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Practical Assessment of Sanitizers

Ron Martin
October 8-9, 2013 Dallas, TX

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Presentation Goals
Discuss sanitizer regulation
What identifies it as a sanitizer
Label Information

Advantages and disadvantages of various sanitizer


types
Sanitizer tips & tricks Product recommendations
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Why Do We Sanitize?
For product safety purposes
Consumer health and satisfaction
For product quality purposes
Job security
Most water supplies are not bacteria free
To comply with U.S. regulations

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U.S. Regulatory Agencies

EPA
Regulates the registration and approval of sanitizers

FDA
Regulates the use of sanitizers on food contact
surfaces

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FDA

U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR


178.1010:
Compliance and regulation for Food Contact
applications
Identifies ingredients for sanitizer formulations and
approved concentration ranges

Non-food contact applications do not need to


adhere to 21 CFR 178.1010

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EPA
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
The agency responsible for sanitizer registration and approval
under the FIFRA

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodent Act


They approve the product, master label and assign the product
registration number
Sanitizers are approved for use as a pesticide
All sanitizers must be registered for use in each state

Each states fees are different

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Criteria for Sanitizer Acceptance By EPA


A chemical sanitizer that reduces the microbial levels
of two standard organisms:
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli

By 99.999% or 5 logs, in 30 seconds, at 25 C


for food contact claims
By 99.9% or 3 logs, within 5 minutes for non-food
contact surfaces
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EPA Has Defined Four Categories of Hard


Surface Antimicrobial Treatments Based on
General Level of Effectiveness:

Sterilants
Disinfectants
Sanitizers
Antiseptics and Germicides

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Definition of Some Key Terms

Sanitizer / Sanitize:
When used at a specified dilution; an agent that
reduces the microbial contaminants on inanimate
surfaces to levels considered safe from a public
health standpoint.

Regulated by the EPA


Claims based on specific testing protocol (__?)

FDA regulates & categorizes into two types:


No-rinse food contact surfaces
Non-food contact surfaces

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Label Information - Example


Premium Peroxide II
Premium Peroxide II is a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer/disinfectant
developed for the following uses:
Institutional/Industrial Sanitizer and Disinfectant for Previously Cleaned
Hard Non-Porous Food Contact Surfaces in: Dairies, Wineries, Breweries,
Food and Beverage Plants, Poultry Egg Facilities and Animal Housing.
Hard, Non-Porous Surface Disinfection in: Hospitals, Schools, Industrial
Facilities, Office Buildings, Veterinary Clinics.
Bacteria, Fungi, and Slime Control in: Cooling Water and Evaporative Cooler
Systems, Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration Systems.
Active Ingredients
:
Peroxyacetic Acid .........5.6%
Hydrogen Peroxide ..... 26.5%
Inert Ingredients
: ........ 67.9%
Total: .........................100.0%

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EPA Registration No. 63838-1-4959


EPA Registration No. 69994-CA-01

Label Information
Premium Peroxide II
SANITIZING FOOD CONTACT SURFACES
It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a matter inconsistent
with its labeling.
This product can be used in Federally Inspected Meat and Poultry Facilities as a
sanitizer.
Prior to sanitizing, remove gross food particles, then wash with a detergent
solution, followed by a potable water rinse.
Sanitize with a concentration of 1.0 ounce
Premium Peroxide II dissolved in 5 gallons of water (0.16% v/v concentration,
or 98 ppm active peroxyacetic acid).
At this dilution Premium Peroxide II is
effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella
choleraesuis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Use immersion, coarse spray or
circulation techniques as appropriate to the equipment. All surfaces should be
exposed to sanitizing solution for a period of at least 60 seconds or more if
specified by a governing code.
Allow to free Drain. Do not rinse.
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Sanitizing Methods
Physical
Heat
Steam
Hot Water
Chemical
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Difference Between Disinfecting & Sanitizing

A disinfectant is a chemical that completely


destroys all organisms listed on its label.
The organisms it kills are disease causing bacteria
and pathogens, and it may or may not kill viruses
and fungi. From a legal standpoint (EPA
guidelines), disinfectants must reduce the level of
pathogenic bacteria by 99.999% during a time
frame of greater than 5 minutes but less than 10
minutes.
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Difference Between Disinfecting & Sanitizing (cont.)

