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Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Problem Set No. 1

Out: Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Due: Wednesday, September 22, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

length l. The upper end of the string is connected to the uppermost point of a vertical

fixed disk of radius R (R < l/), as shown below. At t = 0 the mass hangs at rest at

the equilibrium position = 0, when it is given an initial velocity v0 along the horizontal.

Derive expressions for the two extreme deflections (in terms of ) of the pendulum resulting

from this initial perturbation. Do not make a small-angle approximation.

R

g

m

v

0

Problem 2

A point mass moves without friction on a horizontal plane. A massless inextensible string

is attached to the point mass and led through a hole (see figure below). At time = t0 the

mass moves along a circle with constant velocity v0 . We gradually pull the free end of the

string downwards until, at time t1 , we have |r(t1 )| = L0 /2. What is the velocity of the

mass at time t1 ?

r(t)

O

Plane

(no friction)

String

Problem 3

A particle of mass m1 is attached to a massless rod of length L which is pivoted at O and

is free to rotate in the vertical plane as shown below. A bead of mass m2 is free to slide

along the smooth rod under the action of a spring of stiffness k and unstretched length

L0 . (a) Choose a complete and independent set of generalized coordinates. (b) Derive the

governing equations of motion by applying momentum principles.

g

m

Problem 4

Consider the system shown below under the assumption that the pendulum arm connecting m2 and m3 is massless. By applying momentum principles, obtain the differential

equations of motion for the generalized coordinates x1 , x2 and .

x1

k1

x2

k2

m1

m2

m3

Problem 5

Two identical rods of length l, that have equal masses m attached at their ends, are

clamped at an angle to a shaft as shown. (The shaft and the rods are in the same

plane.) What reaction forces must the bearings be able to withstand, if the angle can

be set anywhere from zero to 90 and the maximum angular velocity of the shaft is ?

(For simplicity, you may neglect the mass of the rods and ignore the effects of gravity.)

m

d

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Due: Wednesday, September 29, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

Show that for any 3 3 skew-symmetric matrix A, there exists a 3-dimensional vector

such that for any three-dimensional vector x ,

Ax = x .

Problem 2

Consider the coupled pendula shown in the figure below. Both rods are massless, with

point masses m attached to their ends. Both joints shown in the figure are frictionless. The

external force F encloses a fixed angle with the line of the pendulum shown. The masses

never collide. The constant of gravity is g.

Questions:

Identify the constraints.

Determine the number of degrees of freedom.

Find the equations of motion for and .

Find the constraint forces.

Is the system conservative? (Why?)

l1

g

l2

l3

m

Problem 3

Determine the angular velocity of a cone rolling on the XY -plane without slipping, as

shown.

Figure by OCW.

The disk rotates at 1 about its axis, and the rotation rate of the forked shaft is 2. Both

rates are constant. Determine the velocity and acceleration of an arbitrarily selected point B

on the perimeter. Describe the results in terms of components relative to the xyz axes in the

sketch.

w2

w1

Figure by OCW. After 3-22 in Ginsberg, J. H. Advanced Engineering Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Due: Wednesday, October 6, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

A pendulum consists of a rod of length L with a frictionless pivot at one end. The pendulum

is suspended from a . ywheel of radius R which rotates with . xed angular velocity , as

shown below.

(a) Determine the angular velocity of the rod in terms of and the generalized

coordinate indicated in the sketch.

(b) Calculate the velocity of the mid point C of the rod.

In the system sketched below, the rigid cylinder of radius R is moving to the right such that

its center C has velocity v. There is no slipping between the cylinder and the bar BD, but

there is slipping between the cylinder and the ground. In the position shown,

(a) Determine the angular velocity of the bar BD.

(b) Determine the velocity of the cylinder at the point where it contacts the ground.

.

Courtesy of Prof. T. Akylas. Used with permission.

