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HYDRAULIC OPERATED V TYPE BENDING MACHINE

SYNOPSIS

In this project the bending of v shaped rod is carried with the help of hydraulic jack arrangements. This method is very useful in industries to convert the lengthiest metal rod to the v shaped type. Here the main aim of our project is reduce the man power, applying constant force at all time , automating the process and also increase the rate of production.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

A Hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear hydraulic motor) is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in engineering vehicles, industrial application, civil applications.

Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil, air. The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on one end by the cylinder bottom (also called the cap) and the other end by the cylinder head (also called the gland) where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder into two chambers, the bottom chamber (cap end) and the piston rod side chamber (rod end / head end).

Flanges, trunnions, clevises, Lugs are common cylinder mounting options. The piston rod also has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to the object or machine component that it is pushing / pulling. A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or "motor" side of this system. The "generator" side of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump which brings in a fixed or regulated flow of oil to the hydraulic cylinder, to move the piston. The piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir.

Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example. In this type of machine, hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders and

which becomes pressurized according to the resistance present. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.

The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses, and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power. Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics, where a liquid is the powering medium.

Parts of a hydraulic cylinder

A hydraulic cylinder consists of the following parts:

Cylinder barrel

The main function of cylinder body is to hold cylinder pressure. The cylinder barrel is mostly made from a seamless tube. The cylinder barrel is ground and/or honed internally with a typical surface finish of 4 to 16 micro inch. Normally hoop stresses are calculated to optimize the barrel size.

Cylinder base or cap

The main

function of cap

is to enclose the pressure chamber

one end.

The cap

is

connected to the body by means of welding, threading, bolts, tie rod. Cap also perform as a

cylinder mounting components. Cap size determined based on the bending stress.

Cylinder head

The main function of head is to enclose the pressure chamber from other end. Head contains an integrated rod sealing arrangement or option to accept a seal gland. The head is connected to the body by means of threading, bolts, tie rod. A static seal / o-ring used in between head and barrel.

Piston

The main function of piston is to separate pressure zone in side barrel. The piston is machined with grooves to fit elastomeric or metal seals and bearing elements. These seals can be single acting or double acting. This difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston causes the cylinder to extend and retract. Piston is attached with the piston rod by means of threads, bolts, nuts to transfer the linear motion.

Piston rod

The piston rod is typically a hard chrome-plated piece of cold-rolled steel which attaches to the piston and extends from the cylinder through the rod-end head. In double rod-end cylinders, the actuator has a rod extending from both sides of the piston and out both ends of the barrel. The piston rod connects the hydraulic actuator to the machine component doing the work. This connection can be in the form of a machine thread or a mounting attachment.

Seal gland

The cylinder head is fitted with seals to prevent the pressurized oil from leaking past the interface between the rod and the head. This area is called the seal gland. The advantage of seal

gland is easy removal and seal replacement. The seal gland contains primary seal, secondary seal / buffer seal, bearing elements, wiper / scraper and static seal. In some cases, especially in small hydraulic cylinders, the rod gland and the bearing elements are made from a single integral machined part.

Seals

The seals are considered / design as per the cylinder working pressure, cylinder speed, operating temperature, working medium and application. Piston seals are dynamic seals, can be single acting or double acting. Generally speaking, Elastomers seals made from nitrile rubber, Polyurethane or other materials are best in lower temperature environments, while seals made of Fluorocarbon Viton are better for higher temperatures. Metallic seals are also available commonly used cast iron for seal material. Rod seal are dynamic seals and generally single acting.

The compounds of rod seals are nitrile rubber, Polyurethane, Fluorocarbon Viton. Wiper / scraper are used to eliminates contaminants such as moisture, dirt, and dust, which can cause extensive damage to cylinder walls, rods, seals and other components. The common compound for wiper is polyurethane. Metallic scraper are used for sub zero temperature application, application where foreign material can deposit on rod. The bearing element / wear bands are use to eliminate metal to metal contact. The wear bands are design as per the side load requirements. The primary compounds for wear bands are filled PTFE, Woven fabric reinforced polyester resin, bronze.

HYDRAULIC OPERATED BENDING MACHINE

  • Three hardened driving rolls with smooth surface

  • Nr. 3 hydraulic motors directly keyed on the rolls

  • Independent regulation of the 2 bottom rolls by hydraulic cylinders controlled from control desk for pre-bending and bending operations

  • Correcting rolls with movements in 3 dimensions and roll to straighten leg-out and leg- in angle profiles and asymmetrical profiles

  • Flexible positioning horizontal or vertical

  • Detached control desk movable on wheels with nr.2 digital readouts

  • Nr. 9 rolls to bend the most common profiles

  • Three hardened driving rolls with smooth surface

HYDRAULIC OPERATED BENDING MACHINE  Three hardened driving rolls with smooth surface  Nr. 3 hydraulic

This machine consist of a series of tube V-Type bending machines, which are of the best quality and assure long term durability. Owing to their functional utility, these machines are widely used for producing components with multiple bends in a single plane.

Features:

No. of multi-plane bends settable = 8 (POB & DBB) [in NCXR series]

Minimum 1.5D / 2D bending, based on model

User-friendly microprocessor based numerical controller 'SMARTBEND 410'

with color LCD monitor and keyboard access, advanced on-line diagnostics, display of on-going process, status of inputs/outputs and error messages Bend angle range = 5 to 180 degrees (DOB)

Programmable DOB in automatic open loop control

Pre-selectable POB [in NCXR series]

Memory capacity of 1000 programs with 15 bends per program

Precision bending tooling to suit your component

Manifold style hydraulics

Perfect

quality

bends

by

programmable

bending

angle

and

preset

bending

sequence

Note: D = tube outside diameter; t = tube wall thickness; Q£ = centre line radius; DOB = degree of bend; POB = plane or bent DBS = distance between bends

Other information:

The NCX tube bending machines have a clamping die, pressure die, mandrel and bend head, which are all hydraulically operated. To enhance the usefulness of these NCX machines, Electro pneumatics has developed the NCXR Series.

These tube bending machines have a pre-settable linear and rotary indexing facility for multi-plane bends, in addition to the clamp, pressure die, mandrel and bend arm. These hydraulic, semi-automatic machines can handle tubes from 6 mm to 325 mm outside diameter, ft is possible to bend tubes of a variety of materials with round, square or rectangular sections and different profiles, which eliminates the need for locating fixtures on the machine. A carriage with a manual/hydraulic chucking arrangement that is capable of traversing the length of the machine is provided.

