Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

Improving Motor Reliability with Intelligent Motor Control

Centers and theTesys-T

Presenters Name: Wayne Thygesen, Consulting Engineering Specialist


December 3, 2008

Improving Motor Reliability with


Intelligent MCCs and the TeSys-T

Add photo in this area

Make the most of your


energy

Make the most of


SM
your energy

Schneider Electric
Intelligent MCC
2008

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

TeSys T is the
Basic Tool
Used for iMCC

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

TeSys T System Components


Native protocol
Native protocol
connectivity
connectivity
X

MODBUS

Ethernet TCP/IP
Additional
Additional
protection
protection
functions
functions

Controller expansion module

or

Magelis terminal

or
PC with
PowerSuite
External CT

Ground CT

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

Remote control
Remote control
and monitoring
and monitoring

Control Unit
Operator
For up to 810A
For up to 810A

Ground Fault
Ground Fault
Sensitivity
Sensitivity

TeSys T Motor Management System

TeSys T Motor Management Controller and Control Unit Operator


Modbus is native in the TeSys T relay plus additional
communication options are available
Currently designed into Model 6 iMCC

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

Motor Managment Controller : LTMR

Front view description


Power
Supply

6 Discrete inputs
(internal powered inputs)

1 Fault relay
output (NO/NC)

Plug-in terminals

Expansion module/
HMI/PC connection
(modbus RS485)

Network
connection
(RJ45 port)
Reset or
Self test
Button

Diagnostic Leds

3 relays
outputs 5A

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

Ground Temp.
Network
fault
connection
Probe (screw terminal)
input

Expansion module
Assembling
Side by side or
Remote

Power Supply
Powered by Controller

Additional Motor Protection


Over / Under Voltage
Over / Under Power Factor
Over / Under Power
Load shedding
Voltage phase imbalance,
lost and reversal

Additional Input
4 discrete inputs

Input Power supply


24 VDC or
100-240 VAC 50/60Hz

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

TeSys T Measurements

Current

Voltage

Power

Depending on the controller configuration

Functions

Measured range

Thermal capacity
Motor temperature sensor
Line currents
Ground current

0 to 200 %

Average current
Current phase imbalance
Frequency
Line to line voltage
Line voltage imbalance
Active / Reactive Power
Power factor (1)
Active/Reactive Energy

Controller

Controller
& Exp.
module

0 to 6500 Ohms
0,4 to 810 A
Internal : 0 to FLC
External : depend on settings
0,4 to 810 A
0 to 200 %
0 to 100 Hz
0 to 830 VAC
0 to 200 %
0 to 6553.5 KW / KVar
0 to 100
0 to 400,000 KWhr / KVarhr

(1) : Value saved on power loss

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

TeSys T Motor Protection functions

Depending on the controller configuration

Functions

Current

Voltage

Power

Thermal overload (inverse & definite time)


Current phase (imbalance, loss, reversal)
Under/Over Current
Long start, Jam
Ground current
Motor temperature sensor
Rapid cycle lockout
Voltage phase (imbalance, loss, reversal)
Under/Over Voltage
Voltage load shedding
Under/Over Power
Under/Over Power factor

Controller

Controller &
expansion
module

Note : All the protection functions include fault detection and most protection functions include warning detection

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

10

Monitoring : Statistics
Counting log for every kind of faults
Tesys T records the
faults statistics for
the analysis of the
system maintenance

Protection faults : overload, overcurrent,


Diagnostics faults : HMI port com loss, internal
fault,

Recording the motor control history


Motor starts count and operating time
Motor starts per hour
Rapid cycle lockout count
Load shedding count
Last start record

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

11

Monitoring : Statistics
Recording the last 5 faults
Fault code
Date and time
Value of parameters & measurements

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

12

Monitoring : Diagnostic faults


Internal faults
Tesys T records
faults which affect
the ability of the
controller to work
properly

Watchdog : stack over/underflow


Temperature

Control command checks


Start /stop command (current checking after the command)
Run /stop check back (current checking during the stage)

Connection fault
Current Transformer connection
Voltage connection
Temperature sensor connection

Communication loss
Local terminal connection
Communication loss : HMI, Network, expansion module

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

13

Monitoring : Motor states


Operating states
Tesys T records the
motor states for the
analysis of the
device operation

