancient stone waterspouts are repaired and used. The potable (drinking water) are
supplied from existing system, however, it is usually the municipality lacks capacity of reservoirs and;
hence it needs land for water tank. The land pooling areas have population of about 300
population/ha, which needs about 100 litre/day/person of potable water. The pipeline will be placed
along the footpath / sidewalk area.
V)

Other Infrastructure Facility

Telephone: -The telephone line will be provided along the footpaths of along the main road.
The main lines with cabinets will be extended to the area.
Education: - The land for schools is allocated as per standard norms which required quite high
quantity of land.
Health centre: - It is propose to have land for health centre with OPD and emergency checkups and
have referral facilities to the nearest hospital. It will have 1-2 plots at the centre of the areas.
Open spaces: - There will be land for open spaces at the central every major block. As per requirement
3- 5% percent of area will be assigned for open spaces and green belt the steep sloping areas as well
as other places. The green belt will be planned around the river banks and steep slopping areas.
Community area: - The following community area like, temple, library, auditorium, market places,
will be assigned. The information technology area, market areas, bus/ car parks area
sae assigned. The open spaces near the temples for cultural activities like marriage and other
ceremonies, cemetery/ crematory and inns for mourning near waterspout. The archaeological,
religions monument and sites like historical temple, inns, spouts, and wells are renovated and
conserved with the participation of local people as well.
1.1.3.4 Block Planning
I.

Project Approach

The land pooling is done on the approach of land consolidation principle after analysis of topography,
parcel size and consolidation of scattered parcels of a family. The block are divided on the basis of
- Plot size
- Number of Houses
- Pressure of urbanization and
- Reserve area.
The special emphasis will be given to the following matter to layout block and plots.
- Access to highway and planned roads
- Junction points
- Existed buildings and infrastructures
- Natural topography and slopes
- Environmental situation (greenery, open space, canals)
The blocks are generally designed longitudinal direction of main roads and the distance between two
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open spaces will be 100-200m. The width of road will be at least 7.5 m. except the existing houses
with 1.5m set back. Very few houses will be demolished.
II.

Sub Division

The blocks are subdivided to provide access road to each plot and open spaces are located centrally
and planned clusterly in order to have social harmony.
III.

Block Layout

The blocks are laid out to have plots of minimum size 80 sq m and frontage of 6 m and the depths of
the blocks varies 30m to 50m depending on the parcel sizes of land owners. The frontage also
depends upon the plot size. Generally plot depth will be 2.2-2.5 times of frontage and will not exceed
of the 3 times of frontage.
1.1.3.5 Contribution Ratios
Each landowner will share the cost of the project by contributing part of his land area. How much land
he will have to contribute will depend upon the total cost to be shared by all the landowners, value of
the land after the project and the land covered by the infrastructure and the open spaces. The net area
of the developed land plots to be distributed back to the owners will be the total original area less the
area occupied by the infrastructure and open spaces less the area of the service plots. The contribut
ion ratio is the ratio of the net area to be returned back to the total original area.
Contribution Ratio (CR) = Net area to be returned back / Total original area.
Contribution ratio and land to be returned to land owners/tenant will be as following:
1. Land be returned same locality/ place
2. The minimum parcel area and frontage should be less than 125 m2 and 8m respectively
3. The land less than 80 m2 will be added to make more than 80m2 with more than 6mfrontage and
returned to related owners on the price fixed price by the project.
4. The frontage of corner plot will be assigned as per the contribution by the larger road and smaller
road. The contribution will be deducted from the calculation of both roads.
5. Corner plot assigning will be done as far as possible the original corner place.
The contribution for the road will be calculated on the basis of additional land required for the road.
e.g. the existing road is 3m and new and new road is developed 11m. Hence the plot required to
contribute will be = (width of new road-width of existing road) x the frontage of the plot.
6. The setback area of 1.5 m is kept for the existing houses along the window sides.
7. The contribution ratio will be calculated on the basis of plot depth/frontage and table will be
prepared. The generally plot depth will be generally18- 25 m.
8. The contribution ratio will be calculated by reducing existing road up to the plot depth and
afterward equivalent reduction of exactly of footpath.
9. Community area and owners plot will be assigned first and sales plots will be decided later.
10. Provision on high tension line
- The cost of moving (11 KVA, single pole) high-tension line will be borne by landowners of effected
plots.
17

- The non-construction of area under the high-tension line will be used for construction of roads. 10%
of the land will be deducted from the owners.
- Set back will be left as per the regulation.
11. The plot less than 200m2 will be consolidated and returned to the owners.
12. The averages weightage of 1 m footpath will be given to the plot near the canal, streams and other
common land.
13. Developed plots will not be allowed to subdivide the plot to the smaller than area and frontage
fixed by the project.
14. The develop plots will not be allowed to provide access to the plots adjustment to the project area.
15. The adjoining plot of open spaces requires to contribute1% of its land.
1.1.3.6 Determination Priority of Location of Plots
The land owner/ tenant will be allowed to choose his plot with the following priority:
- Land owner with existing house or land preparation,
- Land owner/tenant of corner plot of the same block,
- Owner of land of same location,
- Land owner of consolidated parcels located 2 or more than 2 different locations,
- Plot size smaller than 80 m 2.
1.1.3.7 Financial Analysis
I)

Cost Estimates

The unit rates of labour and material were obtained from the District Development
Committee. Rate analysis be carried out based on the prevailing norms using the district rates.
Quantity of each of the items designed will be taken carefully and precisely. Finally cost per
metre of each type of road (earth, gravel and blacktop) be found out. Cost estimates of parks and other
community facilities will also be carried out.
II)

Total Project Cost

After computing the cost of each of the project component, total project cost will be estimated. The
cost and the mechanism for sharing the cost will be thoroughly discussed in the meeting of the
stakeholders. The meeting will decide what portion of these total cost is to be borne by the users. The
valuation of the developed land plots will also be decided by the meeting. Then the area of the
developed plots required to cover up the cost will be worked out. This area will be considered as the
service plots and part or whole of the cost of the project will be recovered by selling these service
plots.
1.1.3.8 Preparation of the Final Land Records and Map
I) Replotting of the New Cadastral Map
After the decision of contribution ratio, the final cadastral map will be prepared in consultation of
landowner with the exact sizes of plots to be returned back to the landowners.
18

The new plot numbers and area will be assigned to them. The Field Books are prepared along with the
new map. The map will also be plotted with dimension and area of parcel and in
colour assigning different colour to the residential plots, service plots, parks and open spaces, roads,
community facilities (sports centre, entertainment centre etc.). The new land records are checked and
adopted.

II) Demarcation of the Plots in the Field


The planning completed in the map will be replicated in the field by demarcating all the plots with
concrete monuments about 0.5m high for the block boundary and the individual parcels as well as the
area of parks and community centres.

1.1.4 PROBLEMS AND WEAKNESSES


The land pooling is a time consuming work and is carried out with consultation and concurrences of
many stockholders. The approval process is long and implementation of program is effected by
various factors. The weakness of land records and efficiency of staff also effect the progress of the
program, which will further adds the inconveniencies to the land owners. The mean weakness of this
program is that it does not consider the provision of the land to landless and poorer families of the
area.
In Nepal, LR is not the part of higher level plan. Speculative land holding practices is one of the major
problems in Land pooling areas. The owners are mainly concerned with the financial prospects in
monetary terms and not with the full development of the site. The purpose of the LR is to create
livable housing plots not the tradable housing plots. Similarly, delay in implementation is another
main problem in LR.
Proliferation of large lots at land pooling area limits the supply of new housing to those that can afford
to purchase a large plot of land and construct a large housing unit. This in turn tends to raise median
prices in these areas as the majority of new houses are large and hence in the higher price ranges. This
begs the question as to whether land is being developed in a manner designed to maximize profits for
key stakeholders in the development process rather than based on sound planning principles focused
towards housing affordability considerations. There exist patterns of very low density housing in the
newly developing area.
Difficulties in Land readjustment:
There are many difficulties in Land Readjustment which are as follows:

Inaccurate and insufficient land record

Absent land owners

Pending court cases (mainly related to the ownership)

Land brokers' vested interest

Resistance to change

19

Long gestation period

Low confidence in procedure

Difficulties /drawbacks of land pooling in Nepal

Administrative
Frequent changes of project personnel
Misinterpretation of Projects responsibility
Lack of project expertise/technologies
Difficulties in coordination with different line agencies
Conventional record keeping system and indifference in information sharing
Financial
Major problem in implementing LP projects is lack of budget. In counties like Nepal, where
municipality lacks professionalism, finance is major problem. To initiate initial project phase, it
requires seed money for which the project has to depend upon municipality. Another problem is lack
of financial plan due to which the project account is hazy and doubtful. Variation of initial projected
cost is yet added problem in LP works.