Electro pneumatics user-friendly programmable microprocessor based numerical 'Smart bend 4101 series controllers are specially designed for these machines. With these machines, all operations of the bending process are done automatically, while rotation and linear orientation of the component between two bends is done manually by the operator against pre-settable stops.

INTENDED USE:

The Hydraulic Pipe Bender is designed for bending thick-walled pipes (black iron, schedule 40 &80, etc.). There are six different bending dies ranging from 1/2" to 2" for Item# 141805, eight different bending dies ranging from 1/2" to 3" for Item# 426261 and nine different bending dies ranging from 1/2" to 4" for Item# 426260. The Hydraulic Pipe Bender is not designed for bending thin-walled Pipes.

INTENDED USE: The Hydraulic Pipe Bender is designed for bending thick-walled pipes (black iron, schedule 40

SALIENT FEATURES OF HYDRAULIC OPERATED MACHINES

All machines are made of high quality graded castings, which are properly aged and

stress relieved using vibratory stress relieving equipments, for taking care of any seasonal effects on castings. Thus enhancing the life of machines. All the machines are hand scrapped for long lasting precision and reliability. The Hydraulic series machines are designed with the principles of column movement (Y axis). This enhances the overall life of machine and provides high accuracy for jobs for many years.

The hydraulic pumps are designed specially for surface grinding machine in house. These pumps provide smooth, vibration free movements for superior job finishes. The slides (X & Y) are coated with turcite lining, a slide way material with special embedding properties, this considerably reduces the friction between slides for very easy and smooth movement thereby reducing wear & tear of machines to a large extent.

All the three axis as well as cross feed and vertical screws are continuously lubricated with specially designed inbuilt lubricating system. This not only makes the machine very easy to operate but also reduces wear and tear of all moving parts. All the machines come with special spindles assembled with high quality low vibration motors, as well as fitted with very high quality imported bearings which are greased packed for life, providing a very precise grinding action for best surface finishes as well as best flatness for jobs.

All hydraulic machines come with specially designed moveable tower electrical panel. These panels provide easy to use functions for operation of machines. Panels have been provided with sufficient interlocks for accident free operations. All the electrical and other bought out items are of high quality and from reputed brands. Care is taken that such items are easily available in market for easy maintenance and replacements.

Our machines are backed with 1 year workmanship guarantee providing peace of minds to customers.

Design Considerations

Pressure and Temperature ratings

Interlocks for sequential operations

Emergency shutdown features

Power failure locks

Operation speed

Environment conditions

Efficiency of Operation

Keep system Simple, Safe and Functional

Access to parts need repair or adjustment

Design to keep min operational cost

Design to prevent and remove contamination

Hydraulic bending machine, including brackets, table and clamping plate, the table placed in the bracket, Workbench from the platen base and base connected by a hinge and the clamping plate, the base of the seat shell, coil and cover, coil placed in the seat shell depression, the depression at the top covered with a lid. used by the wire coil is energized, power on the platen gravity, thereby clamping the sheet between the platen and the base due to the electromagnetic force folder hold the plate can be made into a variety of workpiece requirements, but also on the sidewall of the work piece to be processed.

USES OF HYDRAULIC BENDING MACHINE

Our range of Hydraulic Breading Machine is used for selectively dispensing flour breading or free flowing breading onto a food product wherein the machine has a frame and conveyor structure supported on the frame defining a conveyance path having a product inlet end and a product outlet end. This machine also comes with a breading hopper attached to the frame adjacent to the inlet end for applying a coating of breading to the food product and also a breading pumping slot structure attached to the frame for providing breading to the input end of the conveyor with a fluffier mechanism mounted on the pumping slot structure to break up any caking or lumping of the breading on the conveyor prior to the point of introduction of the food product to the conveyor.

The Mechanical Screw jacks have been replaced with hydraulically operated jacks. This reduces requirement of man power upto 40% and the Roll bending cycle time is reduced by 40%. The Machine has a capacity to pre bend but with a flat edge of 40% of Top Roll Dia of the machine. It is not out of place to highlight that the pre bend capacity of a given Plate Bending machine is approximately 80% of its roll bending capacity, i.e, A plate bending machine having a capacity of 16 mm thick is capable of Pre bending plates upto 12 mm thickness when equipped with hydraulically operated jacks. Nevertheless the reduced man power and production makes for the flat edge. The machine is priced almost less than half of the machines doing the same job across the globe. The fact remains that not a single machine is available which has zero flat edge. The minimum flat edge is generally 3 to 6 times the thickness of the plate being bent.

The Machines have longer functional life, consumes less electricity and ensures optimum performance. In addition to these features, offered range is best alternative to CNC bending machines, it has appreciating production capacity. The range produces wrinkle free, smooth bends and it is also an interchangeable set of tooling for each type of bend. Our range has aforementioned features as we use best quality raw material for its manufacturing under the eye of professionals. A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that uses pressurized hydraulic fluid to drive hydraulic machinery. The term hydrostatic refers to the transfer of energy from flow and pressure, not from the kinetic energy of the flow.

A hydraulic drive system consists of three parts: The generator (e.g. a hydraulic pump), driven by an electric motor, a combustion engine or a windmill; valves, filters, piping etc. (to guide and control the system); the motor (e.g. a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder) to drive the machinery.

Principles of Hydraulic Drive

Pascal's law is the basis of hydraulic drive systems. As the pressure in the system is the same, the force that the fluid gives to the surroundings is therefore equal to pressure × area. In such a way, a small piston feels a small force and a large piston feels a large force.

The same principle applies for a hydraulic pump with a small swept volume that asks for a small torque, combined with a hydraulic motor with a large swept volume that gives a large torque. In such a way a transmission with a certain ratio can be built.

Most hydraulic drive systems make use of hydraulic cylinders. Here the same principle is used a small torque can be transmitted in to a large force.By throttling the fluid between the generator part and the motor part, or by using hydraulic pumps and/or motors with adjustable swept volume, the ratio of the transmission can be changed easily. In case throttling is used, the efficiency of the transmission is limited. In case adjustable pumps and motors are used, the efficiency, however, is very large. In fact, up to around 1980, a hydraulic drive system had hardly any competition from other adjustable drive systems.

Nowadays, electric drive systems using electric servo-motors can be controlled in an excellent way and can easily compete with rotating hydraulic drive systems. Hydraulic cylinders are, in fact, without competition for linear forces. For these cylinders, hydraulic systems will remain of interest and if such a system is available, it is easy and logical to use this system for the rotating drives of the cooling systems, also.

