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Fakultt Umweltwissenschaften Fachrichtung Geowissenschaften

Geodtisches Institut

Geodesy
for Hydro Science and Engineering
(MHSE 03)
Lambert Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden, Winter Term 2015/16

Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics
1.2 Coordinates, Observations,
and Geodetic Instruments
1.3 Basic Principles of Geodetic Work

5.6 Traversing
5.7 Intersection and Resection
5.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal
Coordinate Transformation and
Free Stationing

2 Fundamentals
2.1 Units
2.2 Types of Errors
2.3 Precision, Accuracy and Reliability
2.4 Normal Distribution, Standard
Deviation, Outlier Detection
2.5 Significant Figures
2.6 Error Propagation

6 Theodolite and Angle Observations


6.1 Horizontal Directions and Zenith
Angles
6.2 Theodolite Axes and Axis Errors
6.3 Optical and Automatic Circle Reading

3 Setting up Instrument
3.1 Vials (or Bubbles)
3.2 Tripod, Tribrach, Plumbs
3.3 Levelling and Centring of Instrument
4 Differential Levelling
4.1 Principle of Differential Levelling
4.2 Instruments and Rods
4.3 Testing and Adjusting Levels
4.4 Sources of Error and Achievable
Accuracy
5 Computations on the Plane
5.1 Geoid, Ellipsoid, Sphere, Plane
5.2 LOP Concept for Horizontal Positions
5.3 Rectangular/Polar Conversion
5.4 Polar/Rectangular Conversion
5.5 Azimuth Determination

7 Electronic Distance Measurements


(EDM)
7.1 Electromagnetic Waves and their
Propagation
7.2 Measurement Techniques
7.3 Errors and Corrections
8 Satellite-based Positioning
8.1 Absolute Positioning
8.2 Positioning Systems
8.3 Computations on the Ellipsoid
8.4 Signals and Observations
8.5 Observation Errors
8.6 Differential Positioning (DGPS or
DGNSS)
8.7 Carrier Phase Positioning and RTK
8.8 Applications
References
Appendix: Sample questions for preparation of written exam

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

1 Introduction
1.1 Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics
Geodesy, Surveying, Geomatics, Geoinformatics, Spatial Information Science

acquisition of spatial information


+ presentation
+ interpretation

+ temporal

of objects
+ of relations between objects

position + shape, size + properties


earths surface etc.
+ staking out of coordinates
l
objects
on the earths surface etc.
a
t
i
d ig
gravity field
sensors,
measurement data analysis,
modelling
systems
Positioning,
Navigation

visualization,
communication

quality control

data
management

Engineering
Surveying
Photogrammetry
Remote Sensing

Cartography,
Geographic
Information Systems

Cadastre,
Land Management
Physical
Geodesy

applied mathematics, physics, computer science, earth science, economics, law

1.2 Coordinates, Observations, and Geodetic Instruments


Objective: determine the position of an object
position:

given by a set of coordinates:


1D - height (e.g. horizontal floor of a building)
2D - horizontal position (e.g. property boundary)
3D - position in space
4D - position in space and time (e.g. moving object)
calculated from observations and coordinates of known points

coordinates:

require definition of a coordinate system (origin, orientation of axis, scale),


require frame: markers with known coordinates in this system (control points)

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Basic Observables: Angles and distances


Grounded1 Geodetic Instruments:
Types of instruments (selection):
Instrument

Observables

level

height differences

theodolite

horizontal angle, vertical angle

total station

slope distance, horizontal angle, vertical angle


(observation of selected points)

laser scanner

slope distance, horizontal angle, vertical angle


(scanning the surrounding of the instrument)

Level, theodolite, total station, laser scanner

Horizontal angle , vertical angle v, angular distance (measured e.g. by a sextant)


1

Grounded is not a technical term. It means: all parts of the surveying systems are on the earths surface, but
not in the air or in space.

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Vertical angle v: above/below horizontal plane


Zenith angle z: measured in vertical plane
from zenith
v 90 z

slope distance SD
horizontal distance HD:
HD SD sin z SD cos v
height difference (vertical distance) h:
h SD cos z SD sin v

horizontal angle : difference of two direction readings


(backsight, foresight)
azimuth : horizontal angle measured clockwise from any
reference meridian

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Satellite-based positioning: e.g. GPS (Global Positioning System)


Observable: biased distances = pseudoranges, all observed distance are affected by
common bias (receiver clock error)
4 observations needed to determine 3D-position + receiver clock error
satellites are the markers with known coordinates

Photogrammetry:
3D-objects are recorded in 2D photographs

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

1.3 Basic Principles of Geodetic Work


(1) Reliability: Every survey has to be checked in order to achieve a high level of reliability. Methods: - taking of redundant and repeated observations
- design of observation procedures, so that mistakes that occur are
discovered immediately

(2) Accuracy/reliability and cost effectiveness: A survey is not performed as accurate


and reliable as possible, but it is performed as accurate and reliable as required.
Accuracy can be improved by using a higher-accurate instrument. Reliability and accuracy can by raised by adding additional observations. Both measures increase the costs
and thus lower the cost effectiveness of the survey.
(3) Point discretisation of natural surfaces and objects.
The earths surface and engineering structures are represented by discrete points whose
coordinates are determined by geodetic observations. Even a trajectory of a vehicle or a
surface is measured at discrete points only, and the coordinates of these points are subsequently used to calculate the trajectory or the surface.
(4) Documentation: Observations and computation results are documented in field notes
(list of the observations performed, sketches) and data processing notes.
Nowadays the documentation is often completely digital (automatic data collection systems, digital data files, automatic data flow field office).
<Field Book, Controller>

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

2 Fundamentals
2.1 Units
International System of Units (SI)
Metre (SI-base unit): The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a
time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. The practical realization consists of precise length
measurements at laboratory scale using lasers with known wavelengths.
Length: m,
nanometre (nm, 10-9 m), micrometer, (m, 10-6 m), millimetre (mm, 10-3 m),
centimetre (cm, 10-2 m), decimetre (dm, 10-1 m), metre (m), kilometre (km, 103 m)
Area: m2,
non-SI units but accepted: are (a, 100 m2), hectare (ha, 10,000 m2)
km2 (1,000,000 m2)
Volume: m3

Radian (SI-derived unit): A radian is the angle subtended by an arc of a circle having a length
equal to the radius of the circle.
Angle: radian (rad, 1/(2 of a circle): [rad ]

arc m
, dimensionless
radius m

other units:
gon (or grad) (gon, 1/400 of a circle), decigon (dgon,
10-1 gon), centigon (cgon, 10-2 gon), milligon (mgon,
10-3 gon)
degree (deg, 1/360 of a circle),
1 deg = 60 min, 1 min = 60 sec
conversions:
1 rad = [gon] = 200 gon/gon
1 rad = [deg] = 180 deg/deg

example:
calculate the length of arc l for a given radius r (distance) and angle
l
r

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

2.2 Types of Errors


Mistakes:2
Mistakes are blunders made by survey personnel in fieldwork or computations:
e.g.
measuring to or from the wrong point,
transposing of figures (recording a value of 86 as 68)
They must be discovered and eliminated immediately, e.g. by repeated or redundant measurements / computations.

