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- Optics Review
- First Year
- 960 SP Physics
- BTech ECE SYLLABUS AMITY
- 0031-9120_45_3_F04
- High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter
- cseautosyllabi
- Smith 2010-2011 Catalog
- OPTSIM
- Waves 1.4 Diffraction
- physics problems
- Zemax LifeSciences ModelsHumanEye WP 130305
- SUPOR PPT
- 001.1
- X-ray Crystallography - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Waves & Oscillations
- Physice 2013 Unsolved Paper Delhi Board.pdf
- Exercises- Refraction of Waves
- Theory of Free Electron Vortices
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Mutual information (cross-entropy) metric

Intuitive definition

Rigorous definition using entropy

Example: confocal microscopy

Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC)

Heterodyne detection

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-1

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

detection

inversion problem:

determine f, given the measurement

g =H f

(noise variance)

2

noise-to-signal ratio (NSR) =

=

= 2

(average signal power) 1

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-2

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

C = ln1 + 2

2

k =1

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-3

detection

eigenvalues

of H

rank of

measurement

dimensions

the measurement

is worth)

1 n k2

C = ln1 + 2

2 k =1

...

n-1

1

0

2

n2

2

n1

...

eigenvalues of H

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-4

22

1

2

Precision of measurement

1 n k2

C

=

ln1 + 2 =

2

k =1

t2 <

2 <

t21

noise floor

t2 2

t21

t2

... +

ln

1 + 2 +

ln

1 + 2 + ln1 + 2 + ...

precision

of (t-2)th measurement

this term

1

E.g. 0.5470839348

these digits worthless

if 10-5

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-5

this term

log2[how many are the possible states of the system?]

E.g. two-state system: fair coin, outcome=heads (H) or tails (T)

Entropy=log22=1

Unfair coin: seems more reasonable to weigh the two states

states

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-6

1

1 1

1

Entropy = log 2

log 2 = 1

bit

2

2 2

2

1 3

1

Entropy = log 2

log 2 = 0.81 bits

4

4 4

4

uncertainty

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-7

Joint Entropy

Entropy

obtained from the Cartesian product of two variables?]

Joint Entropy( X , Y ) =

states states

x X yY

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

f

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-8

field

propagation

detection

Conditional Entropy

Entropy

given the actual state of one of the two variables?]

Cond. Entropy(Y | X ) =

p(x, y )log p( y | x )

states states

xX yY

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

f

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-9

field

propagation

detection

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

detection

eliminates information from the measurement wrt object

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-10

Cond. Entropy(F | G )

representation by

Seth Lloyd, 2.100

Entropy(F )

C(F , G )

information

contained

in the object

Cond. Entropy(G | F )

information eliminated due to noise

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-11

Entropy(G )

information

contained

in the measurement

cross-entropy

(aka mutual information)

Joint Entropy(F , G )

Cond. Entropy(F | G )

Entropy(F )

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-12

C(F , G )

Cond. Entropy(G | F )

Entropy(G )

F

information

source

(object)

Physical Channel

(transform)

G

information

receiver

(measurement)

G )

= Entropy(G ) Cond. Entropy(G | F )

= Entropy(F ) + Entropy(G ) Joint Entropy( F , G )

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-13

definition of entropy

Entropy = p ( xk ) log 2 p

( xk )

k

uncertainty)

Continuous objects (can take values from among a continuum)

definition of differential entropy

Diff. Entropy =

( p) (x )ln p

(x ) dx

representation of a random number, divided by ln10)

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-14

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

f

Assumptions:

Then

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-15

field

propagation

detection

(b) white additive Gaussian noise (waGn)

i.e.

g=Hf+w

where W is a Gaussian random vector with diagonal

correlation matrix

1 n k2

C

(

F

,

G )

=

ln1 + 2

2 k =1

k : eigenvalues of H

degrees of freedom

rank of

measurement

n

...

n-1

1

0

2

n2

mutual

information

n21

1 n k2

C = ln1 + 2

2 k =1

...

