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ENGINEERING DESIGN 1

Topic 5 :Design for Manufacturing

Ir Dr Zainal Fitri B Zainal Abidin


Sept 2014

CONTENT
Introduction
Definition to design for manufacturing
Estimation of manufacturing costs
Reduction of cost in components, assembly
and supporting production
The impact of DFM on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Basically manufacturing activities are divided into following functions :
Process engineering
Rate of Production
Cost of manufacturing component
Tool engineering
Design Of Tools
Jigs, Fixtures & Gauges to produce parts
Work standards
Time to cost for produce product
Plant engineering
Providing plant facilities (space, transportation, storage etc)
Administration & control
Production Planning
Scheduling
Manpower Supervising

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Modern manufacturing system now uses Computer Integrated Manufacturing (
CIM) to efficiency

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Modern manufacturing system now uses Computer Integrated Manufacturing (
CIM) to efficiency

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Casting Process

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :
Polymer (Molding) Process

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :
Deformation Process

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Powder Processing

Gypsum Factory

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Metal removal or cutting (Machining) Processes

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Joining Processing

Brazing

Adhesive

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING - INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Heat Treatment & surface Treatment

Heat Treatment using Furnace

Surface Treatment using laser

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING - INTRODUCTION


Classes Of Manufacturing Process :

Assembly Process

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING - INTRODUCTION


Types Of Manufacturing System :

Job Shop

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Types Of Manufacturing System :

Batch Flow

Batch Flow for sealant


production

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Types Of Manufacturing System :

Assembly Line

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING INTRODUCTION


Types Of Manufacturing System :

Continuous Flow

CONTENT
Introduction
Definition to design for manufacturing
Estimation of manufacturing costs
Reduction of cost in components, assembly
and supporting production
The impact of DFM on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DEFINITION
Design for manufacturing (DFM) is the material
and tooling cost issues throughout the product
development process.
Successful DFM results in lower production cost
without sacrificing product quality.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

Estimate the manufacturing


costs
Reduce the costs of the
components
Reduce the costs of the
assembly
Reduce the costs of the
supporting production
Consider the impact of DFM
on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
1. Minimise total number of parts
Eliminate parts means great savings. Parts eliminated
cost nothing to make, assemble, store or service
The best way to eliminate parts is to make minimum part
count a requirement of the design
Combining two or more parts into one is another
approach

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
2. Standardize Components
- Cost are minimized and quality is enhanced when
standard commercially available components are used in
the design
- Standardized parts will gives cost reduction through
quantity discounts, elimination of design effort, avoidance
of equipment and tooling costs and better inventory
control

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
3. Use common parts across product lines
- Specify same material, parts and sub assemblies in each product
as much as possible. It provides economic of scales and easy
operator training and control.
- PDM (product data management) systems can be use to facilitate
similar design

4. Standardise Design Features


-Standardizing on design features (eg drilled holed sizes etc) will
minimizes usage the number of tools hence reduce
manufacturing cost

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
5. Aim to keep designs functional and simple
- The simplest design will usually the most reliable and
easiest to maintain.
- Do not specify more performance than is needed e.g
using heat treated alloy steel when a plain carbon steel
will achieve the required performance

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
6. Designs Parts to be multi functional
- A good way to minimize part count is to design such parts
can fulfill more than one function leading to integral
architecture.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
7. Designs Parts for easy fabrication
- Choose least costly material that satisfies functional
requirement.
- In general material with higher strength have poor
workability or fabricability.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
8. Avoid excessively tight tolerances
- Tolerances must be set with great care. Specifying tighter
tolerances will increase cost.
- Designer must maintain credibility with manufacturing with
regard to tolerances.