Errors:
No measurement can be performed perfectly, every measurement contains some error. Objective: minimization of errors by use of skilled techniques and appropriate precise equipment.
Sources of errors:
Natural errors: environmental variations (temperature, wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure,
atmospheric refraction)
Instrumental errors: imperfection in the construction or adjustment of instruments (reduction
or elimination by adopting proper surveying procedures)
Personal errors: limitations of the human senses of sight and touch

Types of errors:
Systematic errors (biases): they conform to physical laws which can be modelled mathematically. If the conditions are known to exist and if they can be observed, a correction can be
computed (calibration) and applied.

Random errors (accidental errors): obey the law of probability and thus tend to cancel out, but
they do not entirely disappear. They can be reduced by taking more (repeated or redundant)
measurements.

Example: Steel tape

Temperature effects: produced for a standard temperature,


but linear expansion due to temperature difference, coefficient of linear expansion known (calibration), temperature
to be measured and corrections to be applied; calibration
errors produce systematic errors.
Faulty marking: systematic error if zero mark is faulty (calibration, correction).
Interpolation: random error due to limited resolution
Incorrect reading: mistake if incorrect by full or several meter, or transposing of figures

sometimes called gross errors, but should not be classified as errors at all.

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

2.3 Precision, Accuracy and Reliability


Precision represents the repeatability of a measurement and is concerned only with random
errors. (closely grouped observations)
Accuracy is considered to be an overall estimate of the errors present in measurements including systematic effects.

Reliability is the degree to which a survey is designed to detect and eliminate mistakes in field
work and computation.

2.4 Normal Distribution, Standard Deviation, Outlier Detection


Random variates (i.e. observations affected by random errors only) are assumed to have a
continuous frequency distribution called normal distribution and obey the law of probability.
A random variate x, which is normally distributed with an expectation value and a standard
deviation , is written in symbol in the form N ~ (2).

Size of error
1
2
3
1.65
1.96
2.57

Probability [%]
68.3
95.5
99.7
90
95
99

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

The most probable value (MPV) is obtained by least squares estimation. In the case of a single unknown and direct measurements of equal weight it is computed as arithmetic mean:
1 n
x xi
n i 1
The residuals are defined as the difference between MPV and the observed values:
vi xi x
The precision of a set of observations can than be computed as empirical standard deviation s
or empirical variance s2 (standard deviation / variance of single observation):
s s2

1 n 2
vi
n 1 i 1

The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is given by:


s
sm
.
n
It is not unusual, when taking repeated measurements of the same quantity, to find at least one
which appears very different from the rest. Such a measurement is called an outlier, which
may be rejected from the sample. A statistical method to detect outliers makes use of the
MPV, the residuals vi, and the standard deviation of the observation s:
outlier, if vi / s 3
(statistical probability to detect false outliers: 100 - 99.7 = 0.3% in case of a large sample
size).
If more than one outlier is detected, the one with the largest ratio vi / s is rejected. Then, the
computation including outlier detection is repeated until no further outliers are found.

2.5 Significant Figures


The number of digits used has to indicate correctly the accuracy with which the observations
and the computed final results were obtained. (Pocket calculators tend to present as many as 8
10 places of decimals and eliminate trailing zeros.)
Rules:
2 significant figures for standard deviations,
same number of decimal places for the value itself,
but use extra figures throughout the data processing
Example:

L = 1 234.554 m sL=0.012 m

More examples of 2 significant figures: 40, 3.2, 0.55, 0.065, -0.000 044
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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

avoid ambiguous numbers: e.g. 83 600 m (3, 4, or 5 significant figures?),


use different units: 83.60 km (4 significant figures),
express the value in power of ten: 8.360 x 104 implies 4 significant figures

2.6 Error Propagation


Many surveying results are obtained indirectly from combinations of observed data. As each
measurements contains random errors, it is necessary to determine of how these errors propagate to the derived quantities.
Step 1: describe how the quantity y is derived from observations xi:
y f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )
Step 2: differentiate this equation with respect to each of the observed quantities in turn
and sum them to obtain their total effect:
f
f
f
dy
dx1
dx 2 ...
dx n
x1
x 2
x n
in which f / xi are the partial derivatives of f with respect to xi.
Step 3: The variance sy2 is obtained by squaring both sides and substituting the small errors
dy and dxi by their standard deviations. Since the measured quantities may be considered
independent and uncorrelated all cross-products tend to be zero and may be ignored.
2

f 2
f 2 f 2
s xn
s x1
s x 2 ...
s
x1
x2
xn
2
y

Example 1: Area of a rectangle

The two sides a and b of a rectangle have been measured with standard deviations sa and sb.
What is the standard deviation of the derived area of the rectangle?
Step 1: A a b f (a, b)
f
f
Step 2: dA
da db b da a db
a
b
2
2
2
Step 3: s A b s a a 2 sb2

Example 2: Sum of several measurements of equal precision


e.g. levelling

Step 1: y x1 x 2 ... x n
Step 2: dy dx1 dx 2 ... dx n
Step 3: s y2 s12 s22 ... sn2 n s 2 ,

Standard deviation: s y n s

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Example 3: Arithmetic mean of several observations of equal precision

e.g. repeated observation of the same quantity

1
( x1 x 2 ... x n )
n
dx
dx dx
Step 2: dy 1 2 ... n
n
n
n
2
2
2
s
s
s
s2 s2
Step 3: s y2 12 22 ... n2 n 2 ,
n
n
n
n
n
Step 1: y

Standard deviation s y

s
n

Example 4: Indirect determination of a distance

The sight between stations A and B is obstructed, so that the


distance AB c has to be determined indirectly by observing horizontal distances a, b and the horizontal angle at the
additional station C.
Step 1: c a 2 b 2 2ab cos

Step 2: dc

| cosine-rule

a b cos
b a cos
ab sin
da
db
d
c
c
c

x n
n x n 1 , |
x

a b cos
b a cos
ab sin
2
2
2
Step 3: s c2
sa
sb
s
c
c

c
2

| units!!!

Attention: the standard deviation of angle has to be in radians.

numerical example:
a = 34.517 m, sa = 0.010 m
b = 42.981 m, sb = 0.010 m
= 147.322 gon, s= 3.0 mgon = 4.7 10-5 rad
c = 71.041 m
dc = 0.895 da + 0.934 db + 15.4 d
sc2 = 8.01 10-5 + 8.72 10-5 + 5.24 10-7 = 16.8 10-5 m2; sc = 0.013 m

12

2 1

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

3 Setting up Instrument
Objectives and Measures:
(1) Levelling: In order to be able to separate horizontal from vertical the vertical axis of the
instrument must be aligned with the local plumb line. This is achieved by levelling the instrument.
(2) Centering: In case that the instrument is to be set up above a marker, the instrument has
to be centred as well.

3.1 Bubbles (or Vials)


Slightly curved glass devices which are incompletely filled with a liquid (e.g. synthetic alcohol), leaving a bubble under the glass.
Two forms:
circular bubble (bulls eye level vial): a circular flat-bottomed device with liquid under a
slightly convex glass face which indicates the centre, less precise.

tube bubble (tube vial, level tube): slightly curved glass tube with uniformly spaced graduations etched on the tubes exterior surface, works in the direction of the tube only, to be used
in two perpendicular directions, more precise.