Most hydraulic drive systems make use of hydraulic cylinders. Here the same principle is used —

Hydraulic Press

A hydraulic is a machine using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England. He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah (who is also known for his development of the flush toilet) installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press.

Hydraulic Motor:

The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder. Conceptually, a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with the hydraulic pump, due to the fact it performs the opposite function. However, most hydraulic pumps cannot be used as hydraulic motors because they cannot be backdriven. Also, a hydraulic motor is usually designed for the working pressure at both sides of the motor. Another difference is that a motor can be reversed by a reversing valve.

A hydraulic is a machine using a <a href=hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England. He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah (who is also known for his development of the flush toilet) installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press. Hydraulic Motor: The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder. Conceptually, a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with the hydraulic pump, due to the fact it performs the opposite function. However, most hydraulic pumps cannot be used as hydraulic motors because they cannot be backdriven. Also, a hydraulic motor is usually designed for the working pressure at both sides of the motor. Another difference is that a motor can be reversed by a reversing valve. " id="pdf-obj-14-18" src="pdf-obj-14-18.jpg">

Pressure in a hydraulic system is like the voltage in an electrical system and fluid flow rate is the equivalent of current. The size and speed of the pump determines the flow rate, the load at the motor determines the pressure.

Hydraulic Valves:

These valves are usually very heavy duty to stand up to high pressures. Some special valves can control the direction of the flow of fluid and act as a control unit for a system.

Classification of hydraulic valves

Classification based on function:

  • 1. Pressure control valves(PC Valves)

  • 2. Flow control valves (FC Valves)

  • 3. Direction control valves (DC Valves)

Classification based on method of activation:

  • 1. Directly operated valve

  • 2. Pilot operated valve

  • 3. Mutually operated valve

  • 4. Electrically actuated valve

  • 5. open control valve

  • 6. Servo controlled valves

Structure and characteristics of the hydraulic bending machine:

  • 1. All-steel welded construction of sufficient strength and rigidity.

  • 2. Hydraulic drive, the machine at both ends of the fuel tank is placed in the slider on the direct drive slide work.

  • 3. Slider synchronization mechanism with torsion bar forced synchronization.

  • 4. Using the machinery of block structure, stable and reliable.

  • 5. Slide stroke motor fast tune, manual fine tuning, counter display

  • 5. The Wedge deflection compensation mechanism to ensure that the higher bending accuracy.

Lifting and installation of hydraulic bending machine

Lifting and installation of hydraulic plate bending machine, hydraulic plate bending machine and the whole center of gravity higher, before re-light, so the process of lifting and handling and installation should be noted that the center of gravity, so as not to cause the machine to turn over accident, lifting, lifting wire angle as small as possible, the same to ensure that the machine precision. hydraulic plate bending machine left and right columns in the work surface at the benchmark for measuring the level of vertical and horizontal direction should be less than or equal to 1000: 0.2, according to the foundation plan in advance, prepare the ground, the hydraulic plate bending machine is installed on the basis of, and install anchor bolts, the final grouting be all solidified cement retaining screws, proof-reading level.

CHAPTER 2 BASIC COMPONENTS

Hydraulic pump

CHAPTER 2 BASIC COMPONENTS Hydraulic pump Hydraulic pump <a href=Hydraulic pumps supply fluid to the components in the system. Pressure in the system develops in reaction to the load. Hence, a pump rated for 5,000 psi is capable of maintaining flow against a load of 5,000 psi. Pumps have a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by volume). They are powered by an electric motor or an engine, connected through gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce vibration. " id="pdf-obj-17-6" src="pdf-obj-17-6.jpg">

Hydraulic pump

Hydraulic pumps supply fluid to the components in the system. Pressure in the system develops in reaction to the load. Hence, a pump rated for 5,000 psi is capable of maintaining flow against a load of 5,000 psi.

Pumps have a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by volume). They are powered by an electric motor or an engine, connected through gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce vibration.

Common types of hydraulic pumps to hydraulic machinery applications are;

Gear pump: cheap, durable (especially in g-rotor form)., simple. Less efficient, because

they are constant (fixed) displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 20 MPa (3000 psi). Vane pump: cheap and simple, reliable.Good for higher-flow low-pressure output.

Axial piston pump: many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to vary

output flow for automatic control of pressure. There are various axial piston pump designs, including swashplate (sometimes referred to as a valveplate pump) and checkball (sometimes referred to as a wobble plate pump). The most common is the swashplate pump. A variable-angle swashplate causes the pistons to reciprocate a greater or lesser distance per rotation, allowing output flow rate and pressure to be varied (greater displacement angle causes higher flow rate, lower pressure, and vice versa). Radial piston pump:A pump that is normally used for very high pressure at small flows.

Piston pumps are more expensive than gear or vane pumps, but provide longer life operating at higher pressure, with difficult fluids and longer continuous duty cycles. Piston pumps make up one half of a hydrostatic transmission.

Control valves

Common types of hydraulic pumps to hydraulic machinery applications are;  <a href=Gear pump : cheap, durable (especially in g-rotor form)., simple. Less efficient, because  they are constant (fixed) displacement, and mainly suitable for pressures below 20 MPa (3000 psi). Vane pump: cheap and simple, reliable.Good for higher-flow low-pressure output.  Axial piston pump: many designed with a variable displacement mechanism, to vary  output flow for automatic control of pressure. There are various axial piston pump designs, including swashplate (sometimes referred to as a valveplate pump) and checkball (sometimes referred to as a wobble plate pump). The most common is the swashplate pump. A variable-angle swashplate causes the pistons to reciprocate a greater or lesser distance per rotation, allowing output flow rate and pressure to be varied (greater displacement angle causes higher flow rate, lower pressure, and vice versa). Radial piston pump : A pump that is normally used for very high pressure at small flows. Piston pumps are more expensive than gear or vane pumps, but provide longer life operating at higher pressure, with difficult fluids and longer continuous duty cycles. Piston pumps make up one half of a hydrostatic transmission. Control valves " id="pdf-obj-18-43" src="pdf-obj-18-43.jpg">

Directional control valves route the fluid to the desired actuator. They usually consist of a spool inside a cast iron or steel housing. The spool slides to different positions in the housing, intersecting grooves and channels route the fluid based on the spool's position.