22

12

As noise increases

one rank of H is lost whenever

2 overcomes a new eigenvalue

the remaining ranks lose precision

2

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-16

Two point-sources

(object)

fA

fB

Two point-detectors

(measurement)

A

x

B

~

A

gA

~

B

gB

Classical view

intensities

emitted

noiseless

intensity

@detector

plane

g A gB

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-17

intensities

measured

Cross-leaking power

g A = f A + sf B

g B = sf A + f B

s = sinc ( x )

2

s

~

A

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-18

~

B

1 s

H =

s 1

det (H ) =

1 s

1 =

1 + s

2 = 1 s

1

1 s

H =

2

1 s

s

1

1

(1

s )

C(F , G ) = ln1 +

2

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-19

1 (1 + s )2

+ ln1 +

2

(SNR ) =

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-20

s1

1

2

s0

=

H

underdetermined

(more unknowns than

measurements)

overdetermined

(more measurements

than unknowns)

we compute the singular values of the

rectangular matrix

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-21

HT

square matrix

f = H T H

recall pseudo-inverse

HT g

)

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-22

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

detection

under/over determined

1

n k

C = ln1 + 2

2

k =1

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-23

singular values

of H

Confocal microscope

Small pinhole:

Depth resolution

pinhole

virtual slice

Light efficiency

object

beam

splitter

Intensity

detector

Large pinhole:

Depth resolution

Light efficiency

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-24

Object structure:

point sources,

mutually

incoherent

optical axis

sampling distance

Imaging method

correspondence

intensity

measurements

CFM

object

scanning

direction

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-25

NA=0.2

Depth resolution

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-26

IMI summary

imaging system can successfully discern; this includes

the rank of the system, i.e. the number of object dimensions that

the system can map

the precision available at each rank, i.e. how many significant

digits can be reliably measured at each available dimension

An alternative interpretation of IMI is the game of 20 questions: how

many questions about the object can be answered reliably based on the

image information?

IMI is intricately linked to image exploitation for applications, e.g.

medical diagnosis, target detection & identification, etc.

Unfortunately, it can be computed in closed form only for additive

Gaussian statistics of both object and image; other more realistic

models are usually intractable

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-27

E =

f k fk

object

samples

result of

f =

inversion

obvious problem: most of the time, we dont know what f is!

more when we deal with Wiener filters and regularization

Receiver Operator Characteristic

measures the performance of a cognitive system (human or

computer program) in a detection or estimation task based on the

image data

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-28

Example: medical diagnosis,

H0 (null hypothesis) =

no tumor

H1 = tumor

TP = true positive (i.e. correct

identification of tumor)

FP = false positive (aka false

alarm)

MIT 2.717

Image quality metrics p-29

What is an image? Attributes and Representations

Forward vs Inverse

Optical Imaging as Inverse Problem

Incoherent and Coherent limits

Dimensional mismatch: continuous vs discrete

Singular vs ill-posed

Ill-posedness: a 22 example

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-1

Basic premises

What you see or imprint on photographic film is a very narrow

interpretation of the word image

Image is a representation of a physical object having certain attributes

Examples of attributes

Optical image: absorption, emission, scatter, color wrt light

Acoustic image: absorption, scatter wrt sound

Thermal image: temperature (black-body radiation)

Magnetic resonance image: oscillation in response to radiofrequency EM field

Representation: a transformation upon a matrix of attribute values

Digital image (e.g. on a computer file)

Analog image (e.g. on your retina)

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-2

Hardware

elements that operate directly on the physical entity

e.g. lenses, gratings, prisms, etc. operate on the optical field

e.g. coils, metal shields, etc. operate on the magnetic field

Software

algorithms that transform representations

e.g. a radio telescope measures the Fourier transform of the source

(representation #1); inverse Fourier transforming leads to a

representation in the native object coordinates (representation

#2); further processing such as iterative and nonlinear algorithms

lead to a cleaner representation (#3).

e.g. a stereo pair measures two aspects of a scene (representation

#1); a triangulation algorithm converts that to a binocular image

with depth information (representation #2).

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-3

In optics,

standard hardware elements (lenses, mirrors, prisms) perform a

limited class of operations (albeit very useful ones); these

operations are

linear in field amplitude for coherent systems

linear in intensity for incoherent systems

a complicated mix for partially coherent systems

holograms and diffractive optical elements in general perform a

more general class of operations, but with the same linearity

constraints as above

nonlinear, iterative, etc. operations are best done with software

components (people have used hardware for these purposes but it

tends to be power inefficient, expensive, bulky, unreliable hence

these systems seldom make it to real life applications)

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-4

Imaging channels

Information generators

Wave sources

Wave scatterers

Imaging

Communication

Storage

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-5

Physics

Algorithms

Humans

Humanoids

Processing elements

Users

Classical inverse problem view-point

encoded into

a scene

similar) image

cognitive

processing

answer

YES/

/NO

Situation of

interest

YES/

/NO

in the scene?

encoded into

a scene

light intensity pattern

answer

Situation of

interest

- better reliability

- adaptive, attentive operation

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-6

YES/

/NO

other

functions

if necessary (requires resource reallocation)