A sanitizer is a chemical that reduces the number


of microorganisms to a safe level. It doesn't need
to eliminate 100% of all organisms to be effective.
Sanitizers do not kill viruses and fungi, and in a
food service situation the sanitizer must reduce the
bacteria count by 99.999%. Sanitizers are required
to kill 99.999% of the infectious organisms present
within 30 seconds.
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Non-Chemical Methods of Sanitizing


1. HOT WATER SANITIZING:
PMO states must be employed at a temperature of not less than
170 F (76. 7C) as determined at the discharge point, for at least
5 minutes.
Enclosed systems are easiest to sanitize with hot water
Takes considerable time to complete

Verify the equipment is designed for this purpose

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Non-Chemical Methods
HOT WATER SANITIZING:
ADVANTAGES:
Relatively inexpensive (No Chemical) and readily available
Offers excellent heat penetration into difficult areas
Broad spectrum of kill
Non-corrosive

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Non-Chemical Methods
HOT WATER SANITIZING:
DISADVANTAGES:

Takes considerable time to complete


Can be very energy inefficient
Can be very hard on equipment - Corrosions
Can lead to film formation (mineral deposits)
It can be quite dangerous!!
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Non-Chemical Methods
2. STEAM SANITIZING:
May be employed in a closed system when the temperature of the
drainage at the outlet is not less than 200 F (93.3 C) for at
least 5 minutes.
Except for aseptic operations steam is not normally recommended
because:

Heat stress
Not energy efficient
Detrimental effect on rubber
Time constraints

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The Ideal Sanitizer for Food Processing


Plants Would Be:

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Non-toxic
Quick acting
Broad spectrum
THE PERFECT SANITIZER
Rapid kill
MEETING ALL CRITERIA
Stable
ABOVE CURRENTLY DOES
Non-corrosive
NOT EXIST
Easy-to-use
Inexpensive
Recognized by EPA and FDA accordingly

SANITIZER TYPES
Chlorine
Dioxide
Hypochlorites

Iodophors

CHEMICAL SANITIZERS
Ozone
Quats

Carboxylic Acid
Sanitizers

Acid Sanitizers
Peroxyacetic Acid

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Hypochlorite's Chlorines

They are most commonly used in the food and dairy industry
Very economical and effective for plant use
Can be either in powdered or liquid form
Can be considered hazardous and corrosive
Most effective at a neutral or weakly acidic condition and
become less effective above a 8.5 pH
Use cost $0.58/100 gals of solution

- EXAMPLE:
EXTRACT-2

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Hypochlorite's
FDA allowable non-rinse claim
max 200 PPM of available chlorine
ADVANTAGES:
Broad spectrum of kill
Colorless and non-staining
Easy to handle
Most economical to use
Low Foam
Dilutions:

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Hypochlorites
DISADVANTAGES:
Short shelf life (liquids have limited stability)
Can be quite corrosive - Yikes
Rusting, pitting

Adverse effect on plastics and rubber


Brittle

Environmental impact
Becoming increasingly controlled & prohibited
Form Trichlorohalomethanes

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Chlorine - Effectiveness vs. pH


100
80

60
40
20
0
1

7
pH

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pH = LESS EFFECTIVE

9 10 11 12 13 14

Iodophors
Iodophors are a combination of iodine with non-ionic wetting agents
They are usually acidified for stability
Iodophors are generally less corrosive at proper use concentrations
than chlorine sanitizers
The lower the pH the more effective the iodine sanitizer
Use cost $1.8/100 gals of solution
- EXAMPLE
ZZZ