Ready
Start
Run
Not ready

Thermal overload status


Time to trip (before the fault occurs)
Time to reset (after a thermal overload occurs)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

14

Control functions
Motor control Overview
Control Modes
determines the device or devices that will command controller
outputs :
Local mode : Local terminal or Local HMI
Remote mode : PLC or DCS connected to the network

Operating Modes
determines the behavior of the controllers inputs and outputs (5
predefined modes and 1 custom mode) :
Overload, Independant, Reverser, Two-Step, Two-Speed
Custom : user customize the logical operation for the output command

Operating States
The controller provides control, monitoring and protection functions
appropriate to each of the motors operating states :
Ready, start, run and fault (not ready)

Fault Management
determines how the controller manages faults :
Manual, Automatic and Remote reset

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

15

Operating modes
Pre-configured operating mode
Overload : The Start/Stop of the motor is realized by a mechanism other
than the controller
Independant : Direct on line full voltage non reversing motor starting
Reverser : Direct on line full voltage reversing motor starting
Two-Step : Reduced voltage starting motor
Two-Speed : Two-Speed motor for motor types : Dahlander, Pole
Changer

Custom operating mode


PowerSuite logic editor : provides logic functions (Boolean, Register,
Timers, Counter,) that manage the controller behavoir to create a user
mode

Note
Note: :The
Theselected
selectedoperating
operatingmode
modedetermine
determinethe
thebehavior
behaviorofofall
all
controller
inputs
and
outputs.
controller inputs and outputs.

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

16

Custom operating mode

PowerSuite logic editor : 2 languages

Possibility
Possibilitytotouse
usean
an
existing
logic
file
to
existing logic file tomodify
modify
the
logic
command
that
the logic command that
manage
managecontroller
controller
behavior
behavior

List
List
Language
Language

Function
FunctionBlock
Block
Diagram
Diagram

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

17

Motor Management Controller : LTMR


Overview

Current Rating (internal CT)

Control Power supply

0.4 to 8 A
1.35 to 27 A
5 to 100 A

24 VDC or
100-240 VAC 50/60Hz

Operating mode

Motor Protection

Overload
Independant
Reverser
Two-Step
Two-Speed
Custom Mode

Thermal Overload
Over/Under current
Long Start / Jam
Ground current
Motor temperature sensor

Network Communication

Inputs & Ouputs


6 discrete inputs
4 relay outputs
Ground fault input
Temperature sensor

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

LTMR...BD/FM

Modbus
CANOpen
Profibus DP
DeviceNet
Ethernet (MB + TeSys Port)

18

Expansion Module : LTMEV

Front view description


3 Phase inputs Voltage
(0 to 690 VAC)

HMI/PC
connection

Controller
RJ45 port

Status indication
LEDs

Expansion module
powered by the
controller
4 discrete inputs
(external powered inputs)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

19

Operator Terminal: Magelis XBTN410

Configuration, Display & Control

Custom-built
Touchscreen available
for Water/Wastewater
Applications!

One to One
Application

Magelis
MagelisXBTN410
XBTN410

Local
LocalControl
Control
Configures
Configuresparameters
parameters
Displays
real-time
Displays real-timevalues
values
Alarm
monitoring
Alarm monitoring

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

One to Many
Application

24V
24VDC
DCsupply
supplyneeded
needed
XBTZ938
cable
XBTZ938 cable
Modbus
Modbusprotocol
protocolfor
fordata
data
tranfering
tranfering

20

Maintenance

Controller LED description

LED

Appearance Description

HMI
Comm
Power

Flashing yellow
Off

- Communication
- No communication

Green
Flashing green
Off
Red
Flashing red
(2/s)
Flashing red
Off
(5/s)
Red

- Motor off, no internal faults


- Motor on, no internal faults
- Power off or internal
faults
- Internal or protection
fault
- Warning
-- Load
shedoror
rapid
No power
not
com.cycle
Loss

Alarm

Fallback
PLC
Comm

Yellow
Off

- Com. loss with network


or
HMI communication
- Network
- No network
communication

Problems
Problemscan
canbe
bedetected
detectedusing
usingthe
theLEDs
LEDson
onthe
theexpansion
expansionmodule,
module,
Magelis
terminal,
PowerSuite
running
in
a
PC
or
PLC
connected
Magelis terminal, PowerSuite running in a PC or PLC connectedtotothe
the
controller.
controller.