Problems associated with land administration


No indication of road on the cadastral map but existing in the site
Plots that are not yet registered but are in holding for generations
Variation of area in cadastral map and the field
Plots that are and will be below minimum permissible area
Plots not having name of landowner in the registration document
Existing houses
Location changes of the readjusted plots

Social & Adaption


It has been seen that most of the land owner in Land Pooling site sell their plots soon after completion
of the project. The social status of people living in those sites are presumes higher and such projects
have been seen exclusive in nature. Owner having less land are either to buy additional land in newset price or to leave area taking designated amount. In case the owner refuse both the condition,
there's no clear way out. He is forced to take money and leave.

Land Speculation
Land broker penetrate to increase land price Hike in land price makes land virtually a dream to lowincome and even middle income group.
20

Time consuming
The land pooling is a time consuming work and is carried out with consultation and concurrences of
many stockholders. The approval process is long and implementation of programme is effected by
various factors. The weakness of land records and efficiency of staff also effect the progress of the
programme, which will further adds the inconveniencies to the land owners.

No provision for poor


The mean weakness of this programme is that it does not consider the provision of the land to landless
and poorer families of the area.

21

CHAPTER 2 PROJECT AREA


2.1 BURTIWANG-BAGLUNG:
Burtibang is a market center located on BurtiwangVDC of Baglung district which is connected to
Baglung-Pokhara (MHH) and Palpa-Butwal highways. This market is located on the bank of Badi
Gad Khola. According to the population census of 2068 the total population of the VDC is 8771
and total household number is 1998.

Figure 4: Location Map of Burtiwang

The market center is developing as a major market center of Baglung District. It covers ward number
2 and 3 of BurtiwangVDC. There are 3000 peoples living in 500 household in market center area.
BurtibangVDC covers the area of 31.35 sq. km. The growth rate of the population in the VDC from
2001 to 2011, i.e. in a decade is 2.31 % per annum. The male population in the year 2011 is 3976
and the female population is 4795 such that the sex ratio is 82.9. The population density of
BurtibangVDC is 3per/hec.

Burtiwang is a rapidly developing Village of Baglung District at Central Development Region. The
main attraction of the village is Burtiwang market which covers about 31.0135 sq. km. area situated
along side Bhuji Khola. Burtiwang shares its boundary with Bhimgithe and Khunga VDC in east and
Adhikari Chaur and Devisthan VDC in West as well as Khunga and Bungadobhan VDC in North
along with Devisthan, Rajkut and Darling VDC in South. According to the population census of 2066
22

the population of the VDC is 8771 and total household number is 1998. The market center is also
developing as a center of education comprising Utar Ganga, Riverhead and New Modern like
highshools and Janata English and Nisibhuji Multiple campus. The growth rate of population in the
VDC from 2001 to 2011 i.e in a decade is 2.31% per annum.The population density of Burtiwang
VDC is around 3 per hec.
Along with development of Mid Hill Highway, Burtibang is serving as a hub for surrounding
settlements and is developing as a service centre for them. It is located near to Baglung District
Headquater at a distance of only 86 kms. The attraction towards the trade centre is so high that the
population and houses are increasing parallel.

Physical Infrastructures and Services


Although the terrain and environment here is very suitable for the people attracted here, no significant
development of infrastructures has been done yet. The present condition of the physical
infrastructures and services are as follows.

Road and Transportation


The road transportation is very poor at Burtibang VDC. The access road From Baglung has most of
the section as earthern with boulders only and prone to landslide although it is the part of the Mid Hill
Highway. The local roads are earthen except the market roads which are stone paved and yet not
furnished with drainage system that hampers transportation during monsoon. The village roads are
horse trails only. The village is transportation hub linking the capital city as well as Pyuthan, Rukum
and Rolpa district, but the district roads are yet to be developed for easy transportation. Locals
travelling through Bus or Jeep face difficult and dangerous journey through the village.

Water Supply
Burtibang is gifted with evergreen rivers like Bhuji river and Taman river as well as forest in the
neighbouring hills. Although the source of water is adequate for the present population, the absence of
water supply system is the main reason for the people to use the river water for bathing and washing
purpose. The private pipes laid from the neighbouring springs are the source of drinking water but for
other purpose, people near market use river water at the source making the river water polluted. A
recent made water tank has benefitted people near the market.
Since Burtibang is developing as a new town, proper water supply system is to be addressed from the
existing sources. The management of existing water resources is a challenging job to address the need
of the future population residing the new town. The existing rivers can be used for drinking as well as
irrigation purpose serving the surrounding VDCs.

Electricity
Development of Micro Hydropower Station at Taman river and Bhuji river is the source of electricity
in Burtibang Village. The national electric grid has not served the village. The present electricity has
served the market and surrounding villages but the capacity decreases in the afternoon. Hence the
electricity system is also needed to be addressed for growing need of new town.

Communication
The post Ilaka office at Burtibang serves the mail system. There are two VSAT and 99 STM serving
the market. The internet service along with mobile phones available here are wireless. In general, the
NTC, Ncell, Sky phone and VSAT towers are serving communication at the village.
23

Irrigation
Most of the land is covered with forest and shrubs. There is Shera phant as agriculturally rich land.
Since the availability of fertile land is less, irrigation system doesnt exist in the VDC. The major
crops are Potato, Maize, Barley and Millet. The source of water for agriculture is small water drains
extracted from nearby rivers.

Sewerage and Solid Waste


There is no sewerage system in the village. The village resident use kitchen garden for sewerage
disposal whereas there are few market resident using septic tank for the purpose. New built houses are
using toilets whereas others use riverbanks. The risk of pollution and diseases is high in the village.
There is no system for solid waste management either. People dump solid waste at bank of river.
For developing the village as green and clean new town, proper assessment to address sewerage
system and solid waste management is to be done as quickly as possible.

Environmental Aspects
The major land cover at the village is Forest. At present the forest and water springs are serving for
the population. Threats are arising at market area due to unmanaged disposal of sewerage and solid
waste directly to the adjoining river. For recent construction, boulders and sand extracted from river
also warns the susceptibility of landslide near river bank. The landslide prone area at different road
sections needs attention while widening the Mid Hill Highway. People attracted for new town
development and Mid Hill Highway are mounting the population and houses in the market place
which also has mounted the treat of environment degradation. The physical infrastructures are not
well managed to sustain the new town population.

Demographic and Social Status


Burtibang accommodates 8771 population comprising a majority of Hindu religious and diversified
ethnicity. The Village Profile of 2070 BS states the household at Burtibang VDC as 1998 the
Demographic profile of Burtibang VDC is tabulated as follow.
Table: Population Distribution of Burtibang VDC
W No

Code No

Settlement

Household

Total Pop'n

Male

Female

Khaptaribang

23

120

59

61

Sorebot

50

295

145

150

Burtibang

120

663

342

321

Bhabreta

76

380

193

187

Tarikhet

44

229

112

117

Kutthapla

33

172

88

84

Sera

28

259

124

135

Arnakot

42

259

124

135

24

Remarks

Salamkot

58

343

165

178

10

Khalbang

38

239

113

126

11

Arnak

58

363

176

187

12

Simalchaur

68

501

255

246

13

Malkatibang

53

334

162

172

14

Rinam

78

503

262

241

15

Bhiyakharka

58

357

184

173

16

Bismor

34

207

97

110

17

Purkot

64

411

209

202

18

Chirbang

24

167

89

78

19

Sama

89

515

279

236

20

Guja

33

243

119

124

21

Phulbari

55

26

29

22

Ghosa

55

356

172

184

23

Ghosakhani

47

273

141

132

24

Roidanda

67

371

207

164

25

Sokhola

15

100

51

49

Source: VDC Profile 2070


The village comprises diversity in ethnicity. The table of which is listed below.
SN

Caste Description

Total Population

Brahman

1121

Chhetri

1635

Thakuri

30

Kumal

409

Chhantyal

259

Magar

1292

25

Thakali

154

Newari

58

Muslim

46

10

Kami

1338

11

Thakuri

30

12

Damai

449

13

Sarki

58

14

Raji

23

15

Gurung

63

16

Sanyasi

17

17

Tamang

16

18

Others

12

The population growth rate in Burtibang VDC is 1.5 from Census of 2058. Following the curve, the
population was estimated to reach 8101 in 2068 and 9402 in 2078. The popularity of the new town
and development of Mid Hill Highway will definitely increase the population growth rate which is
assumed to be 50000 after 30 years of time.