Problem 3

Consider the Cardan drive shown in the figure below. Determine the outgoing angular

velocity 2 in terms of the angular velocity 1, and angles and . Note that angular

velocity & is perpendicular to both 2 and & .

.

g

.

y

w2

w2

.

j

.

w1 = y

Figure by OCW.

Problem 4

Consider the rocking chair problem discussed earlier in the class. Plot qualitatively the

trajectories in the phase plane.

Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Problem Set No. 4

Out: Wednesday, October 6, 2004

Due: Wednesday, October 13, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

A rigid circular cylinder of radius a has a hole of radius

1

2a

(i) Compute the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the cylinder using the

generalized coordinate defined below.

(ii) By suitably approximating the kinetic and potential energy expressions in (i),

deduce the frequency of small rocking oscillations of the cylinder about the equilibrium

position = 0.

phase plane.

(iii) Use the potential to plot trajectories qualitatively on the (, )

a

g

Problem 2

A billiard ball, initially at rest, is given a sharp impulse by a cue. The cue is held

horizontally a distance h above the centerline. The ball leaves the cue with a speed v0 and

eventually acquires a final speed of 97 v0 . Show that h = 45 R, where R is the radius of the

ball.

Problem 3

Determine the principal centroidal moments of inertia for the following homogeneous bodies:

(a) a sphere of radius R,

(b) a circular cone of height h and base radius R.

Problem 4

The uniform rod of length L and mass M is pivoted, without friction, to the shaft OA,

which revolves in fixed bearings at the steady rate 0 . The rod is constrained to remain

in a plane through OA which rotates with the shaft.

(a) Formulate an equation of motion for (t).

(b) For each value of 0 there is at least one stationary angle 0 which the rod can

maintain while steadily precessing at the rate 0 . Find all stationary configurations as

functions of 0 .

w0

A

g

L

q

M

Figure by OCW. After Problem 4-14 in Crandall, S. H., et al. Dynamics of Mechanical and Electromechanical Systems. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1982.

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, October 13, 2004

Due: Wednesday, October 20, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

Consider the motion of a car, as shown in the figure below. (Out of the four wheels only

two are visible.) The mass of the body of the car is m3 , and each wheel has radius r and

mass m. The coefficient of static friction is 0 i.e., the tangential force between the wheel

and the ground is never greater than 0 times the normal force. The torque transmitted

from the body of the car to the rear wheel set is M0 .

(a) Assuming pure rolling, use the work-energy principle to find the acceleration of

the car.

(b) What is the largest M0 for which the car does not slip?

Problem 2

A circular ring of radius a is fixed to a vertical shaft AB at O. The plane of the ring

is inclined at 60 to the vertical as shown below so that the included angle COB is 60 ,

where C is the center of the ring. A particle P of mass m is free to slide without friction

on the ring. The position of the particle is measured by the included angle OCP, denoted

as shown. The shaft is driven at constant angular velocity .

Find in terms of and the velocity of P.

C

60

C

P

Problem 3

A rigid cone with apex half angle rolls steadily without slip on a horizontal surface so

that it precesses about the Z axis at a constant angular rate . The cone has mass M

and principal moments of inertia I1 , I1 , and I3 at the tip.

(a) Determine the angular momentum of the cone.

(b) What forces and torques are required to maintain this motion?

Figure by OCW. After problem 4-20 in Crandall, S. H., et al. Dynamics of Mechanical and Electromechanical Systems. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1982.

Problem 4

The heavy disk of mass M and centroidal principal moments of inertia I1 = I2 , I3 rolls

without slipping in contact with the inclined plane, as shown below. A ball joint at O

holds the end of the massless shaft in place. The shaft makes angle with the inclined

plane. Derive an expression for the kinetic energy of the disk.

2.032 Dynamics

Fall 2004

Due: Wednesday, November 3, 2004

Problem 1

Consider the two-dimensional rolling problem discussed in class (disk rolling on a plane,

with its main axis of symmetry remaining parallel to the plane).