Forward problem

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

object

detection

measurement

Predict the measurement given the object attributes

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-7

Inverse problem

object

physical

attributes

(measurement)

hardware

channel

field

propagation

object

representation

detection

measurement

Form an object representation given the measurement

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-8

Optical Inversion

free space

(Fresnel)

propagation

amplitude object

(dark A on bright

background)

amplitude

representation

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-9

lens

free space

(Fresnel)

propagation

lens

free space

(Fresnel)

propagation

array of point-wise

sensors (camera)

array of

intensity

measurements

Nonlinear problem

f ( x, y )

object

amplitude

I ( x, y) =

f (x, y )h (x x, y y )dxdy

coh

amplitudes directly (e.g. at radio frequencies)

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-10

Linear problem

I obj ( x, y )

object

intensity

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-11

intensity measurement at the output plane

Dimensional mismatch

The object is a continuous function (amplitude or intensity)

assuming quantum mechanical effects are at sub-nanometer scales, i.e.

much smaller than the scales of interest (100nm or more)

i.e. the object dimension is uncountably infinite

The measurement is discrete, therefore countable and finite

To be able to create a 1-1 object representation from the

measurement, I would need to create a 1-1 map from a finite set of

integers to the set of real numbers. This is of course impossible

the inverse problem is inherently ill-posed

We can resolve this difficulty by relaxing the 1-1 requirement

therefore, we declare ourselves satisfied if we sample the object

with sufficient density (Nyquist theorem)

implicitly, we have assumed that the object lives in a finitedimensional space, although it looks like a continuous function

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-12

Under the finite-dimensional object assumption, the linear inverse problem

is converted from an integral equation to a matrix equation

g ( x, y) = f (x, y ) h( x x, y y ) dx dy

g =H f

underconstrained

If the matrix H is square and has det(H)=0, the problem is singular; it

can only be solved partially by giving up on some object dimensions

(i.e. leaving them indeterminate)

If the matrix H is square and det(H) is non-zero but small, the

problem may be ill-posed or unstable: it is extremely sensitive to errors

in the measurement f

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-13

Two point-sources

(object)

Two point-detectors

(measurement)

A

x

~

A

~

B

Classical view

x

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-14

Cross-leaking power

I A = J A + sJ B

I B = sJ A + J B

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-15

~

A

~

B

1 s

H =

s 1

det (H ) = 1 s 2

1 1 s

H =

2

1 s s 1

1

MIT 2.717

Intro to Inverse Problems p-16

Radio Astronomy

Michelson Stellar Interferometry

Rotational Shear Interferometer (RSI)

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-1

Radio Telescope

www.nrao.edu

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-2

diameter 25m, weight 230t each)

Y radius ranges between

1km and 36km

wavelengths 90cm 7mm

resolution 200-1.5arcsec in

smallest configuration; 6 to 0.05

arcsec in largest configuration

signals are multiplied and

correlated at central station to

obtain (x,y).

van Cittert-Zernicke theorem

is used to invert the observations

and obtain the source I(,),

e.g. a constellation of galaxies

VLA images

images of a large solar flare that occurred on

17 June 1989. The red-orange background

images are optical images (H-Alpha) and the

superimposed contours show radio emission

as seen with the VLA at a wavelength of 4.9

GHz. The four images are from four different

times during the event, showing the

progression toward maximum radio emission

(bottom right). This soft X-ray flare was

accompanied by a coronal mass ejection.

from www.aoc.nrao.edu

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-3

"footpoints" of an arcade of magnetic loops

which arch NE/SW. The magnetic field is

strongest toward the NW, where prominent

sunspots appear dark in H alpha. Early in the

event, the magnetically stronger footpoint

emits radio waves first (a), followed by

magnetically conjugate footpoints to the SW

(b). The entire magnetic arch connecting the

two footpoints then emits (c,d).

VLA images

from www.aoc.nrao.edu

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-4

This is a radar image of Mars, made with the Goldstone-VLA radar system

in 1988. Red areas are areas of high radar reflectivity. The south polar ice

cap, at the bottom of the image, is the area of highest reflectivity. The other

areas of high reflectivity are associated with the giant shield volcanoes of the

Tharsis ridge. The dark area to the West of the Tharsis ridge showed no

detectable radar echoes, and thus was dubbed the "Stealth" region.

