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Numerical simulation of air blast waves

M. Arrigoni, S. Kerampran, ENSTA Bretagne, France


J.-B. Mouillet, Altair Engineering France
B. Simoens, M. Lefebvre, S. Tuilard, Ecole Royal Militaire de Bruxelles, Belgium
R. Fallet, France
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Introduction
Cylindrical charge

Spherical charge

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Blast wave in air with RADIOSS

Problem :
Experimental data are not available close to the explosive (<1m).
Experimental data are available only for given shapes (spherical,
hemispherical, ) and given explosives (TNT, C4, )
Challenge : Modeling blast wave in close range, with a FEM code,
without sofisticated models (combustion, turbulences, real gas, ).
1) Check the JWL law for TNT.
2) Check RADIOSS simulations vs Literature (Kingery, Kinney-Graham,
Baker, Autodyn, Blast X, CONWEP,).

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Table of content
Check the ability of modelling the detonation of high explosives (TNT) with
RADIOSS (JWL).
Check the ability of modelling the blast wave propagation in air (perfect
gaz) with RADIOSS (2D axisym. Eulerian). Comparison with experiments
and scaling laws (CONWEP, Kinney-Graham, )
Comparison with AUTODYN 2D.
Application to the detonation in air of cylindrical charge (L/D = 1).
Conclusion and perspectives.

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Numerical simulation of the TNT detonation

TNT : C7H5O6N3

molecular weight : 227 g/mol

CJ state
Dobratz 85
Kury 97 1.a
Kury 97 1.b
Kury 1997 2.a
Kury 1997 2.b
Souers kury 1993

0 g/cm3 PCJ Mbar CJ g/cm3


1.63
0.21
2.23
1.624
0.19
2.193
1.624
0.18
2.193
1.645
0.195
2.218
1.645
0.185
2.218
1.632
0.205
2.193

CJ
2.727
2.855
2.855
2.871
2.871
2.979

DCJ km/s
6.930
6.849
6.849
6.930
6.930
7.070

The Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation of state :

R1 V
R2 V E
e
e
P A 1
B 1

R1 V
R2 V
V

A, B, R1, R2 and are the model parameters, V is the density ratio 0/, E the internal energy
per unit volume of explosive (E=0eint).
JWL param.

A GPa

B GPa

R1

R2

E0 Gpa

V CJ

P CJ

Dobratz 1985

371.21

3.23

0.3

4.15

0.95

0.731

19.9

Dobratz 1981
Kury 1997 1.a
Kury 1997 1.b
Kury 1997 2.a
Kury 1997 2.b
Souers et kury 1993

373.8
673.1
3394.889
673.1
3394.889
524.4089

3.747
21.988
63.7085
25.1735
70.9736
4.900052

0.35
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.6
0.23

4.15
5.4
8.3
5.4
8.3
4.579

0.9
1.8
2.8
1.8
2.8
0.85

6
7
7
7
7
7.1

0.731
0.741
0.741
0.742
0.742
0.744

19.7
18.7
17.9
19.3
18.5
20.0

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Cylinder test for determining JWL parameters


Livermore cylinder test on OFHC Copper for reaction products EOS of
explosives :
Cylindrical test (adapted for spherical situations ?)
Experimental data is fitted by 2D code.
Does not take into account the ZND peak pressure.
Does not take into account the post-detonation combustion.
Does not take into account the grain size effects.
Does not take into account the non detonated matter.
Does not take into account turbulences and instabilities.
The validity domain is reduced.

explosive
300 mm

15.24 mm

u(t)

12.7 mm

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Numerical simulation of high explosive


detonation using JWL in a rod
Axisym. rod (1D), Eulerian square mesh with 1 elm, TNT (Dobratz 1985)
Other mesh shape :
H/L = 8 and H/L = 0.5

BCS/110

z
DETPOIN

The analytical PCJ calculated by the EOS JWL, using Dobratz parameters is
199 kBar.
The Radioss computed peak pressure reaches 194.8 kBar (for H/L=8).
-2.2% of relative error with 5000 elts.
The DCJ velocity is well reproduced (err<1%).
But the peak pressure is flattened.
But the pressure pulse is about three time longer than in 2D.
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Numerical simulation of high explosive


detonation using JWL in a rod
Axisym. rod (2D), Eulerian square mesh, TNT (Dobratz 1985)
Other mesh shape :
H/L = 8

BCS/110

z
DETPOIN

The calculed PCJ by the EOS JWL, using Dobratz parameters is 199 kBar.
The DCJ velocity is well reproduced (err<1%).
The Radioss computed peak pressure reaches 193.1 kBar for H/L=8.
-3.0% of relative error with 5000 elts along z axis (40 000 elts).
Peak pressure and time duration are realistic (few s).
Radioss is able to handle the JWL in a rod.