Social Infrastructure
The social infrastructure includes Education, Health and Security.

Education
The statistics of Burtibang VDC enumerates 40-50% of population as literate. There are 1 High
school, 1 Secondary School, 6 primary schools and 14 Pre-primary schools in Burtibang VDC. The
Nisibhuji Multiple campus serves the VDC in education sector. The confrontation of numbers of
educational institutions shows that the VDC is educational centre.

Health
Burtibang has recently completed District Health Hospital and one Ilaka health post. People used to
go Baglung for medical treatment but the addition of the district health hospital ensures the
development of Burtibang as a medical center also. There are numbers of pharmaceuticals and 1
Veterinary Service cnetre in Burtibang market.

Security
Burtibang VDC consists of 1 Ilaka Police office that serves security service at the market and
surroundings. In addition, the VDC contains Ilaka Forest office and Agriculture Service Centre too.
26

Economic Activity
Burtibangs major economic activity is trade and business centralized in Burtibang market. Due to
absence of national electric grid industries are not present in the VDC. Numbers of Rice mills are
serving the population from turbine of micro hydropower.

Agriculture and Animal Livestock


Burtibang land cover is majority of forest and agricultural activity is prioritized in rural area only. The
major agricultural productions are wheat, maize, potato, barley and millet. Lack of fertile land is the
reason that the agricultural productions donot serve the farmers for whole year. People rather own
livestock such as buffalo, cow, goat, ox, pig and chicken for animal husbandry. People also own mules
for transporting cargo in the village.

Trade and Business


Burtibang has earned popularity from the new town. It was trade centre from announcement of Mid
Hill Highway. Burtibang is major business junction after Hatiya in route from Baglung to Rukum. The
business is however centralized in Burtibang market. The market serves food, cloths, construction
materials and other daily uses to the VDC. Stationary, Hardware, Medical and Hotels are also
developing along with development of Mid Hill Highway.

Industry
There are no industries enlisted in Burtibang VDC. Rikhuwa of Khunga located in the VDC has iron
and copper ore but the refining has not been done till date due to lack of materials and electricity. The
VDC has opportunity of development in herbal products too.

Foreign Employment
The majority of income generation are the remittance in the VDC. Bulk volume of energetic youths is
at foreign employment especially in Arab countries and in India too. The youths are compelled to
work outside country due to lack of opportunity in their village.

Tourism
Burtibang has potential for transportation hub for mountaineering and trekking in Himali districts like
Rukum and Rolpa. Trekking is fantastic in hills and forest around Burtibang. Youths often visit
Arnakot and Dhorpatan for trekking. Barah lake of Burtibang VDC is also a major tourist attracting
place.

The Land Pooling (urban land development) projects are proposed in ward no. 1, 2 and 4 namely
Bhabreta, Kutthapla, Tarikhet, Sera and Simalchaur covering an area about approximately 64.5
hectors. However, the most feasible areas selected for LPP is Sera and Kutthapla covering an area
of about 8.2 and 17 hectors of land respectively. Sera LPP site lies on the confluence of Badighad
and Nishi River, across about 1 km before Burtiwang Bazaar. Whereas, KutthaplaLPP site is
located just uphill to Sera site and lies about 1.25 km walk distance west of Butiwang Bazar but its
advisable to start this site only reviewing the project impact of Sera.

27

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF RELEVANT DOCUMENTS, ACTS etc.


3.1 BRIEF COUNTRY PROFILE
Nepal has been divided geographically into three ecological strips plain land in the south, hilly area
in the midland and mountain in the northern belt. There is a sharp increase in elevation as one goes from
the flat terrain of Terai (elevation about 58 amsl) towards north to the Higher Himalayas (the highest peak
of the World Mt. Everest-elevation: 8,848 amsl). Politically, it is divided into 5 regional development
zones, 75 districts, more than 3800 Village Development Committees (VDCs) and 58 Municipalities
and other 72 newly established municipalities. The country covers an area of 147,181 sq. km. Its
length is about 885 km from east to west and width varies from 130 to 255 kms. The census 2011
estimates the population at which over 83% live in the rural villages, where maximum of the rural
population is devoid of any infrastructure facilities. But after the declaration of 72 municipalities the
urban area as well as the population rises. It is estimated that now, about 25% populations of Nepal
are Urban people. Land cover and population in the three physiographic regions i.e. mountain, hills
and Terai of Nepal are 35%, 42%, 23% and 7.3%, 46% and 46.7% respectively. The population
growth rate is 1.35 %.
Within the130 to 255 kms wide north-south aerial distance, the feature of ecology drastically changes
from flat land, Chure, Mahabharat and Himalayan Region. Difficult topography, young geology and
deep river crossings are the major causes of washing up fertile soil, land slide, flash flood, hurdles for
transport as well as road construction and delivering other services and development. In addition, poor
roads make access to markets difficult for local producers and have significantly undermined the
viability of the subsistence household economy in rural areas. Consequently, many poor farmers
migrate from the hills to the Terai plain and from rural to urban areas, pushing up migration rates over
the decades. Relatively weak investment in development infrastructure and environmental problems
such as land degradation and natural disasters also drive migration from rural to urban areas.
Though the rate of urbanization is high, Nepal has been ranked as the eighth least urbanized country
in the world. The percentage of urban population increased from 3% in 1954 to 14% in 2001 and to
about 17 % in 2011 and now its is estimated as about 25%. Increase of urban population, demands
services like road and transport, water and sanitation, energy, communication and other social
institutions. This need huge investment to develop infrastructures to cope the rapid demand of
serviced housing plots as well as above stated services. Government has continued efforts to develop
urban infrastructures since last four and half decades in systematic way. Nation has taken many
initiatives for region wise balanced development. Many town planning projects were launched on the
master planning concept. The early town planning initiatives in the late sixties focused on physical
development plans. Since the 1990s, the integrated action plans remained as a major tool of town
planning. In the 2000s and onward, the town planning constituted the strategic and periodic plans.
Throughout the planning period, the government has continued efforts to build urban infrastructure,
but these have lagged behind the rapid growth of urban population. The issues on urban area can
summarize as;

I.

28

Government planning initiatives and investment on infrastructures lagged behind the pressure
of urbanization / pace of urban growth.

II.

This resulted on haphazard development of urban area without proper transport, water supply
and sanitation and other amenities.

III.

The primacy of Valley still continued

IV.

Regional imbalance further increasing

To encourage the urbanization within regional balanced level the government has announced that it
plans to develop 10 new cities across the country within mid hill highway. For that task the New
Towns Development Project (NTDP) is launched. New cities will develop in Phidim of Panchthar,
Basantapur of Terhathum, Khurkot of Sindhuli, Baireni-Galchhi of Dhading, Dumre Bhansar of
Tanahu, Burtibang of Baglung, Chaurjahari of Rukum, Rakam Karnali of Dailekh, Sanphebagar of
Achham and Patan of Baitadi district. The places have been selected on the basis of availability of
land, access to transportation and drinking water and potential for economic development. The
government plans to implement the project under the 20 year perspective plan. The new cities will
help to reduce population growth in big cities in the country as well as migration to the Terai from
Hill.

Figure 5: Location of Proposed New Towns across


Nepal

29

History of Land Pooling


The Land Pooling concept was first used by President George Washington in 1791 with land owners
of the site where the city bearing his name to be developed. Legal framework was first introduced in
1902 in Germany. Many countries have lot of experience of this technique. In Japan 30% of land in
urban area has been developed by this technique and more than 342 land readjustment projects has
been conducted in the republic of Korea. Widely used in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, LP/R is
being adopted in Indonesia, Nepal and Malaysia. Even in Europe land pooling concept is highly used
in Norway, Netherland, Finland France etc.

In Nepal it was initiated at1975 in Pokhara which became most successful project. After having the
success in Chipledhunga, land-pooling program was implemented in different part in the Kathmandu
valley. Unsuccessful site and services schemes were gradually transformed into the land-pooling
project.
The urban land readjustment procedure can thus be considered either as a method for urban land
development (by landowners) or as a tool for planning implementation (by society). Different
countries have reached different solutions depending on, for example, the planning system already in
existence and the attitude towards the responsibilities of the private and the public sectors in
producing urban land.