Sensitivity of a bubble: related to the radius of curvature of the upper


glass surface
Typical sensitivity of a tube level: 30 for a 2 mm division,
l
l 0.002 57.3
Radius:
13.8 m
r

30 / 3600
r

Centring the bubble is not sufficient for levelling the instrument, since
the bubbles horizontal plane may be out of the horizontal plane of the
instrument.
Levelling procedure:
centre the bubble using foot screws 1 and 2
rotate the instrument by 180
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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

if the bubble does not remain centred, bring the bubble half way back by tilting the instrument using its foot screws 1 and 2
rotate the instrument by 180 again and check that the bubble remains in its off-centre
position
rotate the instrument by 90 and repeat the procedure described above using foot screw 3
final check: the bubble remains in its off-centre position when rotating the instrument, i.e.
the instrument is levelled

The bubbles must be shaded if set up in bright sunlight. Otherwise, the bubble will expand
and run towards the warmer end as the liquid is heated.

3.2 Tripod, Tribrach, Plumbs

Tripod: a three-legged stand with adjustable legs made of wood, metal or fiberglass.
Tribrach: it consists of three screws for levelling, often a circular bubble, a clamping device to
secure the base of an instrument or accessories (e.g. prism) and threads to attach it to the head
of a tripod. Some tribrachs have integral optical plummets.
Plumb bob: mechanical plummet having a fine point and attached to a cord which must be
free of knots, less precise than an optical plummet.
Optical plummet: independent device or integrated into the alidade3 of an instrument or integrated into the tribach. If the instrument is levelled it provides a line of sight that is directed
downward, collinear with the vertical axis of the instrument.

The alidade is the part of a theodolite that rotates around the vertical axis, and that bears the horizontal axis
around which the telescope turns up or down.

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

3.3 Levelling and Centring of Instrument


Step 1: rough centring
attach the tribrach to the head of the tripod, let the eyepiece of the optical plummet point to
the user, fix clamp of the optical plummet, focus the optical plummet as sharp as possible, put
one leg of the tripod behind the ground marker into the ground, take the other two legs in your
hands, set these legs to the ground sighting the marker through the optical plummet and keeping the head of the tripod roughly horizontally, firmly press all three tripod legs into the
ground.
Step 2: rough levelling
use the circular bubble and change the length of the tripod legs until the bubble is brought to
its centre
Step 3: precise centring
untighten the central clamping screw with which the tribrach is fixed to the head of the tripod,
move the tribrach without rotation until it is centred observe cross hair4 of optical plummet
Step 4: precise levelling
use the tube bubble and footscrews of the tribrach, see levelling procedure described in chapter 3.1
Repeat steps 3 and 4 for checking and improvements.

cross hair fine lines etched on a thin round glass plate

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

4 Differential Levelling
4.1 Principle of Differential Levelling
horizontal line of sight, vertical rod
height difference = backsight foresight

one setup: height information is transferred from one change point (bench mark) to the next
change point (bench mark)

H h BS FS

additional heights by taking readings at intermediate sights

Increase of reliability:
- closed loop (end at starting BM)
- start and end at different BM
- double run: perform levelling from A
to B and back again to A

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

4.2 Instruments and Rods


Rods (staffs): made of wood, fibreglass, or metal;
different graduations
additional devices: rod level to guarantee vertical rod (fixed to rod or
separate device), foot plate to increase stability of change point

(1) Tilting level: with tube bubble


approximate levelling of instrument with circular bubble (levelling screws of base)
precise levelling of telescope with tube bubble in preparation for each reading (tilting
screw)

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

(2) Automatic level: with compensator


three-screw base and circular bubble to approximately level the instrument
precise levelling of the line of sight by automatic compensator
compensator consists of e.g.:
(a) prism suspended from wires to create a pendulum
(b) fixed prisms
(c) damping device to shorten time for the pendulum to come to rest

Increase of reading precision with parallel-plate micrometer

parallel displacement of line of sight until cross-hair is aligned with nearest graduation on
the invar rod,
coarse reading on the rod, precise reading on the scale of the micrometer

Elimination of mistakes and increase of precision by working with two scales:


difference of scale origins is called rod constant c
check of double reading: BS I BS II FS I FS II c
check of setup: ( BS I FS I ) ( BS II FS II ) 0
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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

(3) Digital level: automatic level with automatic reading and digital recording
(may be used as optical level as well)
coarse levelling with circular bubble
turn telescope toward rod, focus telescope
start measurement (press button):
1. check whether compensator moves freely
2. determination of signal intensity ( exposure time)
3. image capturing, and A/D conversion
4. image processing: rod reading, image scale distance
measurement takes 2 4 s, results are displayed and stored

19

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

4.3 Testing and Adjusting Levels


Collimation Error ():

axis of tube bubble is not parallel to line of sight


compensator does not define horizontal line of sight

causes incorrect reading of d S tan


no errors in height difference if BS distance and FS distance are balanced

Two-Peg Testing and Calibration:

1st setup: equal distances height difference free of collimation errors: h BS I FS I


2nd setup: double distance of one of the rods:
1
h 2d BS II FS II d ( BS II FS II h)
2
d
d
arctan
S
S
II
FS II 2d
Adjustment of instrument: true reading: FS TRUE
automatic level: adjust reticle (move horizontal cross hair up or down)
digital level: collimation error is stored and applied as correction to the measurements

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

4.4 Sources of Error and Achievable Accuracy


(1) Instrumental Errors:
collimation error: BS/FS with equal distances
cross hair not exactly horizontal: adjust cross hair
incorrect scale or origin of rod, inaccurate divisions on a rod: calibration
apply correction
(2) Natural Errors:
curvature of the earth: BS/FS with equal distances
refraction, bending of light rays: BS/FS with equal distances,
avoid extreme refraction: bright sun light, hot weather,
light ray to close (<0,5 m) to the ground
settlement of the instrument or rod: firm ground, observation techniques
(3) Personal Errors:
interpolation of reading micrometer, digital level
rod not vertical rod level
other random errors double run

Propagation of systematic errors:

H n h
Even very small systematic effects at each setup may have a large effect on the height difference of the levelling line.

Propagation of random errors:


n

H hi h1 h2 h3 ... hn

(Step 1: height difference of level line)

dH dh1 dh2 ... dhn

(Step 2: differentiation)

2
H

2
h1

2
h 2

... s

2
hn

ns

2
h

(Step 3: variances)

The accuracy of the height difference of a level line is a function of its length (number of setups):
s H s h n s h

L
S

s Lev / km L [km ]

with
s H - standard deviation of height difference of level line of length L
s h - standard deviation of height difference of single setup
sLev / km - standard deviation of 1 km level line observed in double run
n number of setups
length
of level line
L
average distance of rods
S 21

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

The achievable accuracy depends on:


equipment: quality of instrument, rod
observation procedure: one or two rods, one or two scale rod, parallel-plate micrometer,
single or double run, etc.

Instrument
Type

Standard
Level
Engineering
Level
Precise Level

Amplification
Factor
of Telescope
[-]
18 25

Precision of
Compensator
[]
15

Achievable
Accuracy
s Lev / km (double run)
[mm/km]
5.0 10

20 30

0.5 1

1.0 3.0

25 50

0.4

0.2 1.0

Adjustment of level line (between known BM) or in level circuit:

determine misclosure

check whether misclosure meets (distance dependent) tolerance


(e.g. t h [mm] 15 L [km] )

adjust according to lengths of level legs or number of setups.