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

BCS/010000

Detonation of spherical charge of 1 kg of TNT


2 D axisym. sphere of TNT from Dobratz 1985
0,2

PCJ

.. ..
... . .

/MAT/EUL/1.0

BCS/001011

0,18
P max MBar

DETPOIN (BCS/111000)

0,16
Nb elem

0,14

4500

0,12

30000

50000

0,1

112500

nb elem
4500
30000
50000
112500

Pcj
0.199
0.199
0.199
0.199

Pcalc
0.158
0.165
0.166
0.172

%err
-20.6
-17.1
-16.6
-13.6

0,08
0

4
6
abscisse cm

10

PCJ is not reached (JWL not adapted for spherical geometry ?)


Mesh with 30 000 offers the best compromise time-cost vs accuracy.
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

Effects of the JWL parameters set on detonation

P (Mbar)

2 D axisym. sphere of TNT with 30 000 elements


0,2
0,19
0,18
0,17
0,16
0,15
0,14
0,13
0,12
0,11
0,1

PCJ

BCS/010000

/MAT/EUL/1.0

BCS/001011

kur2b
kur2a

DETPOIN

kur1b
kur1a
sou93
dob81
dob85

Dobratz 1985
Dobratz 1981
Kury 1997 1.a
Kury 1997 1.b
Kury 1997 2.a
Kury 1997 2.b
Souers 1993

PCJ Pcalc
0.1990 0.1647
0.1970 0.1648
0.1874 0.1515
0.1792 0.1415
0.1931 0.1587
0.1849 0.1566
0.2004 0.162

%err
-17.1
-16.4
-19.2
-21.0
-17.8
-15.3
-19.2

abscisse mm

PCJ is not reached for these mesh densities.


The Dobratz, 1985 JWL set of parameters provides the highest P.
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Detonation of Spherical charge of 1 kg of TNT in air


2 D axisym. sphere of TNT with 30 000 elements in air (Law6 perfect gas).

Variable

Value

1.225e-03 g/cm3

1.4

1.5e-5 cm/s

Ref. Temp.

288 K

E0

2.5e-03 kbar

Specific Heat

0.000718 kJ/gK

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

C0 = 340 m/s
P0 = 1 atm

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About blast waves


Temporal profile of a blast wave :
Pressure
P0

P(t)

Time
~2 ms

Time of
arrival

Duration
td+

Duration
td-

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Numerical simulation of blast wave

Free field, 2D axisym.


1 kg spherical charge of TNT, JWL Dobratz 1985
Air is perfect gas.
UPWIND Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) or Taylor-Galerkin (TG) as flux limiter [F.
Perie IRUC 1995] : the information for each characteristic variable is
obtained by looking in the direction from which this information should be
coming.
0 UPWIND 1 must respect the CFL condition, usually
UPWIND = 1/Mach
CAUTION : Only available for EUL !

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Blast wave in air


Max pressure (bar) in free field, 2D axisym., 1kg TNT, JWL Dobratz (1985)
Reduced
dist.
cm/kg1/3

without
UPWIND

supg=1

supg=0.5

12

271.4

392.9

395.8

24

106

130.6

48

34.7

96

7.6

Reduced
dist.
cm/kg1/3

without
UPWIND

supg=0.1

supg=0.05

367.5

382.2

390.1

394.8

396.8

130.7

125.5

127.7

129.7

130.6

130.8

45.1

45.3

42.4

43.7

44.4

45.1

45.1

10.4

10.5

9.6

10.1

10.2

10.4

10.5

Tg=1

Tg=0.5

supg=0.2

Tg=0.2

Tg=0.1

Tg=0.05

supg=0.02

Tg=0.02

supg=0.01

Tg=0.01

12

271.3

392.9

395.8

397.4

397.7

398.4

398.4

398.4

24

106.6

130.6

130.7

131

131.2

131.2

131.2

131.2

48

34.7

45.1

45

45.5

45.5

45.5

45.6

err

96

7.6

10.4

10.5

10.5

10.5

10.5

10.5

err

Same results

Highest differences Closest to literature

Comparison with exp & Autodyn


Pressure in free field, 2D axisym., 1kg TNT, JWL Dobratz (1985), SUPG=0.02

Overpressure (Bar)

400
350

Radioss 2D

300

Kinney-Graham

Radioss is about -17% below the


Kinney-Graham prediction : The
mesh is enlarged with the reduced
distance.