Land pooling project guide to avoid haphazard growth such as:


Organic construction, often along existing roads, leading to urban sprawl.
Incremental constructions as people build gradually according to their available resources.
Narrow, winding roads that follow the pattern of field boundaries.
Absence of proper drainage and designed infrastructure.
Insufficient open space and public facilities.
Creation of land locked areas remain undeveloped due to lack of access.
Eventual over- development of the area due to absence of building and planning by-laws.

30

.
2.1.2 Land pooling Concept

The scattered and variously shaped parcels of land are consolidated to render them of uniform
shape and sizes. The costs of the project are borne by deducting the land-proportional to the
land area and inversely proportional to land value, whereby a comfortable urban environment
is developed, and cadastral land maps and records are updated with public and private
participation. Land pooling has been found to be a most suitable way of providing housing
and management of land in urban and semi-urban areas as has been shown by the successful
implementation of several land pooling schemes within the Kathmandu Valley and Nepalgunj
and other part of country. The Town Development Act, 2045 provides the mandate as well as
the procedures to be during the preparation and implementation of a land pooling scheme.

In practice, the extent of the readjusted areas varies from large - more than one hundred hectares - to
small - less than one hectare. The areas may be un built or urban quarters to be redeveloped. The
areas be re plotted between the joint owners, so that each of them receives his share of the
readjustment area and the real estate boundaries are adjusted according to the detailed plan. Public
areas are usually transferred to the municipality, the rights relating to real properties are rearranged,
necessary compensations are determined, and the infrastructure required for the area may also be
implemented and the financing for its development obtained. The construction of the building sites is
usually not included in the readjustment procedure. The costs for the readjustment procedure are
covered either by the landowners or the municipality, or by both jointly. In order to cover costs, the
municipality usually has the right to a share of the profit resulting from the readjustment procedure in
the form of parcels of land.

31

Previous

(1
)

(2
)

(3
)

(4
)

owner
Change in
ownershi
p

Change in
property
structure

structure

Change in
ownership
/ property
structures

Owner who
carries out
development

Potential secondary changes through parcelling


and sale of new plots to the final owner

Figure 1

Four models to adapt the ownership and property structure to changes in


land use (Kalbro 1992; Larsson 1993).

A development process in connection with the urban land readjustment procedure does not differ from
a normal land development process in the main stages, which, according to Kalbro, (1992) are:
initiation, land acquisition, planning, financing, permission by the authorities, construction of the
infrastructure and buildings, and evaluation of the project. Generally speaking, all of these stages can
be implemented by the urban land readjustment procedure and a pool of landowners (readjustment
association) instead of an individual developer will answer for the procedure. At the very least, the
readjustment procedure can be regarded simply as a method for changing the division of land.

In order to obtain the cooperation and participation of the landowners in any such venture, a sound
and well managed scheme should provide the following opportunity to landowners:

32

to gain a significant net increase in the market value of their land.

to receive back housing plots that can be easily sold or built upon.

to develop raw land into well serviced housing plot/s.

33

to have a government agency/local government body use its power and status to benefit them.

to retain part of their original land after its conversion from rural/semi-rural to urban uses.

The flow chart exhibited below illustrates the overall methodology to be adopted in
implementing any land pooling scheme (Here, RKTDC should be construed to mean Rakam
Karnali Town Development Committee; LMSC denotes Land Management SubCommittee; LP means Land Pooling and UC stands for Users Committee)

Approval
Project

of

RKTDC
Format
LMSC

of

-Cadastral
collection

map

Formation of UC

-Calculation of total
area as per cadastral
map

-Landownership record
-Policy for land distribution
-Conceptual plan
collection
-Percentage contribution

-Boundary fixation

-Consultation with UC
LMSC
- Preliminary Master Plan

Revised calculation of each


plot to be returned

Open space & service


plot allocation on the
map

Plotting of Re-adjusted
plots on the map

-Plotting of Roads

Approval from LMSC

Discussion with UC

Distribution
of
Temporary
Land
ownership Certificate

Cadastral
Map
submission to Cadastral
Section

-Plot
field

Re-adjustment

on

Cadastral map preparation


with consultation from the
Cadastral Department

Tendering Evaluation
Construction
Infrastructural Items

Distribution
Permanent
Certificate

and
of

HANDOVER
PROJECT

Figure 3

OF

: General land pooling method

2.2 Stages of Land Pooling Scheme


34

-Plot category analysis


according to area and
facilities received

THE

of
Ownership

A Land Pooling Scheme is generally implemented in the following stages:

Preliminary Project Formulation

Project Policies Formulation

Physical Implementation

The flowcharts exhibited in Fig. 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 are illustrative of the various steps involved in the
respective stages.

2.2.1 Preliminary Project Formulation Stage


In this stage, the collection of all data related with a project area is done. The Physical demarcation of
project boundary with the necessary approval by the Cadastral department is executed and either
acquisition of all land parcels as per the act is achieved or a certain moratorium is applied within the
project area. The detailed procedures for this stage are provided in the following flow-chartAware
generation
regarding Land pooling
concept
and
its
advantage
Formation
committee
committee.

of
&

User's
working

Preparation of final
list of landowners

Collection of Land
Records
and
Verification

Starting
of
Preparation of
detailed Project
Report

Study of Physical
Characteristics of
the Area
Formation
committee.

of

LMS

Interaction with
Landowners and
Tenants

Boundary
Survey
with
physical
demarcation

Consultation
with
Landowners
and
Tenants seeking their
agreement
LMSC Meeting for
the decision of Land
Acquisition
Moratorium

35

Final
detailed
Project
Report
Preparation

Application of Moratorium
Land Acquisition under the
prevailing Act by Chief
District Officer

Figure 4 Flow chart of Preliminary Land Pooling Procedure

2.2.2 Project Policies Formulation Stage


At this stage, the Project formulates different policies for the land-polling scheme for appropriate
guidance to the implementing body. The various stages of consultation with the concerned landowners
and tenants are performed and LMSC provides necessary approval to the issues like land contribution
criteria, design parameters & patterns, mode of construction of physical infrastructure with required
prioritization and all other project policies. The stage again is highlighted by the following flowchart: policies. The stage again is highlighted by the following flow- chart.

36

Discussion
with
UC on Master Plan
of
the
Area
prepared
under
DPR

Discussion upon the


land
Contribution
Criteria
Evolution
and
Review of DPR
Discussion
upon
the
physical
Infrastructure and
Prioritization

Preparation of final
land
Calculation
Charts

Consultation with Landowners


tenants conforming their Approval

Final Master Plan


Final Infrastructural
Design and Priority

and

Discussions with UC
on details of design
parameters
and
implementation

Active role
Committee

Final report on
the Project to be
submitted
to
LMSC

LMSC Meeting for


the required Approval

of

User's

Co-ordination with
other agencies for
actual
implementation

Figure 5: Flow chart of Policy Formulation Stage

2.2.3 Physical Implementation Stage:


In this stage, the project performs actual physical works in the field as per the policies and guidelines
fixed in the earlier stages. Two types of works go concurrently in this stage, one is the land reallocation & distribution process and another is the construction of physical infrastructures.

2.3

Land Administrative Issues:

These issues cover the field demarcation of various features of the project as per the approved master
37

plan and subsequent reviewing of the plan as per the practical field conditions. The changes occurred
during the field demarcation or the need of policy reviewing will be reported to LMSC for necessary
decisions. Different agencies like Land Revenue Office, Cadastral Department/Office,
Municipality/Town Development Committee and others as needed are involved in this stage. The final
project map as demarcated in the field is presented, checked and approved by the Cadastral
Department/Office upon the request of LMSC. Actual re-distribution starts after getting this approval.
Construction by- laws for the project are also formulated in this stage.