22

Price

Euro
few 100
some 100 1000,
digital: few 1000
1000-2000,
digital: some 1000

Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Geodesy for Hydro Science


and

surveying form

Engineering: Practical 2

Levelling

date: 26.10.09

no.: 171965

instr.: Ni 025
readings

backsight
BS

intermediate
sight IS

foresight
FS

height
difference
h

348

510

461

750

837

120

609

12

969

604

+1

+1

+1

+1

page:
observer: Reuner
point

height
H
5

comment
no.

location
6

100

000

060

288

100

288

C1

822

689

100

977

C2

213

-0

752

100

225

C3

856

-0

105

100

120

809

028

100

148

C4

732

389

101

537

C5

988

621

102

158

C6

984

986

103

144

464

144

144

140

004

L = 0.3km

H 100.000m
H 103.144m

Given
H H H 3.144m
BS 12.604m

FS 9.464m

h BS FS 3.140m
Observed

given
A

given
B

given
B

Misclosure
Tolerance th[mm] 15 L[km]

given
A

m H h 0.004m 4mm

t h 8mm
m

Check

m H

h 3.144

Check

H Bcalculated 102.158 0.986 103


.144 H Bgiven
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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

5 Computations on the Plane


5.1 Geoid, Ellipsoid, Sphere, Plane
Def. of geoid:
The geoid is the equipotential surface of the earths gravity field which coincides with the
mean sea level of the oceans.

equipotential surface: no potential differences = no water flow


mean sea level: averaging tide gauge observations over at least one year
but the mean sea level does not exactly coincides with a level surface (e.g. the geoid),
max. deviation about +/- 1 m due to constant oceanographic and meteorological effects
the geoid serves as a reference surface for heighting

Def. of ellipsoid:
The rotational ellipsoid is a mathematical surface which can be described in a simple manner.
Its dimension and orientation have been selected to fit the geoid.

size and shape defined by two parameters: semimajor and semiminor axes a and b
a b
,
flattening f: f
a
a=6,378,137 m, b=6,356,752 m, a-b=21,384 m,
f=1/298.257
rotational ellipsoid approximates the geoid within
about +/- 100 m (geoid height)
reference surface for horizontal coordinates and
ellipsoidal heights

Differences rotational ellipsoid geoid (geoid


height):

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Sphere: approximation of the geoid/ellipsoid for medium-scale regions (diameter < 100 km)

Plane: approximation of geoid/ellipsoid/sphere for small areas (diameter <10 km)

Coordinate Errors due to performing calculations on the plane:


distance [km]
horizontal error [m]
vertical error [m]

1
0.000
0.078

2
0.000
0.31

5
0.002
1.96

10
0.012
7.84

20
0.098
31.4

50
1.54
196.0

100
12.29
783.9

5.2 LOP Concept for Horizontal Positions


LOP Line of Position
usually not used in geodesy but in navigation
theodolite: horizontal directions and angles, vertical angles
total station: horizontal directions and angles, vertical angles + slant distances horizontal
distances + height differences
other means to measure horizontal distances: steel tape, laser distance meter

LOPs
(a) straight lines: angle, azimuth (observed at known station, one direction to unknown
station)
(b) concentric circle: horizontal distances (remember: HD SD sin z SD cos v )
(c) eccentric circle: angle (observed at unknown station)

A horizontal position is determined using at least two LOPs.

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5.3 Rectangular/Polar Conversion


d AB

n B n A 2 ( e B e A )2

horizontal
distance

e eA

AB arctan B
nB n A

azimuth

Pay attention to quadrants using arc tangent function:


quadrant e B e A
n B n A AB [gon] + [gon]
1
>0
>0
0 100
0
2
>0
<0
100 200
+200
3
<0
<0
200 300
+200
4
<0
>0
300 400
+400

quadrants

5.4 Polar/Rectangular Conversion


(horizontal distance: d AB HD SD sin z )
n B n A d AB cos AB

e B e A d AB sin AB

5.5 Azimuth Determination


Azimuths can not be measured directly (with sufficient accuracy) but an initial azimuth must
be calculated from coordinates.

2 points with given coordinates: instrument setup at


A, reference direction to AA
calculated azimuth AA , observed angle A

A AA A 200 gon

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5.6 Traversing
traverse: series of consecutive lines whose lengths and directions have been determined from
measurements.
starting point A
closing point B
traverse points e.g. 1, 2
starting reference direction: to AA
closing reference direction: to BB
coordinates have to be known for A, AA, B, BB

open traversing: no known closing station, no closing reference direction


(to be avoided, low reliability)
closed traversing:
polygon: lines return to the starting points, at least one reference direction
link: start and end at different known stations, two reference directions

Computation of a linked traverse:


(1) first and last azimuth from coordinates:
C
e C e CAA
e BB
e BC
C

,
arctan
CAA arctan CA

B
C
nC nC
B
n A n AA
BB
(2) observed azimuths from first azimuth and observed angles:

AC AA A 200 gon
1 A 1 200 gon
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2 1 2 200 gon
B 2 B 200 gon
(3) azimuth misclosure:
m BC B
must be smaller than a given tolerance value which depends on traverse length
and number of traverse points
(4) correction of measured angles by equal amount: c m / n
(n number of measured angles)

c
(5) calculation of coordinates:
n1 n CA d A1 cos A
n 2 n1 d 12 cos 1
n B n 2 d 2 B cos 2

e1 e CA d A1 sin A
e2 e1 d 12 sin 1
e B e2 d 2 B sin 2

(6) coordinate misclosures for station B:


mn n BC n B
me e BC e B
must be smaller than given tolerance values which depend on traverse length
and number of traverse points
(7) correction of coordinates: either according to number of distances or according to
lengths of distances

If desired, traverse station elevations can also be determined calculating height differences
from slant distances and zenith angles. Instrument heights and reflector heights need to be
measured.

5.7 Intersection and Resection


Def. Intersection: locating a point without actually occupying it.
Angular intersection:
observations: angles A and B
geometry: 2 straight line LOPs
best geometry: angle at N of 100 gon
weak geometry: all 3 stations on the same
straight line
Distance intersection:
observations: distances dAN and dBN
geometry: 2 centric circle LOPs
best geometry: angle at N of 100 gon
weak geometry: all 3 stations on the same straight line
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Additional measurements to increase reliability of coordinates of station N:


combination of angular intersection and distance intersection
trisection using an extra control point
independent repeated intersection using two additional control points

Def. Resection: locating a point by taking observations from it to known stations.

Distance resection:
observations: distance dAN and dBN
identical with distance intersection
Angular resection:
observations: 3 horizontal directions to 3
known stations, i.e. two angles between 3
known stations: 1 and 2
geometry: 2 eccentric circle LOPs
best geometry: N close to centre of A,B,C,
weak geometry: all 4 stations lie on the same
circle use more than 4 stations to increase reliability

5.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation and


Free Stationing
conversion of coordinates from one survey coordinate system
to another:
e.g. from local coordinate system
n L ,e L
n S ,e S
to state plane coordinate system
(1) decide on number and kind of transformation parameters:
e.g. 2D conformal5 transformation:
scale
s
rotation angle

Tn , Te
translations in n and e
(2) determination of transformation parameters from identical points in both systems:
e.g. 4 unknowns at least 2 identical points
(3) compute transformation parameters (here just 2 identical points, in practice at least 3
should be used to increase reliability)
scale:

( n 2S n1S ) 2 ( e2S e1S ) 2


( n 2L n1L ) 2 ( e2L e1L ) 2

conformal: true shape is retained

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rotation angle:

translations:

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

e2S e1S
e2L e1L
arctan L

arctan S
L
S
n 2 n1
n 2 n1
Tn n1S s (n1L cos e1L sin )
Te e1S s (n1L sin e1L cos )