The spool has a central (neutral) position maintained with springs; in this position the supply fluid is blocked, or returned to tank. Sliding the spool to one side routes the hydraulic fluid to an actuator and provides a return path from the actuator to tank. When the spool is moved to the opposite direction the supply and return paths are switched. When the spool is allowed to return to neutral (center) position the actuator fluid paths are blocked, locking it in position. Directional control valves are usually designed to be stackable, with one valve for each hydraulic cylinder, and one fluid input supplying all the valves in the stack.

Tolerances are very tight in order to handle the high pressure and avoid leaking, spools typically have a clearance with the housing of less than a thousandth of an inch (25 µm). The valve block will be mounted to the machine's frame with a three point pattern to avoid distorting the valve block and jamming the valve's sensitive components.

The spool position may be actuated by mechanical levers, hydraulic pilot pressure, or solenoids which push the spool left or right. A seal allows part of the spool to protrude outside the housing, where it is accessible to the actuator.

The main valve block is usually a stack of off the shelf directional control valves chosen by flow capacity and performance. Some valves are designed to be proportional (flow rate proportional to valve position), while others may be simply on-off. The control valve is one of the most expensive and sensitive parts of a hydraulic circuit.

Pressure relief valves are used in several places in hydraulic machinery; on the return

circuit to maintain a small amount of pressure for brakes, pilot lines, etc., On hydraulic cylinders, to prevent overloading and hydraulic line/seal rupture. On the hydraulic reservoir, to maintain a small positive pressure which excludes moisture and contamination. Pressure regulators reduce the supply pressure of hydraulic fluids as needed for various

circuits. Sequence valves control the sequence of hydraulic circuits; to ensure that one hydraulic

cylinder is fully extended before another starts its stroke, for example. Shuttle valves provide a logical or function.

Check valves are one-way valves, allowing an accumulator to charge and maintain its

pressure after the machine is turned off, for example. Pilot controlled Check valves are one-way valve that can be opened (for both

directions) by a foreign pressure signal. For instance if the load should not be held by the check valve anymore. Often the foreign pressure comes from the other pipe that is connected to the motor or cylinder. Counterbalance valves are in fact a special type of pilot controlled check valve.

Whereas the check valve is open or closed, the counterbalance valve acts a bit like a pilot controlled flow control. Cartridge valves are in fact the inner part of a check valve; they are off the shelf components with a standardized envelope, making them easy to populate a proprietary valve block. They are available in many configurations; on/off, proportional, pressure

relief, etc. They generally screw into a valve block and are electrically controlled to provide logic and automated functions. Hydraulic fuses are in-line safety devices designed to automatically seal off a hydraulic line if pressure becomes too low, or safely vent fluid if pressure becomes too high. Auxiliary valves in complex hydraulic systems may have auxiliary valve blocks to handle various duties unseen to the operator, such as accumulator charging, cooling fan operation, air conditioning power, etc. They are usually custom valves designed for the particular machine, and may consist of a metal block with ports and channels drilled. Cartridge valves are threaded into the ports and may be electrically controlled by switches or a microprocessor to route fluid power as needed.

Actuators

Swashplates are used in 'hydraulic motors' requiring highly accurate control and also in

'no stop' continuous (360°) precision positioning mechanisms. These are frequently driven by several hydraulic pistons acting in sequence. Hydraulic motor (a pump plumbed in reverse)

Reservoir

The hydraulic fluid reservoir holds excess hydraulic fluid to accommodate volume changes from: cylinder extension and contraction, temperature driven expansion and contraction,

and leaks. The reservoir is also designed to aid in separation of air from the fluid and also work as a heat accumulator to cover losses in the system when peak power is used. Design engineers are always pressured to reduce the size of hydraulic reservoirs, while equipment operators always appreciate larger reservoirs. Reservoirs can also help separate dirt and other particulate from the oil, as the particulate will generally settle to the bottom of the tank.

Some designs include dynamic flow channels on the fluid's return path that allow for a smaller reservoir.

Accumulators

Accumulators are a common part of hydraulic machinery. Their function is to store energy by using pressurized gas. One type is a tube with a floating piston. On one side of the piston is a charge of pressurized gas, and on the other side is the fluid. Bladders are used in other designs. Reservoirs store a system's fluid.

Examples of accumulator uses are backup power for steering or brakes, or to act as a shock absorber for the hydraulic circuit.

Hydraulic fluid

Also known as tractor fluid, hydraulic fluid is the life of the hydraulic circuit. It is usually petroleum oil with various additives. Some hydraulic machines require fire resistant fluids, depending on their applications. In some factories where food is prepared, either an edible oil or water is used as a working fluid for health and safety reasons.

In addition to transferring energy, hydraulic fluid needs to lubricate components, suspend contaminants and metal filings for transport to the filter, and to function well to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius.

Filters

Filters are an important part of hydraulic systems. Metal particles are continually produced by mechanical components and need to be removed along with other contaminants.Filters may be positioned in many locations. The filter may be located between the reservoir and the pump intake. Blockage of the filter will cause cavitation and possibly failure of the pump. Sometimes the filter is located between the pump and the control valves. This arrangement is more expensive, since the filter housing is pressurized, but eliminates cavitation problems and protects the control valve from pump failures. The third common filter location is just before the return line enters the reservoir. This location is relatively insensitive to blockage and does not require a pressurized housing, but contaminants that enter the reservoir from external sources are not filtered until passing through the system at least once.

Tubes, pipes and hoses

Hydraulic tubes are seamless steel precision pipes, specially manufactured for hydraulics. The tubes have standard sizes for different pressure ranges, with standard diameters up to 100 mm. The tubes are supplied by manufacturers in lengths of 6 m, cleaned, oiled and plugged. The tubes are interconnected by different types of flanges (especially for the larger sizes and pressures), welding cones/nipples (with o-ring seal), several types of flare connection and by cut-

rings. In larger sizes, hydraulic pipes are used. Direct joining of tubes by welding is not acceptable since the interior cannot be inspected.

Hydraulic pipe is used in case standard hydraulic tubes are not available. Generally these are used for low pressure. They can be connected by threaded connections, but usually by welds. Because of the larger diameters the pipe can usually be inspected internally after welding. Black pipe is non-galvanized and suitable for welding.

Hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature, and fluid compatibility. Hoses are used when pipes or tubes can not be used, usually to provide flexibility for machine operation or maintenance. The hose is built up with rubber and steel layers. A rubber interior is surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and rubber. The exterior is designed for abrasion resistance. The bend radius of hydraulic hose is carefully designed into the machine, since hose failures can be deadly, and violating the hose's minimum bend radius will cause failure. Hydraulic hoses generally have steel fittings swaged on the ends. The weakest part of the high pressure hose is the connection of the hose to the fitting. Another disadvantage of hoses is the shorter life of rubber which requires periodic replacement, usually at five to seven year intervals.

Tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications are internally oiled before the system is commissioned. Usually steel piping is painted outside. Where flare and other couplings are used, the paint is removed under the nut, and is a location where corrosion can begin. For this reason, in marine applications most piping is stainless steel.

Seals, fittings and connections

In general, valves, cylinders and pumps have female threaded bosses for the fluid connection, and hoses have female ends with captive nuts. A male-male fitting is chosen to connect the two. Many standardized systems are in use.

Fittings serve several purposes;

  • 1. To bridge different standards; O-ring boss to JIC, or pipe threads to face seal, for example.

  • 2. To allow proper orientation of components, a 90°, 45°, straight, or swivel fitting is chosen as needed. They are designed to be positioned in the correct orientation and then tightened.

  • 3. To incorporate bulkhead hardware.

  • 4. A quick disconnect fitting may be added to a machine without modification of hoses or valves

A typical piece of heavy equipment may have thousands of sealed connection points and several different types:

Pipe fittings, the fitting is screwed in until tight, difficult to orient an angled fitting

correctly without over or under tightening. O-ring boss, the fitting is screwed into a boss and orientated as needed, an additional nut

tightens the fitting, washer and o-ring in place. Flare fittings, are metal to metal compression seals deformed with a cone nut and pressed into a flare mating.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

The project is designed by following equipments:

  • Compressor

  • control unit

  • Solenoid valve

  • pneumatic cylinder

  • Mechanical model

  • Hydraulic jack

The working of the process is fully pneumatic and hydraulic operated where the air is working medium. In this unit compressor is used to supply the compressed air at certain pressure. This pressurized air is passed to the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is controlled by control unit. This solenoid valve is used to control the direction of flow of air to the pneumatic cylinder. In this pneumatic cylinder the piston rod actuates due to the pressure. At the end of piston rod bending tool is attached. So that tool bends the rod into required v shape. Thus the work piece clamped on the frame is bending due to the reciprocating motion of the bend.

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Compressor:

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pump: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the

volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible; while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.

Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. They are primarily used for continuous, stationary service in industries such as oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants. Their application can be from 100 horsepower (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. With multiple staging, they can achieve extremely high output pressures greater than 10,000 psi (69 MPa).

Many large snowmaking operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor. They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines. Sometimes the capacity of the compressors is written in NM3/hr. Here 'N' stands for normal temperature pressure (20°C and 1 atm) for example 5500 NM3/hr.

Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design.

The arrays of airfoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. The rotating airfoils, also known as blades or rotors, accelerate the fluid. The stationary airfoils, also known as stators or vanes, decelerate and redirect the flow direction of the fluid, preparing it for the rotor blades of the next stage. Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged, with the

cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio, variable geometry is normally used to improve operation.

Axial compressors can have high efficiencies; around 90% polytropic at their design conditions. However, they are relatively expensive, requiring a large number of components, tight tolerances and high quality materials. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines, in natural gas pumping stations, and within certain chemical plants.

Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1,000 hp (750 kW) are commonly found in large industrial and petroleum applications. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>18000 psi or 180 MPa). In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available, and are typically larger, and more costly than comparable rotary units. [6] Another type of reciprocating compressor is the swash plate compressor, which uses pistons moved by a swash plate mounted on a shaft (see axial piston pump.

Household, home workshop, and smaller job site compressors are typically reciprocating compressors 1½ hp or less with an attached receiver tank.

Control Unit:

The control unit coordinates the components of a computer system. It fetches the code of all of the instructions in the program. It directs the operation of the other units by providing timing and control signals. All computer resources are managed by the CU. It directs the flow of data between the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the other devices.

The control unit was historically defined as one distinct part of the 1946 reference model of Von Neumann architecture. In modern computer designs, the control unit is typically an internal part of the CPU with its overall role and operation unchanged.

The control unit is the circuitry that controls the flow of data through the processor, and coordinates the activities of the other units within it. In a way, it is the "brain within the brain", as it controls what happens inside the processor, which in turn controls the rest of the computer. The examples of devices that require a control unit are CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs). The modern information age would not be possible without complex control unit designs. The control unit receives external instructions or commands which it converts into a sequence of control signals that the control unit applies to the data path to implement a sequence of register-transfer level operations.

Hardwired control units are implemented through use of sequential logic units, featuring a finite number of gates that can generate specific results based on the instructions that were used to invoke those responses. Hardwired control units are generally faster than microprogrammed designs.

Their design uses a fixed architecture it requires changes in the wiring if the instruction set is modified or changed. This architecture is preferred in reduced instruction set computers (RISC) as they use a simpler instruction set. The hardwired approach has become less popular as computers have evolved as at one time, control units for CPUs were ad-hoc logic, and they were difficult to design.

The idea of microprogramming was introduced by Maurice Wilkes in 1951 as an intermediate level to execute computer program instructions. Microprograms were organized as a sequence of microinstructions and stored in special control memory.

The algorithm for the microprogram control unit is usually specified by flowchart description. The main advantage of the microprogram control unit is the simplicity of its structure. Outputs of the controller are organized in microinstructions and they can be easily replaced.

The control unit implements the instruction set of the CPU. It performs the tasks of fetching, decoding, managing execution and then storing results. It may manage the translation of instructions (not data) to micro-instructions and manage scheduling the micro-instructions between the various execution units.

On some processors the control unit may be further broken down into other units, such as a scheduling unit to handle scheduling and a retirement unit to deal with results coming from the pipeline; It is the main function of CPU.

Solenoid Valve:

Solenoid Valve: A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by an

A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold.

Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design.

A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the valve mechanically.

A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit, shown within section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). In this example, a diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small pilot flow, by using it to control the flow through a much larger orifice. Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened (normally open) or closed (normally closed) while the valve is not activated.

The diagram to the right shows the design of a basic valve, controlling the flow of water in this example. At the top figure is the valve in its closed state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is an elastic diaphragm and above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The function of this spring is irrelevant for now as the valve would stay closed even without it. The diaphragm has a pinhole through its center which allows a very small amount of water to flow through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so that pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm, however the compressed spring supplies a net downward force. The spring is weak and is only able to close the inlet because water pressure is equalized on both sides of the diaphragm.