(a) Show that two of the rolling constraints in this problem cannot be integrated to

holonomic constraints.

(b) Show that the above remains true even if we allow for an integrating factor.

The radar tracking of a moving vehicle by another moving vehicle is a common problem.

Consider the two vehicles A and B in the figure shown below. The orientation of vehicle

A must always be toward vehicle B. Express the constraint relation between the

velocities and distance between the two vehicles and determine whether this is a

holonomic constraint or not.

Figure by OCW. After 4.3/4 in Baruh, H. Analytical Dynamics. Boston MA: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Find the virtual displacement of point P in the figure shown below. The mass is

suspended from an arm which is attached to a rotating column. The pendulum swings in

the plane generated by the column and arm.

Z

L1

L2

P

m

Figure by OCW. After 4.4/7 in Baruh, H. Analytical Dynamics. Boston MA: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

The figure shows a childs tricycle as viewed from above. When the wheels do not slip

over the ground, the velocity of each wheels center must be perpendicular to the wheels

shaft in the horizontal plane, as shown. Consider a set of generalized coordinates

consisting of the position coordinates XA and YA of the steering joint, the angle of

orientation of the frame, the steering angle , and the spin angles 1, 2, 3 of the

wheels. Derive the velocity constraints among these seven generalized coordinates.

From that result, determine the number of degrees of freedom.

f3

vC

f1

q

A

R

d

r

vB

f2

X

Figure by OCW. After 6.8 in Ginsberg, J. H. Advanced Engineering Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, November 3, 2004

Due: Wednesday, November 10, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

The force F acts horizontally at the end of the four-member linkage shown below. The

linkage is described by the generalized coordinates 1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , 3 = 3 , 4 = 4 .

Find the generalized forces 1 , 2 conjugate to the generalized coordinates 1 , 2 and due

to the force F . You may not assume that 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 are small angles.

Problem 2

A pendulum consists of a rod of length L, mass m, and centroidal moment of inertia

1

2

12 mL

with a frictionless pivot at one end. The pendulum is suspended from a flywheel

of radius R and mass M which can rotate about the fixed point O, as shown below.

(a) Select a complete and independent set of generalized coordinates. (Please define

these coordinates clearly.)

(b) Derive the Lagrangian equations of motion without making any approximations

(small angles, etc.).

O

R

Problem 3

Consider a bead of mass m sliding without friction on a rotating ring with radius r

and negligible mass, as shown in the figure. The ring rotates about the vertical axis with

constant angular velocity . Derive the equation of motion of the bead using DAlemberts

principle.

Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Problem Set No. 8

Out: Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Due: Wednesday, November 17, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

Reconsider Problem 1 of Quiz No.1. As shown in the figure, the flywheel spins at a

constant rate 2 , and also rotates about z axis with angular velocity 1 that is a function

of time. The center of mass of the flywheel is located on the z axis, and the centroidal

moments of inertia are I1 about the spin axis and I2 transverse to that axis

(a) Derive the Lagrangian equations of motion.

(b) Find the generalized forces necessary to maintain the motion.

q

Outer

gimbal

w2

Inner gimbal

w1

Figure by OCW.

Problem 2

Two identical rigid cylinders, each having radius R and mass m, are linked by a connecting

rod of length 3R and mass M as shown below. A horizontal force F (t) is applied to the

center of the right cylinder and neither cylinder slips in its rolling motion. In the initial

position, the angle locating the connecting pin is zero. Derive the Lagrangian equations

of motion for this system.

Problem 3

The slider, whose mass is m1 , oscillates within the groove in the housing. The moment of

inertia of the housing about the axis of rotation is I. The spring restraining the slider is

unstretched when s = 0. Derive differential equations for the distance s and spin angle

resulting from application of a torque M (t) to the shaft. Use the Lagrangian equations of

motion.