38

2.4

Issues of Physical Construction of Infrastructure:

These issues cover tendering, evaluating, employing the contractor and consultants, supervising the
works and monitoring & evaluating the works as per the prioritization done by UC, approval of
LMSC and as per the total fund available. Co-ordination with the various utilities such as Water
Supply Corporation, Nepal Electricity Authority, Roads Department and others as needed is necessary
at this stage. The handover of the project to Users' Groups, Ward offices or any community envisaged
by LMSC is also done after the completion of this work. The following flow-chart highlights the
activities of this stage
Land Demarcation of
all
infrastructural
routes and Land
-parcels

Final & detail


project report-Area
plan -Physical plan

Discussions
upon
Physical Infrastructural
items & Priontization

Supervision
Monitoring
Evaluation

&

Commissioning and
final payment

Construction
Physical
Infrastructure

of

Recording the
changes
and
getting approval
by LMSC

Finalization
of
Parameters
of
Construction stages,
Quality
Tendering,
Evaluation,
Contract Award

Starting of distribution of
permanent LOC and repayment of loans

Preparation
&
Adaptation of final
project
Plan
as
reviewed
Starting
of
redistribution process
with temporary LOC

Stages wise selling of


reserved
plots
as
construction goes on

Preparation
of
construction by-laws

Handover of the
Project

Fig 6: Flow Chart for Physical Implementation of Land


Pooling

3. Land Pooling (L.P.) Program in Kathmandu Valley.

Land Pooling Schemes in Kathmandu Valley started since 1988. Gongabu land pooling scheme of
Kathmandu, Lubhu land pooling schemes (LPS) of Lalitpur and Kamalbinayak land pooling scheme
39

of Bhaktapur are the first land pooling projects of the Valley. Similarly, Nayasadak LPS in Pokhara
municipality, Khahare Marg LPS in Pokhara municipality, Baglung Bus Park LPS in Pokhara, Sadar
Line Bazar Bistar LPS in Nepagunj municipality, Bagamati Corridor LPS in Lalitpur sub
metropolitant-10, Libali LPS in Bhaktapur municipality- 1 and 2, Sinchitar LPS in Bode of
Madhyapurthimi municipalty- 1 and 3, Sainbu LPS in Lalitpur district, Dallu LPS in Kathmandu-15,
Khusibu LPS in Kathmandu- 16 and 17, Chabahil LPS in Kathmandu- 17, Sinamangal LPS in
Kathmandu-35 are the other completed land pooling schemes within the country.
Land Pooling project runs entirely on land
owners participation in which all scattered
undeveloped or under developed land
parcels are readjusted in appropriate size,
shape and in orientation with new
infrastructure services. The readjusted and
developed plots are returned back to the
original land owners and farmers and this
effectively removes the prospect of farmer
themselves, and the prior investment to
purchase land is not necessary although some up-front budget in necessary to finance initial
development cost, main positive aspect of this concept is its cost recovery, which is done by selling
some developed plots that ultimately reduces the government financing in improving the community
infrastructure services.
Figure 12: Sainbu Land Pooling Project
A. Land Use Pattern in Government Housing project of Kathmandu Valley:
As per 13 numbers of completed government land development project in Kathmandu Valley, except
for Kuleshwor, Dallu and Sainbu project, the land use distribution pattern in percentage for residential
zone is 58% to 81%, for the roads 14% to 28% and for the open space 3% to 8%. After the process of
land pooling the more the open space, the city becomes nice. But to get more open space, the land
owners will have to contribute more amount of their land. Looking at the previous datas of
Kathmandu valley, the open spaces are not enough in some areas such as Kuleshwor, Gongabu, Lubhu
etc. which has percentage of open space less than 5%. Other facilities like commercial, industrial and
sports are not provided.
Status of Land Pooling Projects in Kathmandu Valley
S. No

Project Area

40

Total Area (ropani)


Developed Plots Road
(no) Length (km)
Status

Table 4: Land Use Pattern of Housing Project in Kathmandu valley


At present, KVTDC is concentrating on the implementation of land-pooling schemes, as they have
proved to be a promising tool for urban development in Nepal. Considering the holding of land
by individuals and problems in land acquisition, the land-pooling concept has been widely
supported by members of the public and law-makers. Land pooling is based on the concept of
readjusting existing irregular plots into regular and square plots and creating road and drainage
networks and open space. The project compensates landowners by providing them with
developed plots of higher value but reduced land area. The cost of constructing infrastructure
(roads and drainage) is financed by auctioning reserve plots. To date 11 projects have been
completed, three projects are nearing completion, and seven projects are being implemented. The
land-pooling project in Kathmandu has inspired people in other towns, and several projects are
being launched in Pokhara, Dang, Nepalgunj, and Dharan. Despite deficiencies in planning and
implementation, land pooling has proved a pragmatic tool for urban development in a country
like Nepal where land belongs to the people not the government.

B. Land Use Distribution Pattern of Indian Cities:


Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines prepared by the
Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, the Town Planning (T.P.) Scheme termed as
Land Pooling Scheme has been included as a technique for assembling land for planning and
41

development. A separate chapter on Land Pooling Scheme has also been included in the Model Urban
and Regional Planning and Development Law. It envisages that every planning and development
authority shall for the purpose of implementation of the plan proposals contained in the plan, prepare
one or more land pooling schemes for any part of the area within its jurisdiction. It also provides time
frame and procedure for preparation; approval and implementation of land Pooling Scheme.

Because the owners are the net gainers from the Town Planning/Land Pooling Scheme, as such they
can contribute towards the cost of development in proportion to their benefits. The owners also
receive compensation for the land deducted from original plots for the roads and public purposes.
Owners also get increment of land value in future.(Source: Land Pooling Technique: A Tool for Plan
Implementation-An Indian Experience, K.T. Gurumukh, Chief Planner, Town and country Plan
Organization, GOI, New Delhi , India-Internet: Land Pooling)
Prepared by the Bureau of Public Enterprises of India the below Table shows the Land use distribution
in percentage for India cities.

Table 3: Land Use Distribution in Percentage in India Cities


Source: Delhi Master Plan

In 1997 a new Real Property Formation Act came into force in Finland, which redefined the urban
land readjustment procedure. This act repealed the former urban land readjustment (kaavauusjako)
procedure, which had been in force for 36 years, but had hardly ever been applied in practice
(Viitanen 2000a). In this article the focus is the new Finnish urban land readjustment (rakennusmaan
jrjestely) procedure, as defined by the new Act, and, in particular, its role in the development
process, i.e. how the instrument works and how it could be improved. In addition to identifying the
problems that can be solved by the urban land readjustment procedure and increasing the
understanding of the development of the urban structure.
Land Development In Europe
The German Umlegung, the Swedish exploateringssamverkan and also the French AFU de
remembrement are examined in particular. These are urban land readjustment procedures used in
countries very similar to Finland and both Finland and Sweden have a common legislative history
greatly influenced by Germany and France.

This article is based on studies made by the author at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,
Sweden (Viitanen 1996, 2000a, 2000b).
42

2.9

LESSONS LEARNED

Leaving aside few exceptions, the average contribution ratio could vary between
30% and 35% which could be taken as a general framework for contribution calculation.

Almost all projects had their project period overrun (spanning between any time
from 5 to 10 years) owing to various managerial and technical difficulties, among which,
the lack of financial feasibility becoming one major problem.

The lack of proper cadastral maps and difficulty accessing them also significantly
posed limitation to the project timely success.

The lack of proper land records and consultants difficulty accessing them also
significantly posed limitation to the project timely success.

Some of the prominent issues that needed careful dealing came up during the project
periods were co-ordination between line agencies, over or understated land area in the cadastral
maps, land encroachment issues and equity issues.

Lack of updated data related to urban land use, infrastructure and market indicators
resulted into the wrong locational choice of the LP project sites

The significant delays in the project period attracted landowners opposition to the project.
If such arrangement is made where the land owners' right for undertaking all above activities is
ensured, then probably the opposition from the landowners would be mitigated to a large extent.

3.2.2 Nepal Standard Planning Norms


The Planning Norms prepared by Department of Urban Development and Building Construction in
2070 is a useful guideline for urban development / planning work. The basic standard for medium
sized city (pop. 40000 to 1 lakh) proposed by norms for roads, water supply and sanitation (mostly
used in LP project) are below in chart.

43

Table 6: Infrastructures Norms and Standard

3.2.6 Karki T.K., An Assessment of Regional and Urban Development Policies


and Programmes of Nepal, FIG Working Week, Athens-Greece, May 22-24,
2004.:
This paper includes an attempt to assess the current regional and urban planning policies and
programmes of Nepal and conclude by recommending measures for sustainable urbanization policies.
The paper reviews:

44

all the five year national plans, urban development related policies and
programme documents to see their continuity on the policy commitment
overtime and the degree of budgetary support to the regional and urban
planning policies; assess the inter-agency coordination and the coordination
between spatial and economic or sectorial policies.

the annual reports, evaluation mission reports, quarterly newsletters of the


Rural Urban Partnership Programme (NEP/96/003) supported by
UNDP/UNCHS to identify the extent of rural urban linkage the programme has
generated.

