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nutrition mt 4

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1.

are we potassium deficit?

yes (western)

2.

B5

decrease VLDL and LDL


increase HDL

3.

Boiling can affect

the Na/K ratio

4.

BOSWELIA

Antioxidants
stimulates anti-inflammatory
prostacyclin

5.

buteraine

#1 short chain (<10c)

6.

cholesterol has a _____ ring


and linolecid acid has ______

sterol ring

15.

chromium

decrease TGs
(insulin sensative)

8.

CVD Rxs

aspirin -> decrease


inflammation
staton -> decrease bad
oxidize cholesterol
cumadin -> keep blood thin
and moving

9.

dairy stimulates

Prostaglandin 2

10.

____ decrease inflammation


by INHIBITING leukotriene

Antioxidants

11.

Dietary changes b/w 1970 and


1990

drop in egg consumption


drop in animal fat
consumption
increase in vegetable
consumption
increase in fish consumption

12.

13.

14.

functions of calcium

decrease BP (inverse assoc)


muscle relaxor
fat and sodium excretion
maintain normal heart
rhythm
bind bile acid to decrease
fat and chol. in GI tract

functions of sodium

^ BP/fluid retention
^ calcium loss
vasoconstriction

GINGKO BILOBA

may protect against arterial


hpoxia
relieve symptoms of
peripheral arterial
insufficiency
HELPS VASODIALTION
(BLOOD THINNER)

glucosamine sulfate (sharks)


chondroitin sulfate active form
(trachea of beef,shells of shellfish)
Helps form collagen tissue especially
in valves and joints. arthritis,
decrease inflammation, heart
wound healing

16.

Has been used for


RAYNAUDS and
intermittent
claudification
effectively.

niacin

17.

highest amount of
monounsaturated oil

olive

18.

highest amount of
polyunsaturated oil

safflower

19.

highest amount of
saturated fat plants

coconut

20.

Highest amount of
SATURATED fats
among plants is

COCONUT Palm

21.

homocysteine

increase arthlero & risk of heart dz

right angle
7.

Glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs) include

tx: B6, B12, folic acid


22.

if you go on a low
sodium diet, how long
until your BP drops?

5 months

23.

L-Carnitine (dipeptide
amino acid)

Shuttles the fatty acids across the


mitochondrial membrane

24.

The lower the percent


of fat____

the higher quality of fats must be


ingested.

25.

Main causes of high


cholesterol levels

low fiber intake


high saturated fat intake
genetics

26.

niacin

decrease TGs, chol


increase HDL/LDL
can be toxic to liver

27.

Omega 3 sources

animal sources:
Salmon, eel, sardines and human
breast milk, BRAIN, cod liver oil,
mackerel
plant sources:
FLAXSEED (EPA - 55%), Algae,
English walnuts, Black current oil

28.

Omega 6 sources

SAFFLOWER, Sunflower, corn or


Evening Primrose, Linoleic Acid

29.

Ornish people on 7%
fat diet

shrunk atheromas and increased


blood vessel diameter

30.

PHYTOSTEROLS

isoflavones from soy, legumes

38.

vegetarian vs vegans

vegan:
increase linoleic acid
decrease plasma chol
decrease LDL

lowers cholesterol
Also seen in Red wine, grapes, and
cocoa
31.

potassium affects:

decrease BP
decrease stroke
maintain normal heart rhythm

32.

Saturated fat

solid at room temp


very few (if any) double bonds
Double bonds are broken and
saturated w/ hydrogen
(unnatural)

39.

ways to reduce NaCl

decrease number holes in


shaker
light salt
avoid process foods
^ other spices

40.

what animals contain the


least saturated fat?
plants?

animals in colder climate and


higher altitude
plants = tropical, warm

41.

what antioxidant
decreases the sx for
congestive heart failure

CoEnzymeQ

42.

what antioxidant
increases prostacyclin
production

selenium

43.

what antioxidant is
responsible for nitric
oxide production?

vit C

44.

what antioxidant
protects against lipid per
oxidation?

vit E

45.

What are babies that are


fed formula predisposed
to?

Obesity later on in life

46.

what are coconut and


palm kernel good for?

malabsorption syndromes
(saturated fat)
(lorenzos oil)

47.

What are Drug &


Nutrition interventions
for CVD?

#1: Inflammation
Markers: Homocysteine, Creactive protein, interleukins
(IL-1, IL-6), Cytokines

have a LONGER shelf life


33.

34.

35.

36.

sea sources of
cholesterol

Eggs, shrimp, crab, lobster, and


calamari (little in clams)

Soluble fibers reduce


blood lipid level by

binding dietary and biliary


cholesterol and improving
excretion

sources of
Poly/Monounsaturated
fats

1) Fish
2) Most plants (seeds, nuts, olives,
avocados)

sources of saturated fat

Naturally occurring:
Animal (except most fish)
A few plants like coconut and palm
kernel
Artificial:
Hydrogenated fats (in many junk
and processed foods and in
margarine and shortening)

37.

UNSATURATED FATS
(poly and mono) and
their dz

vegetarian:
increase fiber
increase linoleic acid
decrease total fat

Liquid at room temp


Double bonds are unstable
Polyunsaturated = Linked to
colorectal cancer.