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Iodophors
Dilutions: FDA allowable non-rinse claim
12.5 to 25 PPM available iodine
ADVANTAGES:
Quick kill on a wide range of microorganisms
Good soil tolerance
Provide an acidified rinse for mineral control
Good visual indicator foot baths, hand sanitizing

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Iodophors
DISADVANTAGES:
Some formulas are expensive to use
Temperatures above 90 F increase staining effect
Potential staining of porous and certain plastic surfaces

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Iodine - Effectiveness vs. pH


100
80

60
40
20
0
1

7
pH

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pH = LESS EFFECTIVE

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Quaternary Ammonium Compounds


Commonly called Quats
Variations of compounds available
(1, 2, 3 and 4 chain)
Varying generations of QAC
They are non-corrosive to most equipment
Good soil tolerance
Efficacy influenced by the hardness of the water
Most commonly associated with environmental sanitizing
purposes
Acidified quats may be used to combat the effect of hard water
Use cost of QAC $1.95/100 gals of solution

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Quaternary Ammonium Compounds


Dilutions:

FDA allowable non-rinse claim


max 200 PPM of active QAC (Bio Hatch)
max 400 PPM of active QAC (4 Quat)

For Doorway Foamer Utilization consider using 800-1200 PPM


ADVANTAGES:
Temperature stable, long shelf life
Forms a bacteriostatic film (residual) environmental advantage

Non-corrosive, colorless and normally non-irritating to skin


Stable in presence of organic matter
Varying generations of QAC offerings can improve efficacy
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Quaternary Ammonium Compounds


DISADVANTAGES:

Slow to dissipate (residual problem) culture product


disadvantage
Not considered to have broad spectrum properties
Sensitivity to water hardness
Can be detrimental to waste water systems Why
Duration High Foam Properties
Can Kill Microbes used to treat Wastewater

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Peroxyacetic Acid
Commonly referred to as PAA sanitizers
Sanitizers based on peracetic acid and hydrogen
peroxide mixtures

Are strong oxidizers and work on similar basis as


chlorine based sanitizers
They kill microorganisms by penetrating the cell wall
and disrupting cell metabolism
Fast acting
Colorless
Pungent smell - Primarily in Neat State
Use cost $3.43/100 gals of solution
-EXAMPLES : Premium Peroxide II
DeLasan MP
Wheycide

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Peroxyacetic Acid
FDA allowable non-rinse claim at use
dilution specified on label (= 82-197 PPM)
ADVANTAGES:
Broad spectrum kill over broad pH range up to 7.5 pH
They are more environmental and effluent friendly
Dilutions:

Phosphate free
Breaks down to vinegar and water

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Effective at cold temperature use


Non-foaming
Especially effective on Biofilms
Note - it has been shown that bacteria within
a Biofilm are up to 1,000xs more
resistant to some sanitizers

Peroxyacetic Acid
DISADVANTAGES:
Some concern with corrosion
Cannot be controlled by conductivity
Strong offensive odor
More expensive compared to other sanitizers
Are not available in bulk quantities - Due to
being a strong Oxidizer
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Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
Are a mixture of acids and wetting agents
Provide double action: sanitize and provide acidified rinse to
control milkstone
Their germicidal properties are based upon the lower pH and the
activity of the wetting agents at this low pH
They are generally slower acting than oxidizing sanitizers like
hypochlorite and PAA sanitizers
Acid sanitizers are most effective between a pH of 2.0 to 3.5,
with many becoming ineffective above 4 pH
Use cost $2.03/100 gals of solution
-EXAMPLE: Acidet
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Acid Sanitizers - Effectiveness vs. pH


100
80

60
40
20
0
1

9 10 11 12 13 14

pH
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pH = MORE EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION

Acid-Anionic Sanitizers:
Dilutions: FDA allowable non-rinse claim at use dilution specified
on label (1oz/5 gal provides 300 PPM of DDBSA Acid)
ADVANTAGES:
Non-staining, stable, long shelf life
Visual detection foam
Removes and prevents milkstone and waterstone formation
Effective against a wide spectrum of microorganisms
Normally non-corrosive to stainless steel
Can be controlled with conductivity