On the basis of the reviews, the paper highlights various regional and urban planning issues and,
finally concludes by recommending policy measures for regional and urban development, urban
economic development, urban planning and rural urban partnership programmes.

Review of Government's policies and development plans in the transport and other
sectors, particularly those directed towards the accelerated integrated development of
the influence area and the construction of secondary and tertiary roads and motorable
trails.

3.2.11 Planning approaches outside valley


Rajbiraj, district headquarters of Saptari, was modeled on the city of Jaipur in India. It was
declared a municipality in 1959, after the old district headquarters of Hanumannagar was
badly affected by flooding in the nearby Koshi River. Rajbiraj was the earliest planned
township in the country. Systematically designed in 1938, it was declared a municipality in
1959.
Government in Nepal has chosen to meet the need for urban land by executing site and
services, land pooling and guided land development schemes, carried out by its regional
offices and local authorities. The first sites and services scheme was perhaps begun in the
1970s.When land pooling and guided land development became attractive, experts were
brought to Nepal to conduct workshops which transferred practical knowledge of these
strategies to staff of the Department of Housing and Urban Development of the Ministry of
Housing and Physical Planning.
a. Site and Services
Some officials like sites and services schemes best because there are no cost recovery problems. This,
of course, ignores the substantial subsidy involved in giving away a public asset, ie land and publicly
financed infrastructure. Subsidies of this magnitude cannot be replicated for very long or for very
many households, for there is not very much publicly-owned land and there is not a governmental
capacity to finance service facilities with little or no cost recovery. This view ignores as well the
inequity of public benefit being given to a relatively few selected individuals, who in Nepal at this
time are unlikely to be the urban poor. Not only do problems of land acquisition cause delays in
executing sites and services schemes; They prevent schemes from actually being feasible. Land
acquisition is nearly impossible because of the political sensitivity of the issues it raises. Not only
does government pay less than the market price, but during the inevitable delays of bringing about
action, market prices go up while the compensation remains fixed. Land owners' objections create
political pressures which halt the implementation of schemes and block the initiation of new ones.
Even were this not the case, government is extremely unlikely to allocate funds sufficient for
purchases at market prices which match the scale of future needs.

b. Guided Land Development


45

In the case of guided land development, all the owners along its route must agree to provide
land for a road. Very difficult problems arise at 1) junctions with existing roads (the entry
points to the new roads), where those who have access already provided by the existing road
see no advantage in giving land to start anew road, and 2) very small plots, whose owners
will be left with too little land to use for themselves if they give land for a road.
Consequently, to make guided land development work, it is necessary to have power and
resources to 1) pay compensation in difficult cases, 2) force participation at the entry points,
and 3) forcibly acquire land from the few land owners who object to the scheme.
In practice, guided land development has been successful only in widening the rights-of-way
for existing roads. Yet, there is little or no money for actual road construction. It is recognised
that guided land development does not deal with environmental problems or provide sites for
schools or open spaces. One analyst concludes that it should be used only where there are
adequate public and community facilities nearby, a rare situation in urban Nepal.
c)

Land Pooling:

Government and its consultants favour land pooling above the others, mainly because it has the
enormous advantage of avoiding the problems of land acquisition and compensation. However, it
faces great recovery which is unaffordable by most low income households. Land pooling and sites
and services schemes especially require very detailed layout planning of plot arrangements, roads and
infrastructure networks. Guided land development cannot be done until accurate maps of existing plot
boundaries and building and road surface locations are prepared. These necessities lie behind the
enormous staff and time requirements. So do the lengthy and complicated negotiations with land
owners which decide the redistribution of plots in a land pooling scheme or which settle road
boundaries in guided land development.

The integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources, which deals with
the reorganization and, where necessary, some strengthening of the decision-making
structure, including existing policies, planning and management procedures and methods that
can assist in putting in place an integrated approach to land resources. It does not deal with
the operational aspects of planning and management, which are more appropriately dealt with
under the relevant sectoral programmes. Since the programme deals with an important crosssectoral aspect of decision-making for sustainable development, it is closely related to a
number of other programmes that deal with that issue directly.
3.2.12 LEGISLATIONS
It is a simple concept but its success calls for careful project preparation and efficient implementation.
The formulation of present legislation started in 1954 enacting Development Committee Act 2013.
The Town Development Act 2045, Para 12, and Land Reform Act 2021 and Byelaw 2060, regulates
the land pooling activities. Some of the literatures are reviewed as seems relevant for this project.
Some of them are described here;
Lands act 2021
46

Land Reform Act 2021 and Byelaw 2060, regulates the land pooling activities.
Land acquisition act 2034
Land revenue act 2034
The Town Development Act 2045, Para 12,
Land Survey and measurement act 2019 and Land survey regulation 2058
Planning Norms
Urbanization Process
Planning Tool Kit GoN (2011),
Draft on National Land Use Policy, 2068, Kathmandu: Ministry of Land Reform and
Management, Government of Nepal.
GoN (2002), Kathmandu Valley Development Plan 2020, Kathmandu: Kathmandu Valley
Town Development Committee, Government of Nepal.
Local Self-Governance Act 2055 and regulation 2056
3.2.12.1 Town Development Act, 2045 (1998)
As per this act, the users are to demand and help the project in every step. So, a lot of
interaction with local landowners and tenants is needed for the efficient implementation of
the project.
The municipality and the TDCs are other agencies that can, according to respective LSGA and TDC
Acts, carry out the LP projects but experience to date show their limitation in carrying out such
endeavors.
Generally landowner's agreement is the trickiest part of the implementation of such project in its initial
phase. But considering their zeal for better urban living and aspiration for capital increment in the
land cost, a well-coordinated orientation program so as to familiarize them with the concept of
LP, its significance and issues and problems associated with it helps them to get agree to the
project concept.
This act promulgated in 1989, besides being a comprehensive Act for the planned urban development in
urban areas, provides necessary legal provision to carry out the LD projects. The Act under
Section 3, gives power for integrated physical development of city in reconstruction, further
development in any parts of Nepal. The act under Section 12 empowers the Town Development
Committees for the initiation and implementation land development for urban housing and
development through Guided Land Development (GLD), Site and Services and Land Pooling.
Under Section 16, it has provisions to make use of existing Land Acquisition Acts for the public
land acquisitions. The act has guiding provision for the involvement of various actors of urban
land development process. The main feature is given as below;

47

Provide technical assistance to operate the planning relating to physical development (Subsection12B Sub-clause 1.1)

Recommend to provide such loans from financial companies, financial institutions or banks
to such organization to buy the required land as may be provided by for any concession

given area (Sub-section12B Sub-clause 1.2) :

To make available required land to such organization under the prevailing law (Sub Section
12B Sub-clause 1.3)

3.2.12.2 Land Acquisition Act, 2034 (1977)


This act speaks on understanding of constraints related to land acquisition, compensation. The
present study on the development of identified LD sites and the adjacent lands through the
concept of land pooling has to meet the requirements of this Act. For the commissioning of the
Project through Land Pooling, there is a need to return the land to landowners in a proportionate
and fair manner as well as to acquire land for infrastructure development and raise the
administrative costs of the Project, for which a Land Contribution Policy need to be established.
Basic Guideline on Town Planning and Building construction 2072

This Basic guideline on Town planning and Building construction 2072 is the revised version
after the devastating earth quake 2072. This recently published document gives the guideline
regarding Land development and planning aspect. Minimum required of 30Ropani land to start
the land development work. This Guideline indicates the basic requirement of 15% land for
Road, 5% land for open space which is to be located completed inside the plot. It also indicates
the minimum size of open space not less than 80 sq. meters. Allowable maximum ground
coverage of 60% and 70% for residential purpose and 50% max ground coverage for institution
purpose with maximum 1.75 F.A.R. is set by the Guideline. The guideline restricted the
settlement development on the land with more than 30 slope. This document guides on the type
of structure to be built in planning. Guideline enforced about the inventory of existing road,
public open space and government land. Right of way and minimum width of 6m road is
proposed in the guideline.