9. Minimise Secondary and finishing Operations :


-Minimise secondary operations such as heat treatment and try to
avoid finishing operation such as deburring, plating, painting and
polishing unless its necessary. Use it when there is a functional or
aesthetic reason for doing so.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFM Guidelines
10. Utilize the Special characteristics of processes
- Be alert to special design that many processes provide.
- E.g Metal polymers can be provided with built in colour as
opposed to metal that need to be painted or plated.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFA (Design for Assembly) General Guidelines


1. Minimize Total number of Parts
-

Parts is not required by the design is a part that does need to


assembled.
Criteria for essential part :

Part that exhibit motion relative to another part is declared essential


There is a fundamental reason that the part is made from different material
from all other parts.
Maintenance of the product may require disassembly and replacement of a
part
Parts only used for fastening or connecting other parts are prime
candidates for elimination
It would not be possible to assemble or disassemble the other parts unless
this part is separate, which is essential

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFA (Design for Assembly) General Guidelines


2. Minimize the Assembly surfaces
-

Simplify design so that fewer surfaces need to be prepared in


assembly and all work on one surface is completed before moving to
the next one.

3. Use subassemblies :
-Provides economies in assembly since there are fewer interfaces
in final assembly
-Product made from subassemblies are easier to repair by
replacing the defective subassembly

4. Mistake proof the design and assembly:


- Poka Yoke method

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFA (Design for Assembly) Handling Guidelines


5. Avoid separate fasteners or minimize fastener cost
-

Cost of fastener maybe cheap but the labor of proper handling in


assembly can reach 75% of the assembly cost.
Use snap fit whenever is possible

6. Minimize handling in Assembly:


- Parts should be designed to make the required position for insertion
or joining easy to achieve.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

DFA (Design for Assembly) Insertion Guidelines


7. Minimize assembly direction
-

All products should be designed so that they can be assembled from


one direction

8. Provide unobstructed access for parts and tools:


- There must be adequate assembly path (space) for the part to be
moved to this location.

9. Maximise Compliance in assembly:


- Design in compliance to include allowance for excessive force on
parts that are not identical.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

Mistake Proofing (Poka Yoke)


Japanese approach to 'mistake proofing' in all aspects
of manufacturing, customer service, procurement, etc.
It employs visual signals that make mistakes clearly
stand out from the rest, or devices that stop an
assembly line or process if a part or step is missed

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING DEFINITION DFM

Mistake Proofing (Poka Yoke)


There are 4 categories of mistakes in part production.
a) Design Mistakes
b) Defectives Material mistakes
c) Manufacturing mistakes
d) Human Mistakes

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING POKA YOKE

a) Design Mistakes
Mistakes attribute to the design process :
Ambiguous information on engineering drawing or
specifications Failure to properly use dimension and
tolerances.
Incorrect information. Mistakes in conversion units or wrong
calculations
Poorly developed design concept that does not fully provide
the need functionality. Hastily made design decision that
results poor performing product with low reliability or with
dangers to the safety of human or hazard for environment

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING POKA YOKE

b) Defective Material Mistakes


Mistakes attributes :
Material that is poorly chosen because not all performance
requirement have been considered in selection.
Material that does not meet the specifications but goes into
production or purchased components that are not up to
quality standards
Parts with hard to detect flaws such as internal porosity or
fine surface crack due to poor die design or impropoer
process

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING POKA YOKE

c) Manufacturing Mistakes
Common mistakes in manufacturing parts :
Omitted operations : failure to perform a required step in the
process plan.
Omitted part : Forgetting to install a screw, gasket or washer
Wrong orientation of parts: A part inserted in propoer location
but wrong orientation
Misaligned part : Alignment not accurate to give proper fit
Wrong location of part : Part is oriented properly but wrong
location.
Selection of wrong parts : parts may look alike but different
sizes