VLA images

from www.aoc.nrao.edu

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-5

VLA images

from www.aoc.nrao.edu

The galaxy M81 is a spiral galaxy about 11 million light-years from Earth. It is about

50,000 light-years across. This VLA image was made using data taken during three of

the VLA's four standard configurations for a total of more than 60 hours of observing

time. The spiral structure is clearly shown in this image, which shows the relative

intensity of emission from neutral atomic hydrogen gas. In this pseudocolor image,

red indicates strong radio emission and blue weaker emission.

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-6

from www.aoc.nrao.edu

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-7

This pair of images illustrates the need to study celestial objects at different

wavelengths in order to get "the whole picture" of what is happening with those

objects. At left, you see a visible-light image of the M81 Group of galaxies.

This image largely shows light coming from stars in the galaxies. At right, a

radio image, made with the VLA, shows the hydrogen gas, including streamers

of gas connecting the galaxies. From the radio image, it becomes apparent that

this is an interacting group of galaxies, not isolated objects.

Since multiplication cannot be performed directly, it is done through interference

(Youngs interferometer)

Extreme requirements on mechanical and thermal stability (better than /100

between the two arms)

Alternative: intensity interferometer (or Hanbury Brown Twiss interferometer)

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-8

from www.physics.usyd.edu.au/astron/susi

interferometer

from www.physics.usyd.edu.au/astron/susi

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-9

beam splitter

folding mirror

sensor array

folding mirror

dither

translation

stage

input aperture

rotating object

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-10

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

shutter

camera

cooling fan

long-travel platform (2)

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-11

Aerotech stage

by David J. Brady, Duke University

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

shutter

input

aperture

magnetic

coupling

90

shearing

mirror

90 dither

mirror

beamsplitter

mirror

support

flexure

stage

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-12

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

Mobile RSI

Distant Focus Corporation

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-13

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

D

Experimental Setup

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-14

beam splitter

folding mirror

sensor array

folding mirror

dither

translation

stage

input aperture

rotating object

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-15

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

Arm 2

Special case:

=90o

Input field

To Camera

Input field

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-16

Folding prism

at Arm 1

Arm 1

Folding prism

at Arm 2 (=90o)

Arms 1 & 2

combined

at camera plane

I s ( x, y ) = E1 + E2

= E1 + E2 + E1* E2 + E1 E *2

= I1 + I 2 +

+*

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-17

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

RSI

Re[(xk , yl , xi , y j , )] + dc

Interference on CCD

S ( xk , yl , xi , y j , v )

J ( xk , yl , xi , y j ) = 0

Re[(x, y , xi , y j , 0 )] + dc

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-18

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

2 point

sources

Experimental

Mutual Intensity

MIT 2.717

Apps of Stat Optics p-19

www.fitzpatrick.duke.edu/disp/

Welcome to ...

2.717J/MAS.857J

Optical Engineering

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-1

Statistical Optics

models of random optical fields, their propagation and statistical

properties (i.e. coherence)

imaging methods based on statistical properties of light: coherence

imaging, coherence tomography

Inverse Problems

to what degree can a light source be determined by measurements

of the light fields that the source generates?

how much information is transmitted through an imaging

system? (related issues: what does _resolution_ really mean? what

is the space-bandwidth product?)

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-2

radio

waves

light-years away

image

Cross-Correlation

+

Fourier

transform

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-3

optical image

Image credits:

hubble.nasa.gov

www.nrao.edu

Coronary artery

Image credits:

www.lightlabimaging.com

Intestinal polyps

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-4

Esophagus

The hardware

The principle

Image credits:

www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/

www.ge.com

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-5

The image

2.996/2.997 during the academic years 97-98 and 99-00

2.717 during fall 00

2.710 during fall 01

OR

Diffraction, and Fourier Optics

Some background in probability & statistics is helpful but not

necessary

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-6

Syllabus (summary)

Light statistics and theory of coherence 2 weeks

The van Cittert-Zernicke theorem and applications of statistical optics

to imaging 3 weeks

Basic concepts of inverse problems (ill-posedness, regularization) and

examples (Radon transform and its inversion) 2 weeks

Information-theoretic characterization of imaging channels 2 weeks

Textbooks:

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, Wiley.

M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in

Imaging, IoP publishing.