2.8.6 Land pooling procedures and guidelines.

There are few documents published describing the land pooling procedures and guidelines like
the manual by UDLE, guidelines by DUDBC, introductory publication by DUDBC and some
project reports by KVTDC. All these reports have been reviewed and salient features and
procedures of land pooling have been studied taking the study area in mind.
From the review of all documents and legal frameworks it is understood that every land landowners in
one part and due interest and enthusiasm from the project in another part. Without active
participation from the stakeholders the concept cannot be applied successfully and without active
and speedy work from the project the benefit that should have been stemmed from the concept
will gradually become less. Hence, time and coordination are the only keys of any land pooling
project.

48

CHAPTER 4:-TECHNICAL APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY


APPROACH
The consultants will be conducted this work with full understanding of the objectives and scope of the
work and will be guided by the ToR to come up with high quality outputs, which will meet the
intended objective and expectations of the client.

5.1.1

General Approach

The consultants will give high priority to execute the project with a team effort. The following general
approach will be strictly followed during the service period:

Selection and mobilization of appropriate technical experts;

Use of tested and proven methods and technologies;

Resident Engineer-1
Close contacts and effective co-ordination with the client, and with all concerned
Resident Engineer-2
agencies;

Team Leader

Full consideration of the PCO/DUDBC's and other concerned authorities'


Assistant Resident Engineer-1
suggestions, feedbacks and comments;
Assistant Resident Engineer-2
Full use of the available and applicable reports, maps, drawings, standards etc.; and

Regular briefing to the client on the progress of the report. Inspector of Works -1

5.1.2

Management Approach

Inspector of Works -2

To accomplish the project objectives, management approach will comprise of the following:

Define clearly the roles and responsibilities of management and the Project
Manager;

Define roles and responsibilities of each member of the proposed team;

Strict adherence to the work schedules;

Sufficient flexibility to respond to desired changes and directions; and

Systematic application of procedures for technically and scientifically high quality


job performance.

METHODOLOGY
With reference to the ToR, we have proposed various activities related to study such that the required
scope of services are fulfilled as well as provide a sound basis for future works related to the Job. The
overall methodology of the proposed project can be Transmissionally be divided into three stages:
Stage first 4 months; Planning & Project Approval Phase
Phase I
49

: Desk Study / review of existing project

Phase II

: Field Survey / Detailed Survey & data collection

Phase III

: Office Work

Stage second- Holiday Period 6 months; Approval phase

Stage third 4 months; DPR Preparation & Land Demarcation Phase

Detailed Engineering design

Preparation of Contract Packages Documents

Preparation of Detailed Project Report

In general, our approach to the Detailed Survey, study and DPR preparation shall include following
aspects:
Collection and Review of all available data, reports, maps and other information etc.
Preparation of field programs
Review the existing/ proposed project area
Field visit, Data Collection and Surveys

Sensitization workshop

Orientation Trainings

Social Surveys

Environmental survey

Physical Survey

Cadastral information and Moth Utar

Reconnaissance survey by complete walk over through proposed area in order to plan for
detail survey and study
Preparation of topographical map of the project area
Detail survey and investigation

Topographical survey

Geological and geomorphologic studies

Soils and materials investigation

Hydrological, drainage and meteorological studies

Road and structure inventory

Land inventory

Environmental impact Study

Data compilation, mapping, analysis and interpretation of results


50

Development of alternative scenarios based on different aspects


Selection of Concept
Block planning and land readjustment plan
Preparation of cadastral map
Engineering design, unit rate analysis and cost estimates of the projects
Final planning and recommendation
Quality management and quality assurance as manual and procedure
Preparation of Detailed project reports (DPR)
In order to achieve targeted progress, our approach will be to ensure that each and every activity is
properly planned and scheduled so that it is completed in time.

51

Methodology for Planning and Implementation of Project

The Detailed description various activities under each task is described in following sub-sections.
Stage I; Planning and Project Approval

4,1 INCEPTION REPORT PHASE


During this phase, the consultant has mobilized team members, carried out desk
study, field visit and prepared detail methodology for undertaking further tasks. The
inception report summarizes the all activity and methodology propose for execution of
proposed task
52

4.1.1

Mobilization of the staffs & Desk Study

The consultant has mobilized all the staffs as required as included in the contract.
The Team Leader, including other expert and support team, The project team
collected the secondary data available from different agencies. The available reports,
documents etc. were collected.
The steps to be followed for the preparation of Desk study report were as follows.

Collect the information about source ie. Project demanded from public, organization, public
planning commission, red book, etc. Maps from Department of Survey, geological / Seismic
map from Department of Geology, data from Hydrological and Meteorological Department,
publication and norms from Department of Roads, relevant documents of previous studies of
the project. Socio-economic data of influence area of the project from Central Bureau of
Statistics.
Data Collection
Feasibility Reports on the proposed project

Road Network Master Plan


Primary
Socio-Economic Benchmark Study of the Influence Zone

Maps
Checklists and Interview

Infrastructure survey

Secondary

Available text and report

- Topographical
Local People

Government
/
government Report

- Geological and geomorphologic


Local authority
Road Networks
persons
Aerial photographs Water Supply
Knowledgeable

Research Report

Socioeconomic data Sewerage


Sector agencies

Library Documents

User Groups

Electricity

Local Community

Facility and Services


Survey
and
infrastructure.

Past feasibility study report


Government Rules and Acts
Social

Feasibility of land pooling


project and location

Identyfy & Mobilize Local


Resources

Identification of prioritized
programmes

Strengthen Local Capabilitis

Propose
Sustainable
Development Land Pooling
Project

Methods dissipation
and Toolsthrough
for Data
Collection and Evaluation
Information
interaction
Feed
on the works so far completed
4,2 backs
RECONNAISSANCE
SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION
A team of experts together with necessary supports will conduct actual walkover survey along the
proposed area. During the period of walkover, the following details will be noted
by respective experts.
53

Non

Geology and geomorphology of the area and areas where detail investigation is necessary
General soil profile, geotechnical problems where details is necessary of the area will be
identified
Tentative location of quarry site for construction materials
General hydrological feature, drainage and meteorological details
General information for detail engineering survey such as tentative location for BM,
availability of materials for BM monumentation, location of base line station, and difficulty
traverse survey will be gathered so that survey engineer can plan his field work in such a way
that the field work can be completed in stipulated time.
Inventory survey for physical features: Inventory survey for physical and social infrastructure
within the road corridor will be carried out using check list approved by the client. This survey will
gather information regarding existing road, drain, water supply network, irrigation facility, HT lines,
electricity and telecommunication lines, optical fiber cables, schools, health facilities, religious
buildings etc. inventory of historical, social and archaeological area along with the number of houses
to be demolished and number of people to be displaced will be prepared. Similarly inventory of
Buildings, walls and temporary shades, tap, building orientation, toilet, septic tank pit, water tank,
chautari, temple, kulo and all other important physical objects will be prepared.
Group Discussion: This tool will be used for collection of views and suggestion of general people
and land owners about the ring road alignment, urban development and LP techniques. It will also
give an opportunity to disseminate the information about land pooling to larger section of the society.
The issues and problems that the project may have to face during implementation will also be
collected along with its justified solution. Modality of implementation and institutional requirements
will also be discussed.
Questionnaire Survey: A structured key informant questionnaire survey will be carried out to collect
the views of local authorities, local political and social activists. Similarly the officials from local
level line agencies and municipal authorities will also be interviewed. A questionnaire survey and
interviews with local residents and land owners of the project area as well as with the other
stakeholders will be carried out to include view of wider sections of the community so that the
alignment will be acceptable to the landowners and tenants at a later stage. Such survey will be
included at least 10 % of landowners evenly scattered over the project area. A questionnaire will be
prepared to gather information about the socio economic condition and perception of the land owners
towards the ring road, its alignment and implementation.
Land value Survey: Along the proposed alignment, the land price will be collected during discussion
with the local people. The recent past land transactions will be taken as reference for the land value.
Moreover the stepwise process/ methodology for implementation of Land Pooling Projects within
proposed New Towns have to follow the following procedures. The major steps of the activities for
preparation and implementation of LP projects are schematically given in the task flow diagram in
Figure 2. The short description of each of the activities for execution of given task of implementation
of Land Pooling Project and Preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) to be followed by
consultant is given below.

54

Step -1; Decision and publication of notice


Deciding site area (Char Killa) by TDC for LP project, a public notice is published. The suggestions
from concern person, group or agencies are collected.
Step-2; Formation of user committee
From mass meeting user committee is formed. On the chairmanship of ward chairman representing
from land owners, tenants and other concern agencies, 7 to 15 members user committee is formed.
This committee works for community participation, liaison between land owners and implementation
committee and as a pressure group to complete project on time.
Step-3; Stop subdivision of land parcels
Subdivision of land parcels is stopped with public notice. This notice is also forwarded to land
revenue and land survey office.
Step- 4; Draft plan preparation
On the base map (formed by cadastral map and other information) of land draft map is prepared.