Figure by OCW. After problem 6.41 in Ginsberg, J. H. Advanced Engineering Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Problem 4

The bar, whose mass is m, is pinned to a collar that permits precessional rotation about

the vertical guide, as well as nutational rotation . The collar is fastened to a spring whose

extensional stiffness is ke and whose torsional stiffness for precessional rotation is kt .

(a) Derive the Lagrangian equations of motion for this system.

(b) Determine the constraint forces using Lagrange multipliers.

Figure by OCW. After problem 6.42 in Ginsberg, J. H. Advanced Engineering Dynamics. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Due: Wednesday, November 24, 2003 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

Consider a wheelbarrow with a wheel of negligible mass, as shown in the figure below.

The distance between the center of mass C of the wheelbarrow and the center of its wheel

D is l. The handles of the wheelbarrow are of length h, and are pushed at their tips by the

forces FA and FB. The time-dependent angles between the forces and the handles are

given by (t) and (t), respectively. The wheel rolls without slipping.

The centroidal moment of inertia and the mass of the wheelbarrow are given by Ic and m,

respectively. With the position of C and the orientation of the wheelbarrow as

generalized coordinates, derive the equations of motion using Lagrange multipliers.

h

FA

(t)

h

FB

(t)

b

m, IC

Problem 2

A cart and a rolling disk are connected by a rigid massless link of length L, as shown in

the figure below. The disk rolls without slipping. Use Lagrange multipliers to determine

the force in the link.

L

g

M

h

x

Problem 3

Consider the spinning disk on a rotating linkage with torsional spring problem

discussed in class.

(a) By introducing generalized moments associated with the coordinates and ,

reduce the set of equations of motions to a single equation of motion for .

(b) For p = 0, sketch the trajectories of the above equation on the ( ,& ) phase plane

for different values of p (select all other parameters to be equal to one).

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Out: Wednesday, November 24, 2004

Due: Wednesday, December 1, 2004 at the beginning of class

Problem 1

The system below consists of a massless hollow cylindrical tube, joined to a vertical shaft

at the point O. The tube is fixed in -direction and = /4. Inside the tube, moves

without friction a mass m which is connected to O through a spring of stiffness k and

neutral length of r0 . Assume that the shaft is rotating with angular velocity about its

axis. Using r, as generalized coordinates:

(a) Reduce the problem to a one-degree-of-freedom problem for r, that has only

potential active forces.

(b) Find the equilibria for the reduced system and investigate the stability using

Dirichlet theorem.

(c) Sketch the trajectories on the (r,r)

phase plane. Select all parameters to be

equal to one, including gravity g.

Problem 2

(i) Derive the differential equation describing the motion of the bead on the ring.

(ii) Find equilibrium positions 0 for the bead and investigate the stability of these

positions at various speeds .

(iii) Draw a stability diagram showing all solution branches (and their stability

properties) for 0 < < .

(iv) Draw the phase plane of solution trajectories at representative values of .

(v) Instead now consider a ring inclined at 120 to the vertical, so that C is below

O. Without any calculations, state how many equilibrium positions you expect and how

their stability will vary with .

Problem 3

Three equal masses m slide without friction on a rigid horizontal rod. Six identical springs

with spring constant k are attached to the masses as shown in the sketch below. Identify

the natural modes and natural frequencies of this system.

Problem 4

A square plate of mass m and side 2a is constrained to remain in the plane of the sketch.

Its moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the plane through the center of the

square is I =

2

2

3 ma .

equal springs shown. It is desired to formulate matrix equations of small motions for the

three degrees of freedom, using the generalized coordinates x, y, and a.

(a) Obtain matrix equations of motion of the form

[M ]{

x} + [K]{x} = 0

and the three natural-mode solutions.

(b) Construct the modal matrix and evaluate

[]t [M ][],

[]t [K][].

Verify that the quotients of the diagonal elements of the resulting square matrices in (b)

give the squares of the natural frequencies of the three modes.

Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Quiz No. 1

Monday, October 25, 2004

Problem 1

(20 points)

Servomotors make the flywheel spin at a constant rate 2 , and also impose a vertical

rotation rate 1 that is a function of time (see figure below). The center of mass of the

flywheel is located on the z axis, and the centroidal moments of inertia are I1 about the

spin axis and I2 transverse to that axis.

(a) Derive the equations of motion for the system.

(b) Determine the external torques necessary to maintain the above motion.

q

Outer

gimbal

w2

Inner gimbal

w1

Figure by OCW.

Problem 2

(20 points)

A solid uniform cylinder of mass m and radius R is placed on top of a fixed cylinder of

the same radius, and it is slightly tipped, as shown in the figure. Find the value of the

angle at which sliding begins as a function of the static friction coefficient .

e3

e2

q

Outer

gimbal

w2

.

y

.

j

Inner

gimbal

e1

w1

Figure by OCW.

Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Quiz No.2

Wednesday, December 8, 2004

This is a CLOSED-BOOK, Open notes Quiz.

Two small masses, m1 and m2, are constrained to move in a vertical plane by two

inextensible strings, as shown in figure 1. The lengths of the two strings are R and L =

+ r, respectively. There is a force of magnitude F acting on the mass m2, with its line of

attack always parallel to the string attached to m2. The constant of gravity is g. The pulley

shown in the figure is small and frictionless.

(a) Classify all constraints and forces (give reasoning). Determine the number of

degrees of freedom.

(b) Derive the Lagrangian equations of motion in terms of 1 and 2.

L

r

g

m2

F

m1

Figure 1

A disk of radius r and mass M is placed on a fixed tube of radius R, as shown in Figure 2.

The center of the disk is at a distance l from the ceiling and is attached to the ceiling

through a spring of stiffness k1 and unstretched length l0. At the same time, a block of

mass m is hanging from the center of the disk on a spring of stiffness k2 and unstretched

length l0. We assume that the disk cannot slip on the tube and the lower spring remains

vertical on any motion of the system. The constant of gravity is g.

Without deriving equations of motion, find sufficient and necessary conditions

for the stability of the equilibrium shown in Fig. 2.

k1

g

k2

Figure 2

2.032 DYNAMICS

Fall 2004

Problem 1

A ring of radius R is pivoted without friction at O. A disk of radius r rolls without slipping

inside the ring, as shown below. Determine the angular velocities of the ring and the disk

in terms of the generalized coordinates , indicated.

R

r

Problem 2

A thin rectangular plate of mass M , sides a and b, rotates about an axis along its diagonal

with angular velocity .

(a) What are the forces on the bearings?

(b) What is the kinetic energy of the rotating plate?

Problem 3

A rigid, uniform flat disk of mass m and radius R is moving in the plane towards a wall

with central velocity V while rotating with angular velocity , as shown below. Assuming

that the collision in the normal direction is elastic and no slip occurs at the wall, find the

velocity of the (center of the) disk after it collides with the wall.

Problem 4

The homogeneous sphere of mass m and radius r is projected along the incline of angle

with an initial central velocity V0 and no angular velocity (0 = 0). If the coefficient of

kinetic friction is , determine the time duration T of the period of slipping. In addition,

state the velocity Vf of the mass center C at the end of the period of slipping.

0

C

r

V0

Problem 5

A pencil, modeled as a uniform bar AB of length 2a and mass m, is initially at rest standing

upright at the edge of a table as shown below. A horizontal impulse P is delivered to

the base A of the pencil, causing it to lose contact with the table. Determine the value

of P for which the motion of the pencil is such that point B clips the edge of the table.

Sketch the position of the pencil at this instant.

Fall 2004

2.032 DYNAMICS

Practice Problems No.2

Problem 1

A rigid block of height H, length L and depth D rests on a rigid cylinder of mass M and

radius R, as shown in the sketch. The cylinder rolls on the floor without slipping and the

block rolls on the cylinder without slipping as well.