(4) transform coordinates of other points from system 1 to system 2


n S Tn s (n L cos e L sin )
e S Te s (n L sin e L cos )

Free Stationing

setup of instrument on unknown point with sights to known stations (bench marks BM)
and to points to be determined; use at least 2 bench marks (better 3 or more to gain increased reliability)
determine horizontal angles and horizontal distances to bench marks
compute bench mark coordinates in local coordinate system
calculate transformation parameters between local coordinate system and state plane coordinate system
determine horizontal angles and horizontal distances to other points, calculate coordinates
in local system, transform them to state plane coordinate system

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6 Theodolite and Angle Observations


The theodolite is used to measure both horizontal and zenith angles.
A total station is an electronic theodolite supplemented with a distance meter.
An electronic theodolite is a total station without distance meter.
Accuracy Class
Low
Medium
High

Standard deviation
of single observation
> 3 mgon
1 3 mgon
< 1 mgon

Optical theodolite / Electronic theodolite:

6.1 Horizontal Directions and Zenith Angles

zero direction of horizontal circle points to arbitrary


direction
horizontal angle: difference of two readings (horizontal directions)
vertical readings refer to the local plumb line: observation of zenith or vertical angles

31

Effect at a distance of
50 m
200 m
> 2 mm
> 10 mm
1 2 mm
3 10 mm
< 1 mm
< 3 mm

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6.2 Theodolite Axes and Axis Errors


3 principal axes:
1. Vertical axis is exactly vertical
2. Collimation axis is normal to horizontal axis
3. Horizontal axis is normal to vertical axis

Vertical Axis Error:


vertical axis not perfectly
plumb
error of set up of instrument
careful levelling of instrument
no effect on horizontal sights
no elimination by observations in two telescope positions
electronic theodolites: dualaxis electronic levels to
measure remaining tilt of the
vertical axis; numerical correction

Instrumental Errors
(1) Collimation Error:
collimation axis not perfectly normal to horizontal axis
c
directional error depends on zenith angle: c
sin z
(2) Horizontal Axis Error:
horizontal axis deviates from horizontal plane
no effect on horizontal sights
directional error depends on zenith angle i i cot z
Elimination or Correction:
elimination by observations in both telescope positions6 and averaging the results:
1
r (r I r II 200 gon)
2
electronic theodolites: determination from observations in both telescope positions and
numerical correction

plunge the telescope = rotate telescope around horizontal axis by 180 degrees, rotate the instrument around its
vertical axis by 180 degrees and then take a second reading; direct and reverse telescope positions.

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6.3 Optical and Automatic Circle Reading


-

circles made of glass,


graduation by a photo-chemical process,
optical theodolites:
line thickness of several m
increase of reading accuracy by
line microscope and optical
micrometer
electronic theodolites:
automatic reading
coded circles or increments
(light/dark fields)
incremental method: fixed
circle or rotating circle
several different techniques

Coded Circle:
direct direction reading from parallel binary code

Incremental method with fixed circle:

zero direction at switch on of instrument


counting of dark/light changes to determine rotation angle
problem: detection of rotation direction: two photoelectric barriers at distance of 1+1/4
increment lengths
interpolation within increment length to increase resolution

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Dynamic method with rotating circle:

rotating circle, e.g. 180 rotations/minute


fixed photodiode precisely determines rotation velocity
movable photodiode determines horizontal angle with respect to zero direction
horizontal direction measurement from time difference observation:
t counter 2
t counter 1

t counter 2
t full rotation

angle between zero direction and target direction


400 gon

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7 Electronic Distance Measurements (EDM)


7.1 Electromagnetic Waves and their Propagation
Electromagnetic Wave

An electromagnetic wave propagates in space and time. It can be described as a sinusoidal


oscillation.

Its phase is a function of distance and time:


x

y A sin t 0
c

with
y magnitude of oscillation
A amplitude, maximum magnitude of oscillation
= 2f angular frequency [rad/s] with f frequency [1/s]
t time [s]
x position (distance) [m]
c velocity [m/s]
here vacuum velocity: c 2.99792458 10 8 m / s 3 10 8 m / s
zero phase (phase angle at t0, x0) [rad]

simplification if time or position is fixed:


e.g. fixed position
y A sin( t 0 )
other important relations:
c f
T 1/ f
with
wavelength [m]
period [s].

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

Troposphere: neutral atmosphere: <12 km, water vapour <5 km


Ionosphere: ionized atmosphere: 100 km 1000+ km

Modulation

Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal in order to transfer information.

e.g.:

EDM: Amplitude Modulation, Pulsed Signal


GPS: Phase Modulation

Refractive Index

The refractive index of a medium is the ratio of vacuum velocity to the actual phase velocity
of electromagnetic radiation:

c
v
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The following factors influence the refractive index:

Troposphere

Ionosphere

Visible light
temperature, pressure,
water vapour content
(humidity), frequency

negligible (n = 1)

Microwaves
temperature, pressure,
water vapour content (humidity)
(non-dispersive, independent of
frequency)
Density of ionised atoms,
frequency

Group velocity refractive index:

Group velocity (velocity of modulation) differs from phase velocity if the medium is dispersive (i.e. refractive index frequency-dependent).
c
Group velocity refractive index: n g
vg
Examples:
Medium

Vacuum

Visible light (589.3 nm)


n
ng
1.000 000

Microwaves (19 cm)


n
ng
1.000 000

air of 0C, 1013.25 mbar,


0 % rel. humidity.

1.000 292

1.000 302

1.000 288

air of 15C, 1013.25 mbar,


50 % rel. humidity

1.000 273

1.000 286

1.000 311

ionospheric layer with


7 1011 electrons/m3 (local noon,
height above ground 250 km )

1.000 000

0.999 988

1.000 012

Effect on distance errors if refractive index is completely ignored:


0.3 m
n=0.00002 0.02 m
n=1.0003, d=1 km
n=1.00001, d=500 km 5.0 m

Dual-Frequency systems

Dual-frequency systems enable the calculation of phase or group velocity deviations when
used in dispersive media:
e.g.
visible light and troposphere: 441.6 nm (green) and 632.8 nm (red) (EDM)
microwaves and ionosphere: 19.0 cm and 24.4 cm (GPS)

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7.2 Measurement Techniques


two-way ranging, passive reflector, close to the ground, visible light or IR, pulsed or amplitude modulated

Pulse method

1
1 c
v t t
2
2 n

Phase Difference Method

1
N M 1 N M M 1 N M 0 M 0
2
2
2 2
ng
2 n g

N integer ambiguity, - observed phase difference, M 0 - nominal modulation wavelength, M - actual modulation wavelength with refractive index ng

Ambiguity resolution by using several modulation frequencies, basic principle:


Readings
Frequency
Scale Phase Difference Phase Reading
fM [MHz]
U [m]
U= [m]

(1) rough
0.1498
1 000
0.550
550
(2) rough
1.4989
100
0.496
49.6
(3) fine
14.9896
10
0.973
9.73
Measured distance d: 549.73 m

Ambiguity resolution by using several modulation frequencies, more realistic example:


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Readings
(1) fine
(2) fine
(3) fine
Diff. (1)-(2)
Diff. (1)-(3)

Frequency
fM [MHz]

L. Wanninger, Geodetic Institute, TU Dresden

Scale
U =[m]

Phase
Difference

Phase Reading =

U [m]