In the previous configuration the small passage D was blocked by a pin which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If the solenoid is activated by drawing the pin upwards via magnetic force from the solenoid current, the water in chamber C will flow through this passage D to the output side of the valve. The pressure in chamber C will drop and the incoming pressure will lift the diaphragm thus opening the main valve. Water now flows directly from A to F.

When the solenoid is again deactivated and the passage D is closed again, the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the main valve closes. In practice there is often no separate spring, the elastomer diaphragm is molded so that it functions as its own spring, preferring to be in the closed shape. From this explanation it can be seen that this type of valve relies on a differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot valve.

In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly on the main valve. Others use a small, complete solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to actuate a larger valve. While the second type is actually a solenoid valve combined with a pneumatically actuated valve, they are sold and packaged as a single unit referred to as a solenoid valve. Piloted valves require much less power to control, but they are noticeably slower. Piloted solenoids usually need full power at all times to open and stay open, where a direct acting solenoid may only need full power for a short period of time to open it, and only low power to hold it.

Types

Many variations are possible on the basic, one way, one solenoid valve described above:

one or two solenoid valves;

direct current or alternating current powered;

different number of ways and positions;

Common uses

Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems, to control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. Automatic irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic controller. Domestic washing machines and dish washers use solenoid valves to control water entry into the machine. Solenoid valves are used in

dentist chairs to control air and water flow. In the paintball industry, solenoid valves are usually

referred to simply as "solenoids”. They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the propellant (usually compressed air or CO 2 ).Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids, solenoids are used in pharmacology experiments, especially for patch-clamp, which can control the application of against or antagonist.

Pneumatic cylinder:

Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.

Like hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid, in this case compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved. Engineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter, cleaner, and do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage.

Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a

requirement. For example, in the mechanical puppets of the Disney Tiki Room, pneumatics are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppets.

requirement. For example, in the mechanical puppets of the Disney <a href=Tiki Room, pneumatics are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppets. Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance, size and function, they generally fall into one of the specific categories shown below. However there are also numerous other types of pneumatic cylinder available, many of which are designed to fulfill specific and specialized functions. Types of Pneumatic Cylinders: i) Single-acting cylinder Single-acting cylinders (SAC) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction (usually out), and a spring to return to the "home" position. More often than not, this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring takes up. Another downside to SACs is that part of the force produced by the cylinder is lost as it tries to push against the spring. Because of those factors, single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 100mm of stroke length. " id="pdf-obj-35-6" src="pdf-obj-35-6.jpg">

Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance, size and function, they generally fall into one of the specific categories shown below. However there are also numerous other types of pneumatic cylinder available, many of which are designed to fulfill specific and specialized functions.

Types of Pneumatic Cylinders:

i) Single-acting cylinder

Single-acting cylinders (SAC) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction (usually out), and a spring to return to the "home" position. More often than not, this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring takes up. Another downside to SACs is that part of the force produced by the cylinder is lost as it tries to push against the spring. Because of those factors, single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 100mm of stroke length.

ii) Double-acting cylinders

Double-acting cylinders use the force of air to move in both extend and retract strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for outstroke and one for in stroke. Stroke length for this design is not limited, however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling and bending. Addition calculations should be performed as well.

iii) Multi-stage, telescoping cylinders

Telescoping cylinders, also known as telescopic cylinders can be either single or double- acting. The telescoping cylinder incorporates a piston rod nested within a series of hollow stages of increasing diameter. Upon actuation, the piston rod and each succeeding stage "telescopes" out as a segmented piston. The main benefit of this design is the allowance for a notably longer stroke than would be achieved with a single-stage cylinder of the same collapsed (retracted) length. One cited drawback to telescoping cylinders is the increased potential for piston flexion due to the segmented piston design. Consequently, telescoping cylinders are primarily utilized in applications where the piston bears minimal side loading.

iv) Rodless cylinders

Some rodless types have a slot in the wall of the cylinder that is closed off for much of its length by two flexible metal sealing bands. The inner one prevents air from escaping, while the outer one protects the slot and inner band. The piston is actually a pair of them, part of a comparatively long assembly. They seal to the bore and inner band at both ends of the assembly. Between the individual pistons, however, are camming surfaces that "peel off" the bands as the whole sliding assembly moves toward the sealed volume, and "replace" them as the assembly moves away from the other end. Between the camming surfaces is part of the moving assembly

that protrudes through the slot to move the load. Of course, this means that the region where the sealing bands are not in contact is at atmospheric pressure.

Depending on the job specification, there are multiple forms of body constructions available:

Tie rod cylinders: The most common cylinder constructions that can be used in many types of loads. Has been proven to be the safest form. Flanged-type cylinders: Fixed flanges are added to the ends of cylinder, however, this form of construction is more common in hydraulic cylinder construction. One-piece welded cylinders: Ends are welded or crimped to the tube, this form is inexpensive but makes the cylinder non-serviceable. Threaded end cylinders: Ends are screwed onto the tube body. The reduction of material can weaken the tube and may introduce thread concentricity problems to the system.

Upon job specification, the material may be chosen. Material range from nickel-plated brass to aluminum, and even steel and stainless steel. Depending on the level of loads, humidity, temperature, and stroke lengths specified, the appropriate material may be selected.

that protrudes through the slot to move the load. Of course, this means that the region

Gauge Pressure

Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to

absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.

Atmospheric Pressure

Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted into a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the mass of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass

above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location.

Mechanical model:

Mechanical Models offers a line of kits that provide everything you need to build an attractive model using your mini lathe or mini mill. Our products include two cannons and four Stirling cycle heat engines. The model engines are fully functional. Our kits are available in three forms: material kits (material and drawings), assembly kits (fully machined parts ready for assembly), and fully assembled models.

Hydraulic jack:

Hydraulic jacks are typically used for shop work, rather than as an emergency jack to be carried with the vehicle. Use of jacks not designed for a specific vehicle requires more than the usual care in selecting ground conditions, the jacking point on the vehicle, and to ensure stability when the jack is extended. Hydraulic jacks are often used to lift elevators in low and medium rise buildings. A hydraulic jack uses a fluid, which is incompressible, that is forced into a cylinder by

a pump plunger. Oil is used since it is self lubricating and stable. When the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. When the plunger moves forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and opens with each draw of the plunger. The discharge valve ball is outside the chamber and opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder.