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING POKA YOKE

c) Manufacturing Mistakes
Common mistakes in manufacturing parts :
Misadjustments : An operation is incorrectly adjusted
Commit prohibited action : safety violation failure to lock out
a power panel before hooking up a motor
Added material or parts : Failure to remove material. E.g
newspaper inside the fuel tank (used for painting protective)
or extra parts (screw inside engine)
Misread, mismeasure or misinterpret : error in reading
measurements, dimensions or understanding correct
information.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING POKA YOKE

c) Human Mistakes
Human Mistakes

Safeguard

Inattentiveness

Discipline; work standardization; work instructions

Forgetfulness

Checking at regular intervals

Inexperience

Skill enhancement; work standardization

Misunderstanding

Training; checking in advance; standard work


practices

Poor Identification

Training; attentiveness; vigilance

CONTENT
Introduction
Definition to design for manufacturing
Estimation of manufacturing costs
Reduction of cost in components, assembly
and supporting production
The impact of DFM on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST
Overview DFM Estimation Manufacturing Cost Method

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST
Unit Manufacturing cost of a product consists of 3 cost categories :

Component Cost
Assembly Cost
Overhead Cost

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


ESTIMATION OF MANUFACTURING COST

CONTENT
Introduction
Definition to design for manufacturing
Estimation of manufacturing costs
Reduction of cost in components, assembly
and supporting production
The impact of DFM on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING REDUCTION OF


COST IN COMPONENTS, ASSEMBLY AND
SUPPORTING PRODUCTION
UNDERSTANDING THE COST DRIVERS
Fixed Cost
Fixed costs are costs that are independent of output. These remain constant
throughout the relevant range and are usually considered sunk for the relevant
range (not relevant to output decisions). Fixed costs often include rent, buildings,
machinery, etc

Variable Cost
Variable costs are costs that vary with output. Generally variable costs increase at
a constant rate relative to labor and capital. Variable costs may include wages,
utilities, materials used in production

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING REDUCTION OF


COST IN COMPONENTS, ASSEMBLY AND
SUPPORTING PRODUCTION
Variable Cost

Cost

Unit Cost

Materials

5.7 kg aluminium
@$2.25/kg

12.83

Processing (casting)

150 unit/hr at $530/hr

3.53

Processing (Machining)

200 unit/hr at $340/hr

1.70

Tooling For Casting

$160,000 @500k units

0.32

Machine Tools & fixtures

$1,800,000 @10M units

0.18

Fixed Cost

Total Direct Cost


Overhead Charges

$12.09

Total unit Cost

$30.65

Cost Estimate For intake manifold

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING REDUCTION OF


COST IN COMPONENTS, ASSEMBLY AND
SUPPORTING PRODUCTION
Variable Cost

Cost

Unit Cost

Materials

5.7 kg aluminium @$2.25/kg

12.83

Processing (casting)

150 unit/hr at $530/hr

3.53

Processing (Machining)

200 unit/hr at $340/hr

1.70

Tooling For Casting

$160,000 @500k units

0.32

Machine Tools & fixtures

$1,800,000 @10M units

0.18

Fixed Cost

Total Direct Cost


Overhead Charges

$12.09

Total unit Cost

$30.65

Question:
How do you reduce the cost per unit?

CONTENT
Introduction
Definition to design for manufacturing
Estimation of manufacturing costs
Reduction of cost in components, assembly
and supporting production
The impact of DFM on other factors

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING IMPACT OF


DFM ON OTHER FACTORS
The Impact of DFM on Development time
Development time is precious, the delay of the project may impact income of
several hundred thousand dollars per day.

The Impact of DFM on Development cost


Similar to development time. In general the product team will pursue low
manufacturing cost with high quality product intend and meeting the target timing
for product launch.

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING IMPACT OF


DFM ON OTHER FACTORS
The Impact of DFM on Product Quality
Evaluating the impact of the decision on quality is essential as many dimensions of
quality are important for business sustainability. (In few cases reducing
manufacturing cost may have an adverse effect on reliability and robustness)

The Impact of DFM on External Factors


Design decision that may impact responsibilities beyond single development team
- Component reuse : taking time and money in creating low cost component
maybe a value to other team.
- Life cycle costs: Throughout the product lifecycles, it may incur some company
or societal cost. i.e products that contain toxic waste material may require
special handling in disposal

THE END