14.9896 10.00
14.8397 10.10
13.4906 11.11

0.973
0.429
0.481

9.73
4.33
5.34

0.1498 1 000
1.4989 100

0.544
0.492

544
49.2
d=549.2

Ambiguity
N= nint
[(d-U

54
54
49

Measured
distance
d=N*U+

549.73
549.73
549.73

d= 549.73 m

Reflectors

single corner reflector, prism, reflective sheet

Reflector constant: the effective centre of a prism does not coincide with the plummet, can be
as large as 70 mm, varies with kind of reflector

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Without Reflector
Without reflector: esp. for any situations which are difficult or impossible to access directly,
e.g. facade of a building
May experience erroneous observations in certain situations experienced observer

7.3 Errors and Corrections


Zero Error (independent of distance):
- difference of electronic and geometric centre of instrument
- difference of optical and geometric centre of reflector
calibration, applying correction

calibration on known baseline, without known baseline

Scale Error (proportional to distance):


frequency error: deviation from nominal frequency lab calibration by measuring
the actual modulation frequency, applying correction

refractive error: deviations from design refractive index of e.g. 1.000 273
observing actual pressure and temperature and applying correction

Accuracy of EDM:
s d2 e 2 (d p) 2 [mm2]
e constant error [mm]: with reflector 1 5 mm, without reflector 5 10 mm
p proportional error [mm/km = ppm]: 1 5 ppm
d distance [km]

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8 Satellite-Based Positioning
GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System, namely
GPS (NAVSTAR GPS (NAVigation System Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System)),
GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System),
Galileo, BeiDou
Satellite System

GPS

GLONASS

USA

Soviet Union /
Russia

1973
~30

1979
~24

Country

Start of Project
Number of healthy
satellites
(Aug. 2015)

Galileo

mainly
European
countries
1999
3

Beidou

China
late 1990
~13

a minimum of ~24 satellites is required

Objectives:
provide high-accuracy real-time position (~10 m), velocity (<0.1 m/s), and time
to an unlimited number of users
worldwide, all weather operation, 24 h a day
affordable, reliable user equipment (no high-accuracy clocks, no directional antennas on
user side)

8.1 Absolute Positioning


Concept of absolute positioning
Achievable accuracy: ~10 m (standard deviation, 3D)

Range measurements to satellites:


one-way travel time satellite antenna receiving antenna range (distance),
but receiver clock error pseudorange
4 unknowns (3D position and receiver clock error) at least 4 simultaneous measurements needed, i.e. at least 4 satellite signals have to be received simultaneously
information on satellite positions and clocks needed
observation equation (code observation):
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C ai Rai c t a t i
with

Rai X i X a ( X i X a ) 2 (Y i Ya ) 2 ( Z i Z a ) 2

C ai - code observation [m],


Rai - geometric distance satellite i receiver a [m],
c - vacuum signal velocity [m/s],
t a - receiver clock error [s],

t i - satellite clock error [s],

X - 3D position vector in global Cartesian coordinates [m].

observed:
C ai ; given: X i , t i ; unknown: X a , t a
Example for a set of observations:
Observation epoch: Y: 05 M: 08 D: 31 H: 10 M: 05 S: 30.00
SV
C[m]
03
23,279,758.86
09
25,613,898.87
11
21,266,649.95
17
22,709,865.93
21
21,139,856.02
24
23,690,282.29
27
20,460,660.62

GPS-time

Higher accurate positions can be obtained by


(1) differential positioning,
(2) using carrier phase observations instead of code observations (modulation),
(3) using more accurate orbit and satellite clock corrections.

8.2 Positioning Systems


Satellite
Segment

Control
Segment

User
Segment

Absolute Positioning: 3 segments


(without Reference Station Segment)
Reference
Station
Segment

Differential Positioning: 4 segments


(incl. Reference Station Segment)

Primary Data Flow


Secondary Data Flow

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Satellite Segment:
24 or more satellites which continuously transmit micro wave signals.
These signals are modulated with a
code signal which is used for ranging
and which also contains information
on satellite orbits (3D coordinates) and
clocks (clock correction to obtain system time).

Inclination (to equatorial plane) of satellite orbits


of ~55 (GPS/Galileo/BeiDou) to 65 (GLONASS). Important effect to users: shadow areas as
a function of the users latitude.
Satellites move on the surface of a truncated
sphere:
GPS: a=26,560 km, inclination i=55
GLONASS: a=25,510 km, i=65
Galileo: a=29,600 km, i=56
BeiDou: a=27,840 km, i=55
Shadow areas as a function of users latitude

Control Segment:

Tasks:
continuously monitor and control
the satellite system,
determine system time,
predict the satellites ephemerides
and the behaviour of the satellite
clocks,
periodically update the navigation
message for each particular satellite,
command small maneuvers to maintain orbit, or relocate or substitute
an unhealthy satellite
GPS Control Segment
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User Segment:
Receives signals of 4 or more satellites and determines its position + time (absolute positioning) or using simultaneous observations from at least 2 stations of 4 or more satellites to determine position differences and time differences (differential positioning).

Price
Observables
Observation Channels
Achievable Accuracy:
absolute, kinematic
differential, kinematic, code (DGNSS)
differential, phase
Data recording
Antenna

GNSS Navigation Receiver


(few) 100 Euro
Singe-frequency code, often
GPS only
8 15

Geodetic GNSS Receiver


~ 15 000 Euro
Dual-frequency, code and
phase, GPS + GLONASS + ...
1232 for each frequency

10 m
few m

5m
1m

positions
small and simple, internal or
external

mm cm
all observations and positions
separate geodetic antenna

Reference Station Segment: = CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Stations)


Permanently fixed receivers which make available to the users
their observations or
products based on these observations
to be used for differential positioning.

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GNSS Receivers

GNSS Antennas

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8.3 Computations on the Ellipsoid


conventions of a global geodetic reference system:
earth-fixed (fixed coordinates)
origin is the centre of mass of the Earth
scale: SI7 meter

Z-axis: coincides with rotational axis of the Earth, points


towards mean orientation of polar axis in the period 19001905 (Conventional International Origin - CIO)
X-axis: in equatorial plane, XZ-plane contains Greenwich
(Greenwich Mean Observatory - GMO)
Y-axis: to complete a right-handed system

Conventional Terrestrial Reference System (CTRS)


Realization by a set of globally distributed bench marks with coordinates and linear velocities.
(Conventional Terrestrial Reference Frame CTRF), called frame.
e.g.: International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF 2008)
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) used by GPS
Parametri Zemli 1990 (PZ-90.02) used by GLONASS,
Today, all these realizations agree on the few cm-level to 10 cm -level.