In a bottle jack the piston is vertical and directly supports a bearing pad that contacts the object being lifted. With a single action piston the lift is somewhat less than twice the collapsed height of the jack, making it suitable only for vehicles with a relatively high clearance. For lifting structures such as houses the hydraulic interconnection of multiple vertical jacks through valves enables the even distribution of forces while enabling close control of the lift.

In a floor jack (aka 'trolley jack') a horizontal piston pushes on the short end of a bellcrank, with the long arm providing the vertical motion to a lifting pad, kept horizontal with a horizontal linkage. Floor jacks usually include castors and wheels, allowing compensation for the arc taken by the lifting pad. This mechanism provides a low profile when collapsed, for easy maneuvering underneath the vehicle, while allowing considerable extension.

CHAPTER 4 BASIC CALCULATIONS HYDRAULIC MACHINERY

Hydraulic power is defined as flow times pressure. The hydraulic power supplied by a

pump:

Power = (P x Q) ÷ 600

where power is in kilowatts [kW], P pressure in bars, and Q is the flow in liters per minute. For example, a pump delivers 180 lit/min and the pressure equals 250 bar, therefore the power of the pump is 75 kW.

When calculating the power input to the pump, the total pump efficiency η total must be included. This efficiency is the product of volumetric efficiency, η vol and the hydromechanical

efficiency, η hm . Power input = Power output ÷ η total . The average for axial piston pumps, η total =

  • 0.87. In the example the power source, for example a diesel engine or an electric motor, must be

capable of delivering at least 75 ÷ 0.87 = 86 [kW]. The hydraulic motors and cylinders that the pump supplies with hydraulic power also have efficiencies and the total system efficiency (without including the pressure drop in the hydraulic pipes and valves) will end up at approx.

  • 0.75. Cylinders normally have a total efficiency around 0.95 while hydraulic axial piston motors

0.87, the same as the pump. In general the power loss in a hydraulic energy transmission is thus

around 25% or more at ideal viscosity range 25-35 [cSt].

Calculation of the required max. power output for the diesel engine, rough estimation:

(1) Check the max. powerpoint, i.e. the point where pressure times flow reach the max. value.

(2) E diesel = (P max ·Q tot η.

Q tot = calculate with the theoretical pump flow for the consumers not including leakages at max. power point.

P max = actual pump pressure at max. power point.

Note: η is the total efficiency = (output mechanical power ÷ input mechanical power). For rough estimations, η = 0.75. Add 10-20% (depends on the application) to this power value.

(3) Calculate the required pumpdisplacement from required max. sum of flow for the consumers in worst case and the diesel engine rpm in this point. The max. flow can differ from the flow used for calculation of the diesel engine power. Pump volumetric efficiency average, piston pumps: η vol = 0.93.

Pumpdisplacement V pump = Q tot ÷ n diesel ÷ 0.93.

(4) Calculation of prel. cooler capacity: Heat dissipation from hydraulic oil tanks, valves, pipes and hydraulic components is less than a few percent in standard mobile equipment and the cooler capacity must include some margins. Minimum cooler capacity, E cooler = 0.25E diesel

At least 25% of the input power must be dissipated by the cooler when peak power is utilized for long periods. In normal case however, the peak power is used for only short periods, thus the actual cooler capacity required might be considerably less. The oil volume in the hydraulic tank is also acting as a heat accumulator when peak power is used. The system efficiency is very much dependent on the type of hydraulic work tool equipment, the hydraulic pumps and motors used and power input to the hydraulics may vary a lot. Each circuit must be evaluated and the load cycle estimated. New or modified systems must always be tested in practical work, covering all possible load cycles.

An easy way of measuring the actual average power loss in the system is to equip the machine with a test cooler and measure the oil temperature at cooler inlet, oil temperature at cooler outlet and the oil flow through the cooler, when the machine is in normal operating mode. From these figures the test cooler power dissipation can be calculated and this is equal to the power loss when temperatures are stabilized. From this test the actual required cooler can be calculated to reach specified oil temperature in the oil tank. One problem can be to assemble the measuring equipment inline, especially the oil flow meter.

At least 25% of the input power must be dissipated by the cooler when peak power

CHAPTER 5 WORKING PRINCIPLE

The working of the process is fully pneumatic and hydraulic operated where the air is working medium. In this unit compressor is used to supply the compressed air at certain pressure. This pressurized air is passed to the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is controlled by control unit. This solenoid valve is used to control the direction of flow of air to the pneumatic cylinder. In this pneumatic cylinder the piston rod actuates due to the pressure.

At the end of piston rod bending tool is attached. So that tool bends the rod into required v shape. Thus the work piece clamped on the frame is bending due to the reciprocating motion of the bend.

CHAPTER 5 WORKING PRINCIPLE The working of the process is fully pneumatic and hydraulic operated where

For Example:

Hydraulic machines are part of our everyday lives. While going to school on a bus, both the steering and the brakes use a hydraulic system. Or if we use an elevator at work, we make making use of a hydraulic system.

Hydraulic machines use the power of fluid to do work. They are so popular because of power can be transferred through the fluid in small tubes. Some hydraulic machines use a set of pistons, which are devices that slide in a cylinder.

The pistons are connected by hoses filed with oil. Force is applied to one piston, known as the "Master" piston. The force travels through oil in the hose and pushes up the second "Slave" piston. The larger the "Slave" piston, the greater the force that's needed to push it up.

WORKING PROCESS OF HYDRAULIC MACHINE

A piece of hydraulic machinery uses a liquid (usually an oil) under pressure to transmit energy. Lets consider a simple system such as the one that operates the clutch on my car. There are two cylinders with a piston in each and a small tube running between them.

When stepping on the clutch pedal, force the piston on one of the cylinders (known as the master cylinder) deeper into the cylinder pushing fluid under pressure into the other cylinder. The fluid exerts pressure on the other cylinder (the slave cylinder) and develops a force which pushes on the clutch.

The relationship between force and pressure is:

Force = Area x Pressure

Which can be rearranged with algebra to

Pressure = Force / Area

This, by this is way, is why we measure pressure as in units such as pounds (force) per square inch (area).

If we make the master cylinder smaller than the slave cylinder, say 1 square inch and 2 square inches respectively, and assume that the pressures are equal, we find that

Master cylinder force = 1/2 Slave cylinder force

So we have to apply half as much force to the master cylinder (at the pedal) as we want from the slave cylinder (the clutch) and I don't have to put as much force on the pedal to operate the clutch. The force amplification is very similar to a lever (such as a pair of plyers) but has the added benefit that the master and slave cylinders can be located anywhere. The tube has many twists and turns, each one of which would require joints if a mechanical system were used. Like a lever, and I must move the master cylinder twice as far at the slave cylinder travels.