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

21

MCC Starter

With Configuration, Display & Control LUCM Display

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

22

MCC Starter

With Configuration, Display & Control LUCM Display

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

23

TeSys T Connected on Modbus


OR

PLC
DCS

OR

OR

Modbus

Modbus
DeviceNet
Modbus is good data collection system
Ethernet TCP/IP

Up to 32 devices for data (Practical limitation is lower for control)


Network not compromised by lost node
Redundancy is not standard or easy to implement with Modbus

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

24

TeSys T Connected on CANopen


PLC
DCS

Modbus

DeviceNet

CANopen is good data collection and control system

Ethernet TCP/IP

Up to 63 devices for data (Practical limitation is ??? for control)


Network not compromised by lost node
No redundancy on CANopen
Similar network to DeviceNet

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

25

TeSys T Connected on Profibus


PLC
DCS

Modbus

DeviceNet

Profibus is good data collection and control system

Ethernet TCP/IP

Up to xx devices for data (Practical limitation is 4 to 8 for control)


Network not compromised by lost node
Multi-masters is available on Profibus

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

26

TeSys T Connected on DeviceNet


PLC
DCS

Modbus

DeviceNet
DeviceNet

DeviceNet is good control system

Ethernet TCP/IP

Up to 63(?) devices for data (Practical limitation is 4 to 8 for control)


Network not compromised by lost node
No redundancy on DeviceNet

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

27

TeSys T Connected on Ethernet


AND
/OR

PLC
DCS

AND

AND

/OR

/OR

Modbus

Daisy chain Ethernet (Potential ring)


Ethernet TCP/IP

Traditional Star wired Ethernet

DeviceNet

Ethernet is good control and data acquisition system

Ethernet TCP/IP

Up to 32 devices on self-healing ring


More devices on ethernet switch
Network not compromised by lost node
No redundancy on DeviceNet

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

28

PowerSuite Software V2.5

Programming, Configuration & Display


One to One Application or
One to Many Application

PowerSuite
PowerSuiteSoftware
Software

Configures
Configuresparameters
parameters
Displays
real-time
Displays real-timevalues
values
Alarm
monitoring
Alarm monitoring
Logic
Logicblock
blockprogramming
programming

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

RS232/485
RS232/485Converter:
Converter:
VW3A8106
VW3A8106
Direct
Directethernet
ethernet88pin
pincable:
cable:
VW3A8306R10
VW3A8306R10

29

TeSys T with the PowerSuite

Setting menu

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

30

TeSys T with the PowerSuite

Monitoring interface

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

31

To Summarize
Controller integrated design: 1 single product
Main protection and control features integrated into the controller
Current sensing integrated from factory up to 100 A
Most common Operating Mode ready to use
Full functionality and protection even when bus system fail
MODBUS

Ethernet TCP/IP

Communication
5 main protocols
Double network connectivity

Customization
Custom operating mode: truth table and logic block
User map: rearrange register table for faster communicating
Flexible cabling layout: removable and changeable terminal strips

Optional enhancement
Voltage and Power protection
Voltage, Power and Energy consumption monitoring

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

32

Preferred System Architecture


Ethernet Network

Ethernet
Switch

Ethernet
Switch

Ethernet Switch located in each shipping split


All motor control will have direct ethernet connection

w/ IP address
utilizing advanced services like Faulty Device Replacement and
Transparent Ready Webpages
Existing Schneider Products:
ATV61/71 VFDs; TeSys-T Overload; ATS48 w/ETG

Factory

tested for correct device operation

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

33

Architecture Questions
TeSys

T Overload:

Should it be powered by bucket CPT?


O/L and display will be OFF when disconnect is OFF
Disallows daisy-chain ethernet with possible redundancy
No communications issue with Modbus, DeviceNet, Profibus
Should it be remotely powered by 24 VDC?
O/L and display always ON
Disconnect can still be effectively Locked
Possible redundant ethernet communications
These factors should be considered:
TeSys T has realtime clock Clock

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

or CANopen

Out/Tagged Out

is stopped when power not applied

34

Transparent Ready Advantages


Keep

in mind that ethernet web pages can be accessed without using I/O
Points in the Scada System. (See costs on List Price sheet below)

Note

that pages are already built no engineering costs

If

device is replaced or updated years from now with newer product


Scada web link would still be good!