(a) Study the geometry of motion of the two rigid bodies, paying attention to the

rolling constraints. Select a suitable set of independent generalized coordinates to describe

this motion. Show your choice of coordinates clearly on a sketch.

(b) Derive the governing equations of motion in terms of these coordinates.

(c) Examine the stability to small perturbations of the equlibrium position of the

block.

H

g

R

Problem 2

The linkage precesses about the vertical axis at the constant rate . The small disk B

and slider C each have mass m, and the mass of each link is negligible. The spring has

stiffness k and its unstretched length is 2l. Identify the two possible constant values of

in the physically meaningful range 0 < /2 corresponding to steady precession with

= 0. Prove that one of these possibilities is always unstable, while the other is a stable

position that exists only if k is sufficiently large.

C

L

q

k

q

A

Figure by OCW.

Problem 3

The shaft of length 2L is forced to precess at the steady rate with the fixed angle

shown. On the shaft are two rotors spinning in opposite directions with absolute spin n.

The rotors have masses m, diametral moments of inertia I1 and axial moments of inertia

I3 . Neglecting gravity, find the torque required to maintain the precession.

n

L

n

Figure by OCW.

Problem 4

Three pendulums, all of length l, are symmetrically arranged as shown in the figure. The

center bob, of mass 2m, is connected by ideal springs of force constant k to the outer bobs,

each of mass m. What are the frequencies and relative displacements of the pendulums

when they are vibrating in each of the three normal modes of the system? Consider only

vibrations in the plane of the figure. [Caution: a little physical insight will save a lot of

algebra in this problem.]

Problem 5

Consider small motion in a plane about the position of static equilibrium of the given

system. Solve for the natural frequencies and the corresponding amplitude ratios.

Fall 2003

2.032 DYNAMICS

Quiz No. 1

Monday, October 20, 2003

21 11 inch sheet of

self-prepared notes.

Problem 1

(10 points)

The uniform circular disk shown below is mounted on a shaft such that the normal to the

disk makes an angle to the shaft. The mass of the disk is M and its radius is R. (The

axial and diametral moments of inertia of the disk are

21 M R2 and 14 M R2 , respectively.)

The shaft, which has relatively negligible mass, rotates with constant angular speed .

(a) Find the angular momentum of the disk about its center C.

(b) What are the reaction forces at the bearings (neglect the eect of gravity)?

2a

Problem 2

31 ma2 is dropped onto the

edge of a table as shown below. The rod is horizontal, has zero angular velocity and has

downward velocity V at the moment just before touching the table.

(a) Determine in terms of V the angular velocity of the rod just after impact,

assuming that energy is conserved in the collision.

(b) Under the same assumptions as in (a) above, determine the velocity just after

impact of the end of the rod that touched the table. Does your result seem reasonable?

Explain.

2a

Problem 3

A disk of radius r rolls without slipping over the ground such that the angle of tilt is

constant. The center C follows a horizontal circular path of radius R at constant speed

V . Derive an expression for the angular velocity of the disk.

Fall 2003

2.032 DYNAMICS

Quiz No. 2

Wednesday, December 10, 2003

This is a CLOSED BOOK Quiz. Each student may only bring two 8 12 11 inch sheets of

self-prepared notes.

Problem 1

(10 points)

A slender rigid bar (of mass m and length L) is suspended by a cable (of length L and

negligible mass) from pivot A and executes a steady precession about the vertical axis at

angular speed as it maintains the orientation shown in the sketch below.

Determine and the angle of inclination .

Problem 2

(10 points)

A rigid half cylinder of radius r and uniform mass density rests on top of a xed half

cylinder of radius R, as shown below. Assuming that no slipping occurs, under what

conditions is the equilibrium position stable to small perturbations?

Problem 3

(10 points)

The motion of the two masses shown below is restricted to the plane of the sketch. Ne

glecting the eect of gravity, determine the natural frequencies of vibration and associated

mode shapes for small departures from equilibrium of this system.

4k

3k

4k

4k

k

m

2k

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