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-7

3 Projects:

Project 1: a simple calculation of intensity statistics from a model

in Goodman (~2 weeks, 1-page report)

Project 2: study one out of several topics in the application of

coherence theory and the van Cittert-Zernicke theorem from

Goodman (~4 weeks, lecture-style presentation)

Project 3: a more elaborate calculation of information capacity of

imaging channels based on prior work by Barbastathis & Neifeld

(~4 weeks, conference-style presentation)

Alternative projects ok

No quizzes or final exam

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-8

Administrative

Instructors coordinates

George Barbastathis

Please do not phone-call

Office hours TBA

Class meets

Mondays 1-3pm (main coverage of the material)

Wednesdays 2-3pm (examples and discussion)

presentations only: Wednesdays 7pm-??, pizza served

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-9

The 4F system

f1

g1 ( x, y )

object plane

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-10

f1

f2

f2

x y

G1

,

f1 f1

f1

f1

g

1

x, y

f 2

f 2

Fourier plane

Image plane

The 4F system

f1

f1

f2

f2

G1 (u , v )

u=

v=

g1 ( x, y )

object plane

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-11

sin x

sin y

x y

G1

,

f1 f1

f1

f1

g

1

x, y

f 2

f 2

Fourier plane

Image plane

f1

f1

f2

f2

G1 (u , v )

g1 ( x

, y )

object plane

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-12

x y

r

circ

G1

,

R

f1 f1

Fourier plane: aperture-limited

f1

f1

(g1 h )

x, y

f 2

f

2

Image plane: blurred

(i.e. low-pass filtered)

Transfer function:

circular aperture

r

circ

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-13

Impulse response:

Airy function

r R

jinc

f

2

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-14

field in

Coherent

optical

system

field out

intensity in

Incoherent

optical

system

intensity out

(field in field out)

Coherent transfer function

(FT of field in FT of field out)

Incoherent impulse response

(intensity in intensity out)

(FT of intensity in FT of intensity out)

h ( x, y )

H (u, v ) = FT{h(x,

y )}

~

2

h ( x, y ) = h ( x, y )

= H (u , v ) H (u, v )

~

H (u ,

v ) : Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

~

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-15

~

H (u, v ) = FT h (x, y )

f1

f1

f2

f2

2a

~

H (u)

H(u)

1

uc

uc =

Coherent illumination

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-16

a

f1

u

2uc

2uc

Incoherent illumination

Aberrations: geometrical

Paraxial

(Gaussian)

image point

Non-paraxial rays

overfocus

Spherical aberration

Origin of aberrations: nonlinearity of Snells law (n sin=const., whereas linear

relationship would have been n=const.)

Aberrations cause practical systems to perform worse than diffraction-limited

Aberrations are best dealt with using optical design software (Code V, Oslo,

Zemax); optimized systems usually resolve ~3-5 (~1.5-2.5m in the visible)

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-17

Aberrations: wave

hdiffraction (x,

y )

limited

Effect of aberrations

on the MTF

~

H(u)

1

limited

unaberrated

(diffraction

limited)

aberrated

u

2uc

MIT 2.717J

wk1-b p-18

2uc

Optics Overview

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-1

What is light?

effects, e.g. heating of illuminated objects, conversion of light to

current, mechanical pressure (Maxwell force) etc.

Light energy is conveyed through particles: photons

ballistic behavior, e.g. shadows

Light energy is conveyed through waves

wave behavior, e.g. interference, diffraction

Quantum mechanics reconciles the two points of view, through the

wave/particle duality assertion

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-2

Mass=0

Speed c=3108 m/sec

According to Special Relativity, a mass-less particle travelling

travelling

momentum!

Energy E=h

h=Plancks constant

=6.626210-34 J sec

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-3

nature of light;

is the temporal oscillation

frequency of the light waves

: wavelength

(spatial period)

k=2/

wavenumber

: temporal

frequency

=2

angular frequency

E: electric

field

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-4

1/

Mass=0

Speed c=3108 m/sec

Energy E=h

c=

h=Plancks constant

=6.626210-34 J sec

=frequency

=wavelength (m)

(sec-1)

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-5

Dispersion relation

Light in matter

light in vacuum

light in matter

Speed c/n

n : refractive index

(or index of refraction)

Absorption coefficient 0

Absorption coefficient

energy decay coefficient,

after distance L : e2L

glass n1.5; glass fiber has 0.25dB/km=0.0288/km

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-6

Materials classification

Dielectrics

typically electrical isolators (e.g. glass, plastics)

low absorption coefficient

arbitrary refractive index

Metals

conductivity large absorption coefficient

Lots of exceptions and special cases (e.g. artificial dielectrics)

Absorption and refractive index are related through the Kramers

Kronig relationship (imposed by causality)

absorption

refractive index

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-7

Laser

non-Laser

Thermal: polychromatic,

spatially incoherent

(e.g. light bulb)

Gas discharge: monochromatic,

spatially incoherent

(e.g. Na lamp)

Light emitting diodes (LEDs):

monochromatic, spatially

incoherent

strictly monochromatic,

spatially coherent

(e.g. HeNe, Ar+, laser diodes)