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

35

Embedded Webpages in TeSys T!

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

36

Embedded Webpages in TeSys T!

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

37

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

38

Measure of the current


Internal CT for current
range up to 100A

External CT to expand the


current range up to 810A

External load CT
LT6CT... or
LUTC or
Customer Choice

33windows
windowswith
withembedded
embeddedCT
CTfor
for
measuring
the
phase
current
measuring the phase current

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

Controller
Controlleraccept
accept5A
5Aand
and1A
1A
secondary
signal
from
external
secondary signal from externalCT
CT

39

External Current transformers

Characteristics of the external CT

Protection CT provides a good accuracy at high current and has a higher


precision limit (linearity zone) .
Requirement for the CTs (standard IEC 60044-1)
Accuracy
class
5

Motor
protection
P

Accuracy limit
factor
10 or 15

Accuracy class : define the current error at the nominal current and at the
accuracy limit current ( example : accuracy class = 5, the current error is +/- 1% if
current 2x I nominal and +/-5% at the Accuracy limit current)
Accuracy limit factor : define the maximum error at the accuracy limit current
(example accuracy class=5 and accuracy limit factor=10, the maximum error is +/5% at 10xIn.

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

40

Measure of ground fault


External ground CT for
precise ground sensitivity

Ground
GroundCT
CTmeasures
measuresground
groundfault
faultas
aslevel
level
significantly
lower
then
internal
ground
significantly lower then internal groundfault
fault
(controller
sensibility
:
20
mA
to
10
A)
(controller sensibility : 20 mA to 10 A)

Ground fault CT
(current =0 => no
ground fault)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

41

Architecture : TeSys T connected on the


Modbus

network

PLC
DCS

DeviceNet
Ethernet TCP/IP

TeSys
TeSysTTon
onthe
thenetwork
network: :
Remote
RemoteControl
Control
Configures
Configures&&sets
setsup
upthe
the
functions
functions
Monitoring
Monitoring

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

Network
NetworkConnection
ConnectionPort
Porton
on
the
thefront
front(picture
(pictureshows
showsRJ45
RJ45
for
Modbus)
for Modbus)
Terminal
TerminalStrip
Strip
(For
DeviceNet,
(For DeviceNet,only
onlyterminal
terminal
strip
is
presented)
strip is presented)

42

Main power circuit


11 Circuit
Circuitbreaker
breaker
22 Contactor
Contactor

33 Control
Controlpower
powersupply
supply
(24VDC
/
100-240VAC)
(24VDC / 100-240VAC)
2

66 HMI
HMIororPowerSuite
PowerSuiteport
port
connection
connection
77 Cable
Cableconnection
connection
(controller
(controller&&expansion)
expansion)
88 Network
Networkport
port

Controller

Expansion module

44 Ground
Groundfault
faultcurrent
current
transformer
transformer
55 PTC
PTCthermistor
thermistor(binary
(binaryoror
analog)
analog)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

4
5

43

Control wiring
66logic
logicinput
input- -Internal
Internal
supplied
power
supplied power

44logic
logicinput
inputrequire
requireexternal
external
power
power

22control
controlrelay
relay
output
output

Fault
Faultrelay
relayoutput
output
97-98:
97-98:NO
NO; ;95-96:
95-96:NC
NC

Warning
Warningrelay
relay
output
output

isolated
isolatedwith
withinput
inputon
onthe
thecontroller
controller

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

44

Control modes

Local mode : Terminal or HMI


Control
ControlThrough
ThroughTerminal
TerminalStrips
Strips

Monitor
MonitorThrough
Through
Network
Network
Control
ControlThrough
ThroughMagelis
MagelisHMI
HMI

Network

Control
Controllocal
localmode
modeselection
selectionisisdefined
definedby
byinput
inputI.6:
I.6:00==Local
Localmode
mode
Control
Controllocal
localchannel
channelsetting:
setting:00==Local
LocalTerminal,
Terminal,11==Local
LocalHMI
HMI
Local
LocalStop
StopCommand
Commandwill
willalways
alwaysbe
beresponded
respondedregardless
regardlessofofthe
thecontrol
controlmode
mode

