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ProtectionSchemesForGeneratorsandMotors

Protection Schemes For Generators and Motors (scheme credit: SEL)

Protectionschemes//
Itisdifficulttodefinepreciselytheprotectionschemesthatshouldbeadoptedforan
electricitydistributionsystem,giventhelargenumberofvalidalternativesforeach
situation,butsomeschemeswillbepresentedasaguideforprotectingthevarious
elementsthatmakeupapowersystem.

However,anyprotectionschemeshouldstrikeabalance
betweenthetechnicalandeconomicaspectssothat,for
example,sophisticatedprotectiondevicesarenotusedfor
smallmachinesorforlessimportantpowersystem
elements.
Ok,thisisthelistofgeneratorsandmotorswellobservehere.
1. Generatorprotectionschemes
1. Smallgenerators
2. Largegenerators
2. Motorprotectionschemes
1. Lowpowermotors(lessthan100HP)
2. Motorsupto1000HP
3. Motorsgreaterthan1000HP
4. Additionalprotectionforsynchronousmotors
5. Protectionforthefieldwinding

1.Generatorprotection
Generatorprotectionshouldtakeintoaccounttheimportanceofthegeneratorandits
technicalcharacteristicssuchaspower,voltageandearthingarrangement,plusany

economicconsiderations.Acomplexprotectionschemecanensurethatthegenerator
isprotectedagainstwhateverfaultsmayoccur.

However,itisunlikelythatsuchacostcouldbejustifiedforeverygenerating
station,especiallythosewithsmallunits.

Itis,therefore,necessarytodefineaprotectionschemethatisadequateforthesizeof
themachine.Twogeneratorprotectionschemesaregivenbelow,basedon
suggestionsbymanufacturingcompanies.
Gobacktoprotectionschemes

1.1Smallgenerators
Caterpillar 2.3 MVA Diesel Generator. Output 1915/1824. 3058 Hp (2281 kW). KVA 60
hz/690V/1800 rpm (photo credit: aaronequipment.com)

Forsmallgenerators,typicallyupto5MVA,itisconsiderednecessarytohave:
Protectionagainstinternalfaults
Backupprotectionforexternalfaultsusingovercurrentrelayswithvoltage
restraint
Reversepowerprotection
Earthfaultprotection,usinganovercurrentrelay
Protectionagainstoverloadsbymeansofthermalrelays.
ThisschemeisillustratedinFigure1(forrelayidentification,seearticle ANSIcodes).
Figure 1 Protection schematic for generators up to 5 MVA

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

Largegenerators

Steam turbine with generator 10MVA (photo credit: sar.biz)

Forlargegenerators,sayover5MVA,theprotection,whichisshowninFigure2,
shouldnormallycomprise:
Differentialprotectiontocoverinternalfaults
Earthfaultprotectionusinghighimpedancerelays
Backupprotectionbymeansofdistanceorovercurrentprotectionwithvoltage
restraint
Reversepowerprotection
Negativephasesequenceprotection
Protectionagainstlossofexcitation
Protectionagainstoverloadusingthermalrelays.
Figure 2 Protection schematic for generators over 5 MVA

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

Generatorprotection(VIDEOSESSION)

2.Motorprotection

Theamountofprotectionanditstype,usedforamotorisacompromisebetween
factorssuchastheimportanceofthemotor,thepotentialdangers,thetypeofdutyand
therequirementsofprotectioncoordinationagainstthecostoftheprotectionscheme.

Theprotectionschemesthatareillustratedrepresentcommonpractiseand
internationalrecommendationsfortheprotectionofmotorsofdifferent
powers,andaredividedinto4categories:
1. Protectionoflowpowermotors(lessthan100HP)
2. Protectionofmotorsupto1000HP
3. Protectionofmotorsgreaterthan1000HP
4. Additionalprotectionforsynchronousmotors.

Inprotectionschemes,thestartingequipmentoftherespectivemotorshasnotbeen
represented.
Gobacktoprotectionschemes

2.1Protectionoflowpowermotors
Lowpowermotorsarenormallyprotectedbyfusesassociatedwith
thermaloverloadrelaysincorporatingbimetallicelements(Figure3)thefuses
protectingagainstshortcircuits.
Figure 3 Schematic of fuse protection
for low power motors

Orlowvoltagebreakersplusthermaloverloadrelays(Figure4)whenthebreaker
shouldhaveamagneticelementtotripinstantaneouslyundershortcircuitconditions.
Figure 4 Schematic of low voltage
breaker protection for low power motor

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

2.2Protectionofmotorsupto1000HP
Theprotectionarrangementsshouldincludethermalprotectionagainstoverloadsand

shortcircuits(49/50),protectionforlockedrotor(51)andearthfaultprotection(50G),
asindicatedinFigure5below.
Figure 5 Protection schematic for motors up to 1 000 HP

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

2.3Protectionofmotorsgreaterthan1000HP
ProtectionschemeshowninFigure6includesunbalanceprotection(46),thermal
protectionagainstoverloads(49),protectionforalockedrotorsituation(51),differential
protectionforinternalfaults(87),backupforshortcircuits(50)andearthfault
protection(50G).
Figure 6 Protection schematic for motors over 1 000 HP

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

2.4Additionalprotectionforsynchronousmotorsover1000HP
InadditiontotheprotectivedevicesindicatedinFigures4and5,alargesynchronous
motorrequiresprotectionforthefieldwinding,plusalowpowerfactorrelay(55)and
undervoltageprotection(27),andahigh/lowfrequencyrelay(81)topreventthemotors
runningunderconditionsoflowfrequencyoperation.
Theschematicdiagramfortheprotectionofsynchronousmotorsover1000HPis
giveninFigure7.
Figure 7 Protection schematic for synchronous motors over 1 000 HP

Gobacktoprotectionschemes

2.5Protectionforthefieldwinding
Thiswouldrequireanearthfaultprotectionrelay(64)andafieldrelay(40)todeal
withlossofexcitationcurrent.
Gobacktoprotectionschemes

Motorsprotection(VIDEOSESSIONS)

Reference//ProtectionofElectricityDistributionNetworksbyJuanM.Gersand
EdwardJ.Holmes