#2: Bad oxidized cholesterol


(LDL), protection against
oxidation

Monounsaturated =UNRELATED to
disease development (olive oil
protective)

#3: Keep blood thin and moving


Homocysteine
48.

What are phospholipids?

Cell membranes especially high


in brain

49.

What are s/sx for a


Deficiency in Essential
Fatty Acids?

Hard ear wax


Alligator skin on forearms

50.

What are the


different Lipid
Classifications of
Fats?

Long chain hydrocarbons


Phospholipids
Sphingomyelins->membrane of
neuron/myelin sheath
Fats (esters of 3FAs and a glycerol) All
fats are lipids but not all lipids are
fats. Include triglycerides.

57.

what are ways to


decrease the
arachadoinic acid
pathway?

colder climate (vasoconstriction)


high altitude
eat pasture/insects (omega 3)

58.

what chain fatty acid is


the main dietary fat?

long chain (16-22)


Beta-Carotine

59.

What diseases are


associated w/ high fat
diets and high saturated
fat diets?

Obesity
Diabetes
Cancer
Cardiovascular disease
Leaky gut syndrome
Arthritides and rheumatological
conditions
Skin disorders like eczema and
psoriasis

60.

What do Prostaglandin
2s and Leukotrienes 4
have in common?

Inflammatory

fatty acids
soaps
waxes
steiroids
51.

52.

53.

54.

what are the


effects of caffeine

dehydrate
accelerate HR
^ arrhythmia
*deplete calcium
vasoconstriction*

what are the fats in


the omega 3
pathway

a-linolenic
epa
DHA

61.

what are the fats in


the omega 6
pathway?

a-linoleic (#1 essential FA)


GLA
DGLA

what do u need to
convert a-linoleic to GLA
in the omega 6 pathway

zinc
magnesium
B6

62.

what do you find in


chocolate

palmitic acid

What are the


Functions of FAT?

Provide warmth, insulation, protection


(cushioning) on the body

63.

what do you find in


cocoa beans

steric acid

64.

what do you find in skim


milk

titanium dioxide

65.

what do you want to be


careful about when
eating low sodium
foods?

the increased added sugar

66.

what enhances the


formation of antiinflammatory PG1?

magnesium

67.

what food do you find


potassium?

kiwi
pumpkin

68.

what food sources help


increase prostacyclin?

garlic
onion
ginger
bromelain (pineapple stem)

69.

What have certain


manufacturers done to
margarine to risk of
disease

Trans fats

What is Linoleic Acid?

#1 essential fatty acid

Precursors for cholesterol, steroid


hormones (estrogen, testosterone,
cortisone)
Provides substrate to make cell
membranes, brain, & sheaths 4 nerves
Provides stored energy (triglycerides)
Makes food taste good
55.

What are Trans


Fats?

Have H+ across from one another.


They inhibit desaturation and
elongation of linoleic and linolenic acid
to form other critical FA.
These are essential for fetal
development so trans fats should be
low in maternal diets."

56.

What are
Triglycerides?

Predominate in the diet (95-98% of fats


and oils)
storage fat

70.

Added plant sterols and stannols


to decrease heart disease

Better in CIS form than TRANS


form (its linear doesn't occur in
the body and is harmful to the
body)

71.

what is necessary for glutathione


formation

selenium
zinc
copper

72.

what is the #1 essential fatty acid?

linoleic acid (omega 6)

73.

What is the food industry doing to


decrease trans fat?

Fully Hydrogenate
the fat

74.

what is the ideal potassium:sodium


ratio? what is it currently in the US?

ideal = 1:4
US= 6:1

75.

What is the importance of


Hawthorne berries?

Regulate heart
arrhythmia

76.

What kind of reaction happens in


the a-linolenic acid and EPA
pathway?

ANTIINFLAMMATORY
REACTION

77.

What makes Omega-6 bad?

We eat too much


out of balance
We eat it
hydrogenated,
heated, or in trans
form
We eat it as
Arachadonic Acid
"red meat"
We eat it sprayed or
Fed w/ synthetic
estrogens

78.

what promotes CVD?

anything that
damages endothelial
dysfunction

79.

What supplies DHA?

Algae (plant)
Fish
BRAIN
(omega 3)

80.

What therapeutic oils used in


replacement of Mg+ formed preform GLA?

Evening primose oil

81.

What triggers the delta 5


desaturase enzyme, which causes
inflammation?

Estradiol (estrogen)
Trans/saturated fats

82.

what type of fatty acid is used for


medical conditions?

medium chain (1016c)

83.

what type of pathway is omega 3

anti-inflammatory
-leukotrines

84.

When are Fee FA converted to


ketone bodies?

During fasting
Carb intake

85.

When taking potassium depleting


drugs you also

deplete magnesium.

86.

where are eicosanoid hormones


released?

phosphilipid
bilayer

87.

where are fat cells stored

adipocytes
& TG

88.

who should not be taking potassium


supplements?

K+ sparing
diuretics
kidney dz
NSAIDs

89.

why do you want to avoid sugar


concerning CVD

increases BP
increase
estrogen
increase
cholesterol