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Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
DISADVANTAGES:
Effective at acid pH only
Some products generate foam in recirculation
Contribute to phosphate loading
Low activity against spore forming organisms (Molds & __ )
Slower acting
High Foaming in CIP Systems

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Carboxylic Acid Sanitizers (Fatty Acid Sanitizers)


More commonly known as fatty acid sanitizers
Are a mixture of fatty acids and wetting agents

Usually contain a mineral acid and because of makeup have


significantly reduced foam
Provide double action: Sanitize and provide acidified rinse
Their germicidal properties are based upon the lower pH and
the activity of the wetting agents at this low pH
They are generally slower acting than oxidizing sanitizers
Fatty acid sanitizers are most effective at a pH of 2.0 to 3.5
Use cost $1.90/100 gals of solution
-EXAMPLES: RPM
MegaSan
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Carboxylic Acid Sanitizers - Effectiveness vs. pH


100
80

60
40
20
0
1

9 10 11 12 13 14

pH
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pH = CREATES EFFECTIVNESS

Carboxylic Acid Sanitizers


Dilutions: FDA allowable non-rinse claim at use dilution specified
on label (90-180 ppm ?Ionic & Nonionic Acid Combine)
ADVANTAGES:

Non-staining, stable, long shelf life (stable to organic matter)


Very minimal foam production

Contribute little to phosphate loading


Removes and prevents milkstone and waterstone formation

Effective against a wide spectrum of microorganisms


Most effectively controlled through flow based dosing equipment

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Carboxylic Acid Sanitizers


DISADVANTAGES:
Effective at acid pH levels below 3.5 only
Are less effective at lower temperatures (<50 F)
Corrosive to metals other than stainless steel
Can effect plastics and rubber
Are costly to use but less than PAA

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Alternative Antimicrobial Agents

Chlorine Dioxide
Ozone
Sterilex

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Chlorine Dioxide
Sodium chlorite solution and an acid activator
? & ? generated solutions of ClO2
Is an effective antimicrobial agent
It is a gas that is soluble in water exists as a gas in H2O
Fogging Process and Food Storage Areas
Also used predominately as an environmental sanitizer
Typical use is at concentrations of chlorine dioxide between 1
to 50 PPM
-EXAMPLES: Selectrocide
Premium Dioxide 3000 / Redi-Ox
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Chlorine Dioxide
ClO2 is a chemical oxidizer, but does not chlorinate.
ClO2 is a powerful biocide that is effective in air or
in water over a wide pH range.
ClO2 is a deodorizer.
Does not form chlorinated organic by-products

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Chlorine Dioxide
Dilutions: FDA allowable non-rinse claim at use dilution specified on label (Varies by Application)
ADVANTAGES:
Very strong oxidizer
Not readily affected by organic soiling
Very Effective in removing Biofilms
Very minimal foam production
Is 3 to 4x more potent than chlorine (2.5 x Oxidizing power of Chlorine)
Effective against a wide spectrum of microorganisms
Less corrosive to stainless steel
Less pH sensitive
Environmentally Friendly
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Chlorine Dioxide
DISADVANTAGES:
Worker Safety & toxicity
Limited Shelf Life after generation (in some cases)
(Rapid decomposition in presence of light )
Multiple products some types require the need
of an activator or an onsite generator
Costly with initial capital cost of on-site generator
Individual packets are costly to use but offer a
safer alternative

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Ozone
Ozone is formed when oxygen molecules collide with
oxygen atoms to produce O3
Is an effective antimicrobial agent
Is a powerful and naturally unstable oxidizing gas
Excellent broad spectrum of germicidal activity
Typically more effective than chlorine or chlorine
dioxide
Primary use is for treatment of water
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Ozone
FDA:

Approved as a non-rinse food contact

surface sanitizer in 2001


ADVANTAGES:
Very strong oxidizer and is fast reacting
Decomposes rapidly with no harmful residual
Better antimicrobial properties than chlorine and chlorine
dioxide
Effective against a wide spectrum of microorganisms

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Ozone
DISADVANTAGES:
Extremely unstable as a result must be generated /
produced on-site
Safety concern, is very irritating and toxic
Extremely reactive and corrosive
No measurable residual to detect for efficacy
No organic tolerances
Costly with initial capital cost of generator and operational
costs

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Sterilex
Not an end use / No-Rinse Sanitation
EPA Approved Anti-Biofilm Control

Removes Biofilms & Kills Listeria, Ecoli, Staph, Mold & Mildew
Recommended by USDA as a Best Practice for Listeria kill &
Biofilm control

Can be used manually in foam systems and in CIP applications


Effective when applied to Drains, Floors and all Environmental
Surfaces

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Specifics to Consider When Deciding to Use a


Sanitizer:
Select a properly registered EPA sanitizer
It must be capable of performing the intended function
What organisms do you wish to kill?

What is the application?


Food Contact CIP follow non-rinse compliance
Non-Food Contact Environmental no non-rinse compliance

It is in violation to reuse sanitizer solution to sanitize a food


contact surface

You must understand their limitations and choice is dependant


upon application
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Sanitizer Tip:
Having micro issues in your freezer or environmental areas?
Consider Foaming with a combination of a QAC with Chlorine Dioxide.
Chemicals are stable ?

Recommend using 100ppm Chlorine Dioxide with 800ppm-1600ppm


of a QAC
Combine in a portable foam unit
Apply foam to walls, floors, drain & do not rinse

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Sanitizer Tip
Have a need for continuous Dosing of ClO2? Dont want to purchase /
maintain an expensive generator?
Consider Pregenerated Premium Dioxide 3000 & Redi-Ox (Approved
for direct application on meat, poultry, fruit & vegetable washing)

Want an effective & efficient alternative to basic QACs?


Consider an Acid Quat formula (Acidiquat 4) A Phos Acid based 4
chain Quat.. Gain benefit s of low PH & broad spectrum of Effectiveness.

Looking for a different approach to your doorway foam sanitation?


Consider Iodofoam
Phosphoric Acid based Iodophor that provides rapid bacteria kill and
long lasting foam. Does not dissipate as quickly as QAC Products.

- Effective against broad range of microorganisms including viruses,


yeasts and molds.
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What Can Effect Sanitizer Performance?


Surface Cleanliness

YOU CANNOT SANITIZE AN UNCLEAN SURFACE!

SOIL and DETERGENT CAN:


Protect the microbial cell
Inactivate the sanitizer

Surface Contact
Must contact the cell wall
Soil and non-smooth surfaces can affect this
Contact Time
The longer the contact time the greater the efficacy
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What Can Effect Sanitizer Performance?


Proper Temperature and Concentration
Generally increased temperature = increased efficacy
Some exceptions are Iodophors and Chlorine

Increased concentration = increased efficacy


Must remain within FDA (non-rinse compliance) guidelines
Shock Effect

pH Conditions
Especially true for acid and chlorine sanitizers
This is significant between wash and rinse cycles

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Build Up of Resistance
Sanitizers destroy 99.999% of the bacteria present under
normal conditions
The sanitizing agent must result in irreversible damage
referred to as microbial death

In the presence of 1,000,000 bacteria, 10 will survive


You now have a source for future contamination
Continued exposure to sub-lethal levels of sanitizer results in
an increase in resistance
In essence applications less than lethal and in short duration
result in selective culturing of resistant strains
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How to Avoid the Build-Up of Resistance


Be sure concentration levels are met, maintained,
and recorded
Insure adequate contact time is reached (minimum
of 5 minutes)
Alternate between differing sanitizers
Occasional shocking of the system is recommended

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Sanitizers Are Not a Substitution For:


AN EFFICIENT CLEANING
PROGRAM

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Thank You

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