Pulsed: quasi-monochromatic,

spatially coherent

(e.g. Q-switched, mode-locked)

~nsec

pulse duration

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-8

light

1/

, well defined

stabilized HeNe laser

good approximation

most other cw lasers

rough approximation

pulsed lasers & nonlaser sources need

more complicated

description

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-9

ray

t=0

(frozen)

direction of

energy propagation:

light ray

wavefronts

In homogeneous media,

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-10

ray

t=t

(advanced)

direction of

energy propagation:

light ray

wavefronts

In homogeneous media,

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-11

t=0

(frozen)

wavefronts

energy from

pretty much

all wavelengths

propagates along

the ray

In homogeneous media,

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-12

Fermat principle

light

ray

n( x, y, z ) dl

path integral, compared to

alternative paths

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-13

P

O

symmetric path POP.

P

mirror

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-14

instead of P

b) Alternative path POP is

longer than POP

reflected

refracted

incident

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-15

Optical waveguide

n1.00

TIR

n=1.51

n=1.5105

n=1.51

TIR

Cylindrically symmetric version: fiber optics

Permit the creation of light chips and light cables, respectively, where

light is guided around with few restrictions

Materials research has yielded glasses with very low losses (<0.25dB/km)

Basis for optical telecommunications and some imaging (e.g. endoscopes)

and sensing (e.g. pressure) systems

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-16

point

source

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-17

point

source

point

image

Lens

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-18

point object

at 1st FP

1st FP

focal length f

plane wave (or parallel ray bundle);

image at infinity

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-19

point image

at 2nd FP

focal length f

plane wave (or parallel ray bundle);

object at infinity

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-20

Huygens principle

acts as a secondary light source

emitting a spherical wave

The wavefront after a short

propagation distance is the

result of superimposing all

these spherical wavelets

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-22

optical

wavefronts

Each point in an object scatters the incident illumination into a spherical wave,

according to the Huygens principle.

A few microns away from the object surface, the rays emanating from all

object points become entangled, delocalizing object details.

To relocalize object details, a method must be found to reassign (focus) all

the rays that emanated from a single point object into another point in space

(the image.)

The latter function is the topic of the discipline of Optical Imaging.

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-23

2nd FP

image

(real)

1st FP

chief

object

ray

emanate from the corresponding object point

The two rays passing through the two focal points and the chief ray

can be ray-traced directly

The real image is inverted and can be magnified or demagnified

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-24

image

xo

2nd FP

1st FP

chief

object

so

xi

ray

si

Lens Law

Lateral

magnification

Angular

magnification

Energy

conservation

1 1 1

+

=

so si

f

xi

so

M

x =

=

xo

si

si

M

a =

so

M xM a = 1

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-25

image

(virtual)

2nd FP

1st FP

ch

object

ief

ray

The ray bundle emanating from the system is divergent; the virtual

image is located at the intersection of the backwards-extended rays

The virtual image is erect and is magnified

When using a negative lens, the image is always virtual, erect, and

demagnified

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-26

Tilted object:

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-27

Lens-based imaging

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-28

Human eye

Photographic camera

Magnifier

Microscope

Telescope

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-29

meniscus

lens

or (nowadays)

zoom lens

digital imaging

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-31

Film

or

detector array (CCD or CMOS)

opaque

screen

image

pinhole

object

The pinhole camera blocks all but one ray per object point from reaching the

image space an image is formed (i.e., each point in image space corresponds to

a single point from the object space).

Unfortunately, most of the light is wasted in this instrument.

Besides, light diffracts if it has to go through small pinholes as we will see later;

diffraction introduces undesirable artifacts in the image.

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-35

towards the imaging system

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-36

Numerical Aperture

medium of

refr. index n

: half-angle subtended by

the imaging system from

an axial object

Numerical Aperture

(NA) = n sin

Speed (f/#)=1/2(NA)

pronounced f-number, e.g.

f/8 means (f/#)=8.

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-37

Resolution

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-38

imaging system

Diffraction

Aberrations

2.717 sp02 for details

Noise

electronic noise (thermal, Poisson) in cameras

multiplicative noise in photographic film

stray light

speckle noise (coherent imaging systems only)

Sampling at the image plane

camera pixel size

photographic film grain size

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-39

Point-Spread Function

Light distribution

near the Gaussian

(geometric) focus

= PSF

Point source

(ideal)

(rotationally

symmetric

wrt optical axis)

x ~

1.22

NA

2

z ~

NA 2

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-40

object

spacing

resolvable when

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-41

1.22

x

(NA)

Rayleigh resolution

criterion

Diffraction

broadening of

point images

diffraction grating

Inteference

?