WGS84-parameters (part of the system definition):


semi-major axis:
a = 6,378,137 m
flattening
f = (a b ) / a = 1 / 298,257223563

Global Cartesian
X

Y
Z
WGS 84

Ellipsoidal
Transformation




h
WGS 84

UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator

International System of Units

46

UTM

Projection

North

East WGS 84

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Global Cartesian and ellipsoidal coordinates

Transformation between Global Cartesian and Ellipsoidal Coordinates


From the parameters a and b (or a and f) we compute:
a2 b2
square of the first numerical eccentricity: e 2
2f f 2,
2
a
a
curvature radius in the parallels: N
[m].
1 e 2 sin 2

Global Cartesian coordinates ellipsoidal coordinates:

arctan

X 2 Y 2
Y
arctan
X
X 2 Y 2
h
N
cos

2
1 e

N h

iteration required: start with h = 0 m h , converges quickly


Ellipsoidal coordinates global Cartesian Coordinates:
X ( N h) cos cos

Y ( N h) cos sin
Z N 1 e 2 h sin

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Local Ellipsoidal Coordinates

n cos sin

e sin sin
u cos

- origin in point P,
- orientation by the ellipsoidal vertical (as given by ellipsoidal latitude and longitude ).
- z-axis is directed towards the ellipsoidal zenith,
- x-axis points to ellipsoidal north,
- left-handed system: y-axis points towards east.
Local ellipsoidal coordinates can be transformed to differences of global Cartesian coordinates and vice versa. The transformation consists of
- a reflection (global: right-handed system, local: left-handed system) and
- 2 rotations (as a function of ).
It is performed using the following transformation matrix A:
sin cos

A sin sin

cos

sin cos cos

cos cos sin

0
sin

Application:
X
n


Y A e
Z
u

or

n
X

1
T
e A Y A
u
Z

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Y .
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8.4 Signals and Observations


Carrier signal, no information content, microwaves in the L-band (12 GHz).
Modulation:
a) PRN-Codes (Pseudo Random Noise Codes):
content: time of signal transmission, satellite identification (GPS/Galileo PRN - satellite number)
10.23 Mbps or 1.023 Mbps (GPS)
b) Message:
content: satellite orbits, satellite clock corrections, satellite health
50 bps (GPS)
Two carrier signals on different frequencies, e.g. GPS: 1575.42 MHz und 1227.60 MHz, to
determine ionospheric refraction error (ionosphere is a dispersive medium for microwave signals, see chapter 7.1).
The existing GPS- und GLONASS-signals use a phase modulation technique called Binary
Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) to modulate the information onto the carrier signal.

(Binary Phase Shift Keying -BPSK)


Measurement concept of a code correlation channel: correlation of incoming signals (Code)
with internally generated replica signal:

incoming signal: satellite clock reading at time of signal transmission


internally generated signal: receiver clock reading at reception time

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code tracking loop: time shift of internal signal until maximum correlation with incoming
signal: size of time shift corresponds to signal travel time plus receiver clock error
pseudorange, reading of satellite clock.
then: extraction of data message and carrier tracking loop

8.5 Observation Errors


Random errors:
mm cm (Phase)
10 cm m (Code)
Propagation of random errors: DOP Factors

Dilution of Precision (DOP) values are used to estimate the achievable accuracy as a function
of the satellite geometry. It is a factor which describes the error propagation of the standard
deviation of the measured pseudoranges to the standard deviation of the position (or position
components). A good geometry is represented by a low DOP factor. In practice several different DOP factors are used: e.g. North DOP, East DOP, Vertical DOP, 3D-Position DOP
(=PDOP).
s Pos s Pseudorange DOP

Position Accuracy = Pseudorange Accuracy DOP Value


Average DOP-values (Dresden, elevation mask 15) for GPS:
NDOP:
1.1
EDOP:
0.8
VDOP:
2.1
PDOP:
2.5,
These values are valid for sites without any obstructions above the elevation mask. If the satellite constellation is poor, e.g. caused by obstructions, DOP factors can reach 10 100 or
higher values. Then, precise positioning can not be performed.

Satellite Orbits
Predicted satellite positions (orbits) differ from actual satellite positions. This difference has no effect on the observations but on the position computation.
Size of error (GPS): m few m
mitigation bydifferential positioning
Satellite Clocks
The corrected satellite clock reading (actual reading plus
predicted correction) is not perfectly synchronized to the
system time.
Size of error (GPS): m few m
elimination bydifferential positioning
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Ionosphere
Due to ionized particles in the ionosphere the refractive index differs from 1. The ionosphere
is a dispersive medium for microwave signals and thus code and phase are affected in different ways: code delay, phase advance.
Size of error: 0.3 30 m
mitigation by dual-frequency observations
mitigation by differential positioning

Troposphere
The signal is delayed due to tropospheric refraction which is independent of frequency in the
microwave frequency spectrum. Hence, also the effects on code and phase are identical.
Size of error: 2.5 m (zenith) 25 m (low elevations)
mitigation by standard troposphere models (remaining errors: cm dm in zenith
direction)
mitigation by differential positioning

Multipath
The direct signal is superimposed by reflected
signals. This causes errors for both types of observables namely code and phase.

Size of error: cm (Phase) m (Code)


mitigation by antenna design (larger ground plane)
mitigation by selection of observation location

Summary: the positioning accuracy can be increased by


differential instead of absolute positioning,
dual-frequency instead of single-frequency observations,
phase instead of just code observations,
long-term static instead of kinematic observations,
selecting an adequate antenna location (few obstructions, few reflectors).

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8.6 Differential Positioning (DGPS or DGNSS)


Concept of Differential Positioning (code observations)
Achievable accuracy: ~1 m (standard deviation, 3D)

- differential positioning requires simultaneous observations at two or more stations to at least


4 satellites
- determination of baseline vectors (2 stations) or networks (more than two stations): 3Dcoordiante differences and differences of clock errors
- mitigation of the effect of several error sources increased accuracy
- observation equation for differential code observations:
C ai ,b C bi C ai Rai ,b c t a ,b

with
Rai ,b

X i Xb X i Xa

X i X b X i X b X a ,b

and

X ai ,b - baseline vector between receiving antennas a and b

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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Pseudorange Corrections

In practice: reference station R,

X R known, broadcast ephemeris ( X i , t i ) known RRi can be calculated


(a) reduction of observed pseudorange by known quantities
C Ri C Ri RRi c t i [m]
(b) estimation of receiver clock error at the reference station as average value of all pseudorange residuals C Ri :
1 n
t R
C Ri [ s ]

n c i 1
(c) calculation of pseudorange corrections K Ri :

K Ri C Ri c t R [m]

The corrections contain the effects of satellite clock errors, ionospheric refraction,
tropospheric refraction and orbit errors at the reference station site.

Example for pseudorange corrections

(d) transmission of corrections from the reference site to the rover receiver
(e) application of pseudorange corrections at the rover site:

C ai K Ri Rai c t a t i

Remaining errors of the reference clock are absorbed in the rovers clock error term, i.e. they
do not affect the positioning results
Remaining errors for positioning:
- multipath effects at the rover and the reference sites, to be further reduced by smoothing
with carrier phase observations.
- effects of ionospheric refraction, tropospheric refraction, orbit errors if distance to reference
station is large (exceeds a few hundred km)

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Example 1:
EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service)
is the European SBAS (Satellite
Based Augmentation System).