250
Autodyn 2D
200
CONWEP

150
100
50
0
0

50

100

150

200

Reduced distance (cm/kg1/3)

Physics is not well known and overpressure


varies a lot with reduced distance.
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Comparison with exp & Autodyn


Time of arrival in free field, 2D axisym., 1kg TNT, JWL Dobratz (1985)
time of arrival (s)

2500

Radioss

2000

Kinney-Graham

1500

CONWEP

1000
500
0
0

50

100

150

200

reduced distance (cm/kg1/3)

Good agreement in close range but diffusion when mesh is growing (far range)
2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Comparison with exp & Autodyn


Duration of positive phase
duration of positive phase (s)

5000
4500

Radioss

4000
3500

Kinney-Graham
CONWEP

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

50

100

150

200

Reduced distance (cm/kg1/3)

Prediction between CONWEP and Kinney-Graham : magnitude is satisfying.


2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Comparison with exp & Autodyn


Impulse of positive phase

Impluse (bar.ms)

700
600

Radioss

Kinney-Graham

500

CONWEP

autodyn 2D

Baker

Blastx

400
300
200
100
0
0

50

100

150

200

Reduced distance (cm/Kg1/3)

Order of magnitude is satisfying and tendance in agreement with experiments


2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Cylindrical charge
Radioss is in agreements with exp. for blast waves from spherical
detonation of TNT.
What about blast waves from cylindrical charges (land mines, ) ?
Experiments with emulsion (Simoens et al 2010)
L/D = 1
Lateral blast wave (torical)
Bridge wave
End blast wave

(Ismail et al 1993)

TNT equivalent is local !


2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Experiments vs simulations
Cylindrical charge of emulsion L/D =1
x

L/D=1, 110cm
Experiments

Mesh size and


shape sensitive

Order of magnitude and Tendancy are respected.


2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Experiments vs Simulations

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Conclusion
Radioss is able to handle JWL law (err < 1% in 1D).
Discrepancies are persisting due to the modeling (perfect gas, no
turbulence, no instabilities, simple detonation law JWL, no grain size
effects, no partial detonation, ), but not more 18 % vs Kinney-Graham.
Radioss also gives orders of magnitudes and tendencies in agreements
with experiments in the case of a cylindrical detonation in air (L/D=1), for :
Pmax
Time of arrival
Duration time
Positive impulse
Radioss results are comparable with Autodyn.

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Perspectives
Considere real gas in Radioss.
Compare with Polytropic law, Lee Tarver, Sesame laws also available in
RADIOSS.
Compare with other explosives (C4, HMX, RDX, PETN, ).
Implement another detonation law ? (BKW, )
Try other cylindrical configuration (L/D = 8,3).
Deduce a local TNT equivalent from experiments.

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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Any Questions ?

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About detonations

Detonation : supersonic exothermic chemical decomposition (< 1s) of an energetic molecule


provoking a shock wave.
Chapman-Jouget detonation : the reactive area and the shock front are merged.
1D case :

Conservation of mass:

0u0 1u1

Conservation of momentum:

p0 0 u02 p1 1u12

Conservation of energy:

u02
u12
h0
h1
2
2

Where h enthalpy, u material velocity, p hydrodynamic pressure, =1/v density


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About detonations
p1 p0
02u02 12u12 m 2
0 1

Combination of conservation equations :

Thermodynamic states in the energetic material :

ZND
point

The C-J state is a characteristic of the energetic material.

2011 European HyperWorks Technology Conference, 7-9 November, Bonn

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About blast waves


Scaling laws (Hopkinson-Cranz) : Spherical charge of TNT in air (in Kinney-Graham)
P0

Is

Z 2
808 1

4.5
Z
1

0.048

Z
1

0.32

Z
0.067 1

0.23
Z
Z 2 3 1

1.55

Z
1

1.35

Patm

td
1

W3

10

980 1

0.54

3
6
2

Z
Z
Z

1
1

1
0.02
0.74


6.9

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