Michelson interferometer

Fabry-Perot interferometer

Interference filter

(or dielectric mirror)

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-42

Diffraction grating

incident

plane

wave

m=3

m=2

m=1

m=0

m=1

m=2

m=3

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-43

= 2m

sin = m

diffraction order

(m integer)

Grating dispersion

Anomalous

(or negative)

dispersion

polychromatic

(white)

light

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-44

Glass prism:

normal dispersion

g in ( x, y )

g out ( x, y)

( x x )2 + ( y y )2

1

z

g out (

x, y

;

z )

=

expi 2

g in (x, y ) exp i

dxdy

iz

Gin (u, v )

Gout (u , v)

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-45

)}

Fresnel diffraction

Thin transparency

t ( x, y )

g1 ( x, y )

x2 + y2

1

z

expi 2 expi

h ( x, y ) =

iz

z

g 2 ( x, y ) =

= g1 ( x, y )t ( x, y )

impulse response

g 3 (x, y ) =

convolution

= g 2 ( x, y ) h ( x, y )

Fourier

transform

(plane wave

spectrum)

G2 (u , v )

Fourier

transform

transfer function

G3 (u , v) =

multiplication

= G2 (u , v) H (u , v)

H (u , v ) = expi 2 exp i u 2 + v 2 z

MIT 2.71/2.710

Review Lecture p-46

output

amplitude

)}

Problem Set #1

Spring '02

Notation: (u v) are the spatial frequencies conjugate to the Cartesian coordinate pair

(x y). H(u v) is the optical transfer function (OTF).

positive lens of focal length f (see Figure 1). Due to a positioning error, the

intensity distribution is measured across a plane at a distance f ; behind the

lens. How small must be if the measured intensity distribution is to accuretely

represent the Fraunhofer diraction pattern of the object

f

Figure 1

ure 2A is placed at the input of the optical system of Figure 2B. Both lenses are

positive, F1, and have focal length f . The grating is illuminated with monochromatic, spatially coherent light of wavelength and intensity I0 . The spatial period of the grating is X 4. The element at the Fourier plane of the system

is a nonlinear transparency with the intensity transmission function shown in

Figure 2C, where the threshold and saturating intensities are Ithr Isat 0:1I0.

2.a) To carry out the calculation analytically, you need to neglect the Airy patterns forming at the Fourier plane and pretend they are uniform bright dots.

Explain why this assumption is justied and what eects it might have.

1

2.b) Derive and plot the intensity distribution at the output plane using the

above assumption.

t(x)

1

...

X/2

...

X/2

x

0

Figure 2A

input

plane

output

plane

nonlinear

transparency

illumination

Figure 2B

I out

I sat

I thr

Figure 2C

2

I in

tical system is the Strehl number D, which is dened as the ratio of the light

intensity at the maximum of the point-spread function of the system with aberrations to that same maximum for that system in the absence of aberrations (i.e.,

the diraction-limited case both maxima are assumed to exist on the optical

axis).

3.a) Prove that D is equal to the normalized volume under the optical transfer

function of the aberrated imaging system that is, prove

RR +1

Haberrated (u v)dudv

D RR;1

+1

;1 Hdir{lim(u v )dudv

in Figure 4. Assume w d. Do not use Matlab for this calculation. Explain

briey the appearance of your sketches, and be sure to label the various cuto

frequencies and center frequencies.

y

2w

2d

2w

Figure 4

3

Figure 2A is imaged by a lens with a circular pupil function. The focal length of

the lens is 10 cm, the fundamental frequency of the square wave is 1X 100 cycles/mm, the object distance is 20 cm, and the wavelength is 1 m. What is

the minimum lens diameter that will yield any variations of intensity across the

image plane for the cases of

5.a) Coherent object illumination

nX

+1

n

n nx o

1

t(x)

sinc

exp

i2

2 n;1

2

X

Problem Set #2

Spring '02

1. How to emulate a perfect coin. Given a biased coin such that the probability

twice interpret HT (T tails) as success and T H as failure if neither event

occurs repeat the throws until a decision is reached.

1.a) Show that this model leads to Bernoulli trials with p 12.