Brakes in the car operate similarly, but the tube coming from the master cylinder(s) are branched into several pistons at the wheels. Flexible tubing is used so that the wheels can move freely when the car goes over bumps.

Machines such as backhoes and bulldozers use similar principles. However, in this case, the fluid is kept at constant pressure continually by a pump connected to the engine and sent to the slave cylinders when the operator opens a valve. This allows very large forces to be developed at the slave cylinder.

Pneumatic systems are similar to hydraulics, by use gases (typically air) rather than liquid. Since gas can be compressed considerable, a lot of air can be forced into a tank and the energy used later. This make pneumatics suitable for systems where large forces and speed are required at the same type such as jackhammers, nail guns, or paintball guns.

BASIC IDEA BEHIND HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. The fluid is almost always an oil of some sort. The force is almost always multiplied in the process. The picture below shows the simplest possible hydraulic system:

Machines such as backhoes and bulldozers use similar principles. However, in this case, the fluid is

A Simple hydraulic system consisting of two pistons and an oil-filled pipe connecting them. Click on the red arrow to see the animation.

In this drawing, two pistons (red) fit into two glass cylinders filled with oil (light blue) and connected to one another with an oil-filled pipe. If you apply a downward force to one piston (the left one in this drawing), then the force is transmitted to the second piston through the oil in the pipe. Since oil is incompressible, the efficiency is very good -- almost all of the applied force appears at the second piston.

The great thing about hydraulic systems is that the pipe connecting the two cylinders can be any length and shape, allowing it to snake through all sorts of things separating the two pistons. The pipe can also fork, so that one master cylinder can drive more than one slave cylinder if desired. The neat thing about hydraulic systems is that it is very easy to add force multiplication (or division) to the system.

A Simple hydraulic system consisting of two pistons and an oil-filled pipe connecting them. Click on

Hydraulic multiplication:

The piston on the right has a surface area nine times greater than the piston on the left. When force is applied to the left piston, it will move nine units for every one unit that the right piston moves, and the force is multiplied by nine on the right-hand piston. Click the red arrow to see the animation.

To determine the multiplication factor, start by looking at the size of the pistons. Assume that the piston on the left is 2 inches in diameter (1-inch radius), while the piston on the right is 6 inches in diameter (3-inch radius). The area of the two pistons is Pi * r 2 . The area of the left piston is therefore 3.14, while the area of the piston on the right is 28.26. The piston on the right is 9 times larger than the piston on the left.

Any force applied to the left-hand piston will appear 9 times greater on the right-hand piston. So if you apply a 100-pound downward force to the left piston, a 900-pound upward force will appear on the right. The only catch is that you will have to depress the left piston 9 inches to raise the right piston 1 inch.

The brakes in your car are a good example of a basic piston-driven hydraulic system. When you depress the brake pedal in your car, it is pushing on the piston in the brake's master cylinder. Four slave pistons, one at each wheel, actuate to press the brake pads against the brake rotor to stop the car.

Sample instructions for hydraulic bending machine operation:

  • 1. Clamp the bending machine to a flat work surface so that it is upright and secure.

  • 2. Rotate the upper, short handle to a position above the bender.

  • 3. Open the latch to make way for insertion of the tube. Insert the tube into the tube groove.

  • 4. Close the latch around the tube to hold it in place. Lower the upper, short handle until the roll dies rest against the tube and the angle-measure is aligned at zero degrees. Close the latch firmly to clamp down tightly on the tube.

  • 5. Press the upper, short handle down until the zero on the roll-support aligns with the desired bend degree on the angle-measure.

  • 6. Rotate the upper, short handle upward to release the newly bent tube.

  • 7. Connect the hydraulic bending machine to an air compressor or hydraulic pump. Pull back the brass coupling ring on the compressor or pump's hose and slide it onto the machine's connector. Release the ring to secure the connection.

  • 8. Set the machine's groove to receive the diameter of pipe for bending. Do this by moving the machine's pin to the appropriate setting.

  • 9. Slide the pipe into the machine's groove so that the point of the intended bend rests atop the zero point of the angle-measure.

    • 10. Turn on the compressor or pump.

    • 11. Unlock the machine's safety lock and allow the machine to move and bend the pipe until the indicator on the angle-measure reaches the desired degree of bend.

CHAPTER 6 APPLICATIONS AND ITS ADVANTAGES

APPLICATION AREAS

  • Furniture industry

  • Chemical and boiler plants

  • Automobile and automotive component supplier industries

  • Agriculture

  • Moulded luggage manufacturers

Machines are well-known in the market due to their dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, corrosion resistance, compact design, simple operations and high reliability. Applicable for bending pipes and other material in different angels, these are available in different finishes and specifications. Clients can avail these machines at industry leading prices.

Bending Machines are used to bend metal pipe and tubing. Different bending machines exist to handle each of these two different types of metal conduit. Hand-held machines clamp to a work surface for stability and bend thin metal tubing. Larger, heavy- duty hydraulic machines connect to air pumps to increase torque and bend thick metal pipe. Each machine usually comes equipped with an angle-measure to ensure the proper degree of bend. Identify whether tubing or pipe needs bending, and chose the appropriate bending machine for the job.

ADVANTAGES

  • Machining time reduced

  • Quick response

  • Simple in construction easy to maintain and repair.

  • Cost of the unit is less when compared to other systems.

  • Comparatively the operation cost is less

  • Continuous operation is possible without stopping.

  • 5000 kg push force, makes possible bending of heavy sections possible

  • Ease of operation

  • Gradual application of force prevents the pipe damage.

  • Quick release of the ram using relief valve makes operation fast.

  • Ease of maintenance.

ADVANTAGES  Machining time reduced  Quick response  Simple in construction easy to maintain and

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION

Thus the unit compressor is used to supply the compressed air at certain pressure. This pressurized air is passed to the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is controlled by control unit. This solenoid valve is used to control the direction of flow of air to the pneumatic cylinder. In this pneumatic cylinder the piston rod actuates due to the pressure. Hydraulic Pumps are used in V-type Bending machine which has a power density about ten times greater than an electric motor (by volume). They are powered by an electric motor or an engine, connected through gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling to reduce vibration.

And then the popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses, and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power. Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics, where a liquid is the powering medium.

BIBLIOGRAPHY