CHAPTER 5:-WORK PLAN AND PERSONNEL SCHEDULE


5.1

GENERAL

The consultant believes in strong management and administrative guidance in support of the project.
In order to effectively address the present project requirements, and their successful performance, the
consultants have identified three major essential elements. They are:

A Project Management Element

Strong Study Team; The Study Team possess strong leadership abilities and capable
of working in a co-ordinated manner; Linkage and Coordination;

Logistic, Technical and Administrative Support Element to provide adequate


backstopping to the Study Team.

Our past project planning and implementation experiences which have demonstrated sound
management practices ensure high quality and timely project output.
Team Composition
55

S.
N.

Name

Proposed

Qualification

Task Assignment

Mr. Anjan raj Team Leader/


Shrestha
Urban Planner

M. Sc. Urban Coordinate overall LP work/activities,


Planing,
B Team mobilization, interaction with
Arch
stakeholder, LP/Land Use planning,
Report preparation and presentation

Mr. Pravesh Architect


Joshi

M.
Sc. Assist Team Leader/Urban Planner in
Architecture
Architecural planning Aspects, Land
Scaping design whereever necessary,
Assist GIS work,Impart training to
office staff, land owners and user
groups, Give necessary design inputs to
urban planner

Mr
Rajan Civil Engineering
B.E.
Maharjan
(specilization in Urban
Roads & Drainage)

Assist GIS work,Impart training to


office staff, land owners and user
groups, Give necessary design inputs to
urban planner

Mr. Dwarika EnvironmentalEngineer M.


Sc.
Phuyal
Environmenal
Engineering,
BE
Civil
Engineering

Field work, field data processing and


report writing regarding flora and
fauna, environmental conservation and
resource management

Mr. Rajendra Electrical Engineer


Narsingh
Pradhan

M.
Sc. Electricity and power supply: design,
Electrical/
estimation and link/network, field work
Power
and report preparation
Engineering
Support/Assist to Team Leader

Mr. Narayan
Bhattrai

M.Sc.
(GIS/Cadastre
)
Aerospace
Survey
and
Earth Science

Position

GIS Expert

Preparation of image maps with GIS


Application
Overlay of Cadastral and Topographical
map, Collect national bench marks and
geodetic control points, Capturing of
inventory of details during survey work
Assist to TeamLeader

Mr. Narayan
Chand

56

Senior Surveyor

B.Sc. GIS mapping, preparation and Survey


Surveying,
Manage for all survey works and to
Senior
supervise the GPS Operators
Surveying

Trainig Course
9

Mr.
Komal
Dhakal

Sociologist/
Community
Development Expert

10 Mr.
Keshab Economist/
Pathak
Financial Expert

M.
Sociology

Assist to the GIS Expert

A. Socio-economic Data Collection and


Analysis
Support Team Leader and other team
member

MA
Economics

Economic/finacial data collection and


analysis
Support Team Leader and other team
member

11 Mr.
Rajan Legal Advisor
Adhikari

Master
of Land Administration and Planning
Law's (LLM)

Table 4 : inputs of proposed Professional Personnel involve in the LP Project

6.3.2 Support Staffs

Name

Position

Tasks

Ganga Pradhan

Sub. Engineer Civil

Dhir P. Shrma

Surveyor

Shobha Budhathoki

Computer
Operator

to be

Field Assistent

Auto

CAD/GIS

Table 5 : List of support staffs


5.2

WORK PLAN

The work plan has to assess through the philosophy of whole to part. In this method
work plan has to be detailed only when it has a master work plan. There should be a
sequence of activities and allocation of responsibilities along with its relationship with
proposed methodology.
The working schedule is attached herewith. The schedule illustrates with different
tasks of the project. The Work/Activity Schedule is presented in Figure below (figure:
20);
57

5.2.1 Work Plan and Methodology Relationship


As illustrated in the work plan and different tasks, work plan has relation with the
methodology.
5.3

PERSONNEL SCHEDULE

Personnel schedule shall be viewed with relation to the work schedule.


Responsibility distribution is also has to be balanced in accordance with experts
involvement and clear allocation of time, input, and responsibility. There should be
balanced whether allocation of job required for the project matches.
This section is to correlate with work schedule and planning for deliverables. It is
approached with making relations with work plan and giving responsibilities to the
experts. Again it is giving a time for experts input with balance on office work and
field visit. The Manning/Personnel Schedule is presented in figure below;
5.3.1

Relationship with manning schedule and work schedule

It can be accessed through work schedule and the work plan with involvement of the
experts made and illustrated in table: 7.
Reporting

6.4.1

Period and Stages of Report

The study period shall span for 4 months. The team will submit following reports in qualities as
mention below:

6.4.2

Completion and Submission of Report

Reports

Date

Stage I: Planning and Project Approval


Inception

At the end of two weeks

Interim Progress Report

At the end of 2nd month

First Status Report


Report

(b) Second Status

3. Draft Report

At the end of 3rd month

Final Report

At the end of 4th month

Stage II: DPR Preparation and Land


Demarcation
Preparation of Inception Report
58

At the end of one month

Preparation & Submission of Monthly


Report I

At the end of Five weeks

Submission of Interim Report

At the end of 2nd month

Preparation & Submission of Monthly


Report II

At the end of nine weeks

Submission of Draft Report

At the end of 3rd month

Compilation /Submission of Final Planning


Report

At the end of 4th month

The time schedule was for the initial proposed planning but due to the controversy raised in land
acquisition part by Nepal Government the whole timing period has postponed. Consultancy will
followed as per postponed timing. Land acquisition issue at Tar Bagar which was not been address
since last four year was addressed by Team from central DUDBC on .......Marg 2072. The local
people became ready to accept the land pooling process after rigorous discussion from consultant and
the DUDBC/ NTIPC team.
Such initial inception report is expected to be only a sketch of the final report in the making and
information regarding quick reconnaissance survey. This would reveal not only the proper
understanding of the study team about the nature of work, but also expected to provide the
opportunities to the study team to crystallize its future course of actions.

6.4.3

Draft Report

2 copies of the draft report should be submitted to the project office in 10 weeks time. The project
may suggest corrections in such draft report and the firm is obliged to include due amendments as
suggested by the project.

6.4.4

Final Report

The study team shall submit 4 copies of the final report within 4 months after the inception report of
the study incorporating all due suggestions received All relevant data, figures, drawings,
Questionnaires, interviews, and other necessary information must be duly included in the report.
Along with the report a CD with report and all relevant data, figures, drawings, questionnaires,
interviews, and other necessary information must be duly included.

TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE
Transfer of knowledge is a means to share the experience gained by the consulting firm and the
affiliated professionals through the various projects (including the proposed one) with the Client. We
strongly believe that sharing of knowledge is the duty of the consulting form. The professionals
involved in our organization believe in the fact that the more you share the more you learn. Therefore,
we are happy to share the knowledge through various means and media. We assure our Client that the
59

sharing of knowledge is not only related to the different problems faced in the field but it would
further incorporate the following:

Capabilities of different software related to the task


Proper selection of the software and hardware for the job
Possible sources of errors while digitizing and analyzing the Cadastral map
data
Compatibility of digital files regarding the different software file formats
Conversion of files from one format to another format
Field techniques of using (GIS) Geographical Information System
Data transfer from Cadastral to the GIS software
Operation techniques of the software used in the project
Collection of the Land owner data
Using and updating cadastral survey maps

The consultant would categorically follow the following methodology to achieve the above mentioned
goal of technology transfer for capacity building of the RKTDC staff for utilizing and maintenance of
the system, updating information and analyzing the digital information for urban development
activities:

Orientation of Technical Staff


Training to RKTDC Town development committee staff in Auto-CAD and
GIS application for planning, infrastructure development, utilities
management and various other municipal applications.
Workshop for data processing/preparation and updating
On the job training for data processing and map preparation
Updating of survey data and maps
Support services
Refrences:

1. Land Pooling Refrence Manual 2072


2. Feasilibility study report, Burtiwang New Town
3. Evaluation of Puspalal (Mid-Hill)Highway-Eastern Part, Project Research and
Engineering Associates (PRENA)
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