1.b) Find the distribution and the expectation value of the number of throws

required to reach a decision.

year which are birthdays of exactly k people. Assume the year is 365 days long

and that all the arrangements are equally probable. What is the result for n 23

(the number of players in two opposing soccer teams plus the referee) and k 2

Do you nd that surprising

mate the probability that at least one page will contain more than k misprints.

from the voltage U measured between two strategically placed electrodes. In the

absence of tumor, U is Gaussian with mean V1 and variance 2 i.e., the \prior"

distribution is

)

(

1

(

u ; V1 )2

pU (u j no tumor) p

:

exp ;

22

2

In the presence of a tumor, U is Gaussian with mean V2 V1 and same variance

2 i.e.

(

1

(

u ; V2 )2

pU (u j tumor) p

:

exp ;

22

2

We seek a \detection threshold" V0 such that if U V0 we conclude that a

tumor is present whereas if U V0 we conclude that there is no tumor. Clearly,

our decision is in error if (i) we concluded that there is no tumor whereas in

actuality a tumor is present, i.e. a \miss" (ii) we concluded that there is a

tumor whereas in actuality there is no tumor present, i.e. a \false alarm." We

dene the probability of error (PE) as the sum of the probability of a miss and

the probability of a false alarm.

1

V0

V1 + V2

4.b) Using the optimum threshold, calculate the PE in terms of the \error function"

erf(z) p2

Z z

e;t2 dt:

as \Bayes decision." (2) The erf denition above is after Abramowitz & Stegun,

Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover 1972 (p. 297). The constants and

integral limits are sometimes dened dierently in the literature.

5. Normalization. Let fXk g be a sequence of mutually independent random variables with a common distribution. Suppose that the Xk assume only positive

values and that EV fXk g xk a and EV Xk;1 b exist. Let

Sn X1 + : : : + Xn :

1

k

EV X

Sn

n

for k 1 : : : n:

ables with a common distribution let its mean be , its variance 2. Let

X + : : : + Xn

X 1

:

n

Prove that

1 EV

n;1

2

( n

X;

k1

Xk ; X

(Note:

In statistics,

X is called an unbiased estimator of x EV fX g, and

2

P;

Xk ; X (n ; 1) is an unbiased estimator of 2 .

Problem Set #3

Spring '02

eggs, show that the probability of a total of n survivors is given the Poisson

distribution with expectation value kp.

3. Goodman problem 2-9.

4. Goodman problem 2-10.

5. Goodman problem 2-11.

6. Let X (t) be a randomstprocess describing the location X of a particle as function

the function

pX (x t)

exp ; (x 2;Dtvt)

2Dt

p1

6.a) How do the mean and variance of X behave as time evolves

@pX

@t

X + D @ pX :

;v @p

@x

2 @x2

This is known as the Fokker-Planck equation for this random process.

2

6.c) Can you describe a physical system which should follow these statistics

What is the physical meaning of v and D in your system (Hint: the FokkerPlanck equation is also known under a dierent name what is then pX

replaced by).

Problem Set #4

Spring '02

1. Goodman 3-5.

2. A space-domain linear, shift-invariant system has impulse response

h(x) rect xa :

The system is driven by white noise. Find the autocorrelation function of the

output process.

3. Consider the random process

X (t) aej(t;)

where a is a xed amplitude, the frequency is a random variable with probability density function p(!), and the phase delay is independent of and

uniform in the interval (; ). Show that X (t) is wide-sense stationary with

zero mean and power spectrum

GX ( ) 2a2 p (2 ) :

0

constant. The source moves with constant but random velocity V relative to the

observer. The random variable V has probability density function pV (v). The

observer receives a Doppler-shifted signal

r

0+Vt

S (t) a exp j!0 t ; c

:

4.a) What is the power spectrum of the received signal (Hint: Use the result

of the previous problem.)

4.b) What do you conclude about the power spectrum of the light produced by

frequencies

4.c) What is an appopriate probability density function for V for this case

1

E out

M

k

E in

m

Electron

Nucleus

5. Why is the sky blue In 1899, Lord Rayleigh observed that when we look at the

sky, we see light scattered from particles in the atmosphere, primarily nitrogen.

He then proposed the model shown above in order to quantify the scattering

process. The gure shows an electron with mass m bound to the nucleus with

a spring with spring constant k and friction coecient b. The nucleus has mass

M m. A force is applied to the electron due to the electric eld of the

incident sunlight. The scattered eld is then proportional to the acceleration of

the electron.

5.a) Formulate a one-dimensional model for the scattering process described

above. (Hint: model the nucleus as immobile.)

5.b) Assuming that the power spectral density of sunlight is pretty much constant over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, derive an expression for the

power spectrum of the scattered light.

5.c) Explain the blue color of the sky given that the spring constant;31for nitrogen

is k 140Nm and the mass of the electron is m 9:11 10 kg.

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