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

45

Control modes

Remote mode
Terminal
TerminalStrips
Stripsonly
onlyfor
forSignal
SignalInput
Input

Control
ControlCommand
Command
Through
ThroughNetwork
Network
Magelis
MagelisHMI
HMIonly
onlyfor
forMonitoring
Monitoring

Network

Control
ControlRemote
Remotemode
modeselection
selectionisisdefined
definedby
byinput
inputI.6:
I.6:1=
1=Remote
Remotemode
mode
The
Thebumpless
bumplessparameter
parameterdetermines
determinesthe
thebehavior
behaviorofofoutputs
outputsO1
O1&&O2
O2when
when
changing
control
mode.
If
this
parameter
is
enable
the
outputs
remain
the
changing control mode. If this parameter is enable the outputs remain thesame
same
position
when
there
is
a
changing
control
mode.
position when there is a changing control mode.
Local
LocalStop
StopCommand
Commandwill
willalways
alwaysbe
beresponded
respondedregardless
regardlessofofthe
thecontrol
controlmode
mode

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

46

Current Transformer wiring


Internal CT
Measuring phase currents direct from 0.4 to 100 A
Wiring
Wiringthrough
throughthe
thewindows(
windows(18mm)
18mm)

Wiring
Wiringusing
usingMulti-turns
Multi-turns

Wiring
Wiringusing
usingLug-Lug
Lug-Lugkit
kit

2
4

11: :Lug
Lugshroud
shroud(ref.
(ref.31172-005-01)
31172-005-01)
22: :Lug
Lug (ref.
(ref.: :31154-023-50)
31154-023-50)

33: :L1
L1&&L3
L3bus
busterminals
terminals(ref.
(ref.: :31172-017-01)
31172-017-01)
44: :L2
L2bus
busterminal
terminal(ref.
(ref.: :31172-018-01)
31172-018-01)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

47

Current Transformer wiring


External CT
Measuring phase currents up 810 A

Controller
Controlleraccept
accept5A
5Aand
and1A
1Asecondary
secondaryfrom
from
external
current.
The
recommended
controller
external current. The recommended controller
model
modelfor
forthese
thesecurrent
currentisis0.4
0.4toto8A
8A(Ref.
(Ref.
LTMR08xxx)
LTMR08xxx)

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

48

Current Transformer wiring


External ground fault CT
Precise ground protection

Z1 Z2

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

The
Thecontroller
controllerhas
has22terminals
terminals(Z1
(Z1&&Z2)
Z2)toto
connect
connectan
anexternal
externalground
groundCT.
CT.The
Theground
ground
CT
measure
ground
sensitivity
as
level
CT measure ground sensitivity as level
significantly
significantlylower
lowerthen
theninternal
internalground
groundfault
fault
(sensibility
:
20
ma
to
10
A)
(sensibility : 20 ma to 10 A)

49

Temperature sensor wiring


Types of sensor can be used
PTC binary, PTC or NTC Analog (Set up the sensor parameter)

T1
T1and
andT2
T2returns
returnsthe
thetemperature
temperature
value
measured
by
resistance
value measured by resistance
sensor.
sensor.

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

50

Setting

Configuration & Setting via HMI/PC or Remote PLC/DCS

HMI/PC connection
HMI

Network connection
PLC/DCS

XBTN410

Or
PC
Network

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

51

Setting with the PowerSuite

Monitoring menu

Add photo in this area

Make the most of your


energy

Make the most of


SM
your energy

Setting with the PowerSuite

Parameters menu

Add photo in this area

Make the most of your


energy

Make the most of


SM
your energy

To summarize
Controller integrated design: 1 single product
Main protection and control features integrated into the
controller
Current sensing integrated from factory up to 100 A
Most common Operating Mode ready to use
Full functionality and protection even when bus system fail
MODBUS

Ethernet TCP/IP

Communication
5 main protocols
Double network connectivity

Customization
Custom operating mode: truth table and logic block
User map: rearrange register table for faster communicating
Flexible cabling layout: removable and changeable terminal
strips

Optional enhancement
Voltage and Power protection
Voltage, Power and Energy consumption monitoring
Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

54

Schneider Electric - Water Wastewater Competency Center Wayne Thygesen 3 December 2008

55