Correction consists of model


parameters for satellite clock and
ionosphere. User calculates
pseudorange corrections from
these models and his approximate position.
Transmission of correction signals from geostationary satellites on GPS-L1-frequency for
area of Europe.
Other SBAS: WAAS, GAGAN,MSAS,
in future: QZSS-SAIF, SDCM

Example 2:

DGPS-Service of the German Waterways and


Shipping Administration (Wasser- und
Schifffahrtsverwaltung) according to IALAstandard (Int. Assoc. of Marine Aids to Navigation
and Lighthouse Authorities)
- several 100 stations according to this standard
worldwide
- pseudorange corrections: data rate 100 bit/s,
transmitted at ~ 300 kHz, range 200-400 km

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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8.7 Carrier Phase Positioning and RTK


Comparison of code and carrier observations

Cai Rai c ta ti

ia Rai c ta ti N ai
C ai - code observation [m],
Rai - geometric distance satellite i receiver a [m],
c - vacuum signal velocity [m/s],
t a - receiver clock error [s],

t i - satellite clock error [s],


ia - phase observation [m],
- wavelength [m],
N ai - carrier phase ambiguity [-]
Observation

Random errors

Code
Phase

dm
mm

Multipath
Effects
m
cm

ambiguity
unambiguous pseudorange
ambiguous pseudorange

Single Difference:

ia ,b

ib ia
Rai ,b c ta ,b N ai ,b

Satellite clock error eliminated, tremendous mitigation of ionospheric, tropospheric and orbit
errors especially for short baselines (compare Differential GNSS).
Double Difference (DD):

ia,,jb

ib ia bj aj
Rai ,,bj N ai ,,bj

In addition to single differences: elimination of receiver clock error.


double difference ambiguities N can be fixed to integer values

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Float-Solution:
Ambiguities are estimated as real numbers but they are not fixed to their integer values

ia,,jb Rai ,,bj N ai ,,bj


Unknowns:
in Rai ,,bj : 3 unknowns: X a ,b , Ya ,b , Z a ,b ,
number of independent ambiguities N ai ,,bj : number of satellites -1.
Achievable accuracy:
One epoch: more unknowns than observations, hence no solution
few minutes: dm to m
several minutes: few cm dm
one day: cm.

Ambiguity Fixing
Simplified procedure:
Independent testing of each estimated ambiguity value and its standard deviation: N ai ,,bj
must be closer to an integer than threshold 1 and sN must be smaller than threshold 2.

e.g. threshold 1 = threshold 2 = 0,1 cycles


One baseline, i.e. two stations, 5 satellites 4 N ai ,,bj :
SV - SV: Estimation
Std.deviation
26 - 02: 127462424.910
0.07 to be fixed to 127462425
26 - 12:
6565374.888
0.12 not to be fixed
26 - 23: 43455411.990
0.23 not to be fixed
26 - 31: 64324115.077
0.01 to be fixed to 64324115
If any unfixed ambiguities remain, the fixing procedure may be iterated.
More sophisticated procedures: search algorithms which handle all ambiguities at the same
time
Fixed-Solution
all ambiguities have been fixed to their true integer values: correct DD-phase measurements
accordingly, so that double-difference unknowns disappear from observation equation:

ia,,jb Rai ,,bj


3 unknowns: X a ,b , Ya ,b , Z a ,b ,
Achievable accuracy: few cm, higher accuracy for static observations of several minutes to
hours or days.
In practice static observations can often be finished directly after the reliable and complete
fixing of the carrier phase ambiguities.

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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RTK Real-Time Kinematic


Carrier phase differential GNSS with ambiguity fixing in real-time and centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Maximum distance between reference station
and rover receiver: 5 20 km.

Data transmission by radio communication


(UHF or VHF band).

RTK-Networks and Services


Network-RTK: RTK positioning in networks of reference stations, typical distances between reference
stations: 50 km 100 km, regional service.
e.g. SAPOS, www.sapos.de (German);
Trimble VRS, http://www.trimble.com/vrs.shtml

Data transmission to users by mobile phone

8.8 Applications
Data Processing
Absolute Positioning:
Code (Single- or Dual-Frequency)

Differential Positioning:
DGNSS or DGPS (Code) (Single-Frequency)
Phase (Single- or Dual-Frequency)
without ambiguity fixing: float-solution
with ambiguity fixing: fixed-solution

Accuracy Enhancement by Static Observations

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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RTK

Geodynamics: e.g. global plate tectonics

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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Navigation

References
Wolf, P.R., Ghilani, C.D. (2014): Elementary Surveying. 14th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA
Kavanagh, B.F. (2003): Geomatics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA
Bannister, A., Raymond, S., Baker, R. (1998): Surveying. 7th edition, Pearson Education
Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UK.
Schofield, W. (2007): Engineering Surveying. 6th edition. Elsevier Butterwoth-Heinemann,
Oxford, UK.

Satellite-Based Positioning:
Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and E. Wasle (2008): GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Springer-Verlag, Wien.

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Geodesy (MHSE03), 2015/16

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Appendix:
Sample questions for preparation of the written exam
Please define, explain, give examples, draw a sketch etc.

Radian
Grad (gon)
Mistakes
Errors
Natural errors
Instrumental errors
Personal errors
Systematic errors
Random errors
Precision
Accuracy
Reliability
Normal distribution
Variance
Standard deviation
Outlier detection
Significant figures

Horizontal axis error of theodolite


Observations in 2 telescope positions

Circular bubble
Tube bubble
Tribrach
Optical plumb
Principle of differential levelling
Automatic level
Digital level
Collimation error (levelling)

Absolute positioning (GNSS)


Receiver clock error
Pseudorange
Satellite Segment
Control Segment
Shadow area
Code observation (GNSS)
Carrier-Phase observation (GNSS)
Global Cartesian coordinates
Ellipsoidal coordinates
Local ellipsoidal coordinates
PRN-Code
DOP factor
Tropospheric refraction
Ionospheric refraction
Multipath
Differential positioning
DGPS or DGNSS
Ambiguities (GNSS)
Float solution
Fixed solution
Real-Time Kinematics (RTK)

Visible Window
Radio Window
Modulation
Refractive index
Phase velocity
Group velocity
Dispersive medium
Dual-frequency observations
Pulse method
Phase difference method
Ambiguities (EDM)
Reflector constant
Zero error (EDM)
Scale error (EDM)

Geoid
Rotational ellipsoid
Line of position (LOP)
Angular intersection
Distance intersection
Angular resection
Free stationing
Theodolite
Total station
Horizontal direction
Horizontal angle
Zenith angle
Vertical axis error of theodolite
Collimation error (theodolite)

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Calculations
Convert an angle given in degree (or grad, or radian) to grad (or radian, or degree).
An angle has an error of s mgon. Estimate the position error which is caused by this angle observation error at a distance of d m.
A distance has been observed 10 times. Calculate the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation of a
single observation, the standard deviation of the mean value. Detect outliers according to the 3sigma-rule and ignore them.
Given is a function of observed values (e.g. area of a rectangle being the function of two observed
distances). Calculate the standard deviation of the function based on the standard deviations of the
observed values using the formulas of error propagation.
Given:
two bench mark heights,
levelled height difference and approximate distance of a new station to the first bench
mark,
levelled height difference and approximate distance of the second bench mark to the new
station
tolerance for a height differences t h [ mm] 15 L[ km]
Determine the height of the new station.

Further questions
Describe the levelling and centring procedure of a geodetic instrument using circular bubble, tube
bubble, and optical plummet.
A levelling instrument is to be tested whether a collimation error exists. Please explain the testing
procedure.
The height of a new station has been determined by levelling from a known bench mark. How can
the reliability of the height of the new station be increased?
Why should differential levelling be performed with equal distances in backsight and foresight?
EDM measurements using phase difference method are ambiguous. How can this ambiguity be
resolved?
Why do horizontal angle measurements require a reference direction (i.e. two horizontal direction
readings)? Is there a similar reference direction for the observation of a zenith angle?
An electronic distance meter is to be tested whether a zero error exists. Explain the testing procedure.
Explain the basic principles of positioning with GNSS, with DGNSS, or with RTK.
What are the main differences between a GNSS navigation receiver and a geodetic receiver?
GNSS are designed to provide position accuracies of about 10 m. How can accuracies of about 1
cm be obtained?

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