Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Journal bearings/Sliding bearings


Operating conditions:
Advantages:
-

Vibration damping, impact damping, noise damping


not sensitive for vibrations, low operating noise level
dust tight (if lubricated by grease)
simple design; separable into two parts, easy to handle
small total required space, adjustable to different design demands and
conditions
for big shaft diameters cheaper than rolling bearings
with good lubrication very high rotational speed possible
with good and appropriate lubrication nearly free of wear

Disadvantages:
-

without sufficient lubrication very quickly failure of bearing


in certain cases expensive and complicated lubrication system required
high consumption of lubricant
run-in time necessary
surface quality of shaft surface very important

Friction conditions in sliding bearings:

(Slide 01) : Friction conditions between a moving and non-moving surface

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 1 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Case a): hydrodynamic lubrication (Flssigkeitsreibung)


-

complete separation of both surfaces by a lubricant film, the bearing


pressure is entirely supported by the fluid pressure in the film generated by the
relative motion of both surfaces
film thickness: 0.008 mm - 0.020 mm
typical friction coefficients: = 0.002 - 0.010
(Optimum condition: desired situation)

Case b): mixed-film lubrication (Mischreibung)


-

surface roughness peaks get in contact and their is partial hydrodynamic


support under certain proper conditions the surface wear can be mild
coefficients of friction : = 0.004 - 0.10

Case c): boundary lubrication (Trockenreibung)


-

surfaces are in contact continuously by and extensively, the lubricant is


continuously smeared over the surfaces and provides a continuously
renewed absorbed surface film that reduces friction and wear
typical coefficients of friction: = 0,05 - 0,20

Slide 02): Situation of a sliding bearing:


-

a fixed bearing enclosed the rotating shaft


rotating journal (shaft) and sleeve are separated by a lubricant
shaft and sleeve has a eccentricity
the gap continuously narrow
the lubricant is drawn in to this gap in the direction to the minimum thickness
the lubricant is sheared, there is a velocity gradient in the film

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 2 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

-shear stresses in the lubricant are


Proportional to the velocity gradient

h:
v:
:

dv

dy
h
thickness of lubricant film
rotational speed of shaft
proportional factor dynamic viscosity
( acc. to DIN 1342 and 51550)

Measured by falling sphere viscometer (Kugelfallviskosimeter), a ball falls inside


an oil filled tube:

N
mm

v
h

==

Ns = 1 Pa s
m 2

Ns m
mm 2 S.m

A derivate unit is often used

' = ' =

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

m2
kinematic viscosity

Seite 3 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 03): Viscosity and density of oils and lubricants depending on temperature
-

SAE 70: oil type (Society of Automobile Engineers)


Old dimensions for viscosity:
1 stokes = 1 St = 1 cm2/s

Kinematic viscosity

1 Centistokes= 1 cSt = 1 mm2/s =1 Z

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 4 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

High viscosity :
Higher forces can be taken at low speeds
with high loads but high friction values

Low viscosity :
Smaller loads can be taken but higher speeds are
possible with less internal friction

Density and specific heat of oil is also temperature-depended: (acc. to VDI-2204)

t = to (1 65 105 ( t to ) )
t :
to :

Density at temperature t
Density at temperature t0 = 15 C ; t = actual temperature

C p = 3856 2.345 o + 4.605 t

(0 > 896 kg/m3)

C p = 2910 1.290 o + 4.605 t

(0 896 kg/m3)

(Slide 04): Geometry and pressure distribution for a journal bearing

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 5 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Geometrical definitions of bearings


-

length of bearing :
l or (b)
sleeve diameter of bearing:
d1, d1 d2 d
shaft diameter:
d2 (d)
clearance
S = d1-d2
related clearance:
= S/d = (d1-d2)/d (d1-d2)/d2
minimum film thickness of lubricant film:
h0 = hmin =

S
2

d
2

= related thickness of lubricant film

h0
S/2

h0

e
S/2

= 1

2 n rad
60 sec

n: rpm revolutions per minute

sliding speed of bearing


n= d n

angular speed of bearing

=
-

related eccentricity

=
-

eccentricity of bearing:
e = S/2 h0 =

n: operating rpm of bearing [1/ s ]

specific pressure in the bearing


PL = P =

F
b id

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

F: bearing force;

b: width of bearing;

d: diameter of bearing

Seite 6 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005
Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk


Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 05): Design data for journal bearings

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 7 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Design data for journal bearings:

tabulated data for sliding bearings for different conditions in engineering


determining conditions for bearings are:
Max. design pressure P = PL in MPa
diameter clearance ratio ( related clearance)

C
d

bearing ratio:

l
d

or

b
d

Some simple bearings:


Bearing material

Cast iron
Bronze, Cu alloy
Al alloy
Pb Sn alloy
Sinter material
(oil filled)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

grease lubrication
Lubrication by hand
Sliding speed u (m/s)
1
2
2
3
1

N/mm2
pressure PL
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.1
1

Seite 8 von 25

dropped oil
u
PL
3
2
2
3
3

0.8
1.2
0.4
0.3
1.8

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005
Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk


Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 06): Data about bearing materials

(Babbitt metal: Lagerweissmetall: Zinnlager)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 9 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005
Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk


Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 07): Demands on bearing materials

fatigue strength in operation


good sliding properties
seizure resistance (Notlaufeigenschaft)
corrosion resistance
embedability: hard partials are embedded in the soft outer layer
compatibility: the bearing sleeve fits itself to rotating journal during run in
time

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 10 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 08): Bearing geometries:

a)
b)

full bearing 360 bearing


partial bearing 180 bearing

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 11 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Sliding bearings / Oil film bearings:


Specific load for a sliding bearing: (mean)

P = PB =

F
d b

F:

Bearing force (Lagerkraft)

b:

Bearing width (Lagerbreite)

d:

bearing diameter (Lagerdurchmesser)

N
mm 2

mean pressure

The journal rotates in the bearing with the sliding speed u :


u= d n

m
s

n: journal rps [1/ s ] n=nM/60 , nM=rpm

Angular speed of journal (Lagerzapfen)


= 2 n =

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

2 n
60

s 1

Seite 12 von 25

1
min

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Due to friction a certain friction power is generated in the bearing:

Nm = [W ]
s

Pf = F u

:
u:
Pf:

friction factor
sliding speed
friction power

For the capacity if a sliding bearing a dimensionless factor is defined:


S0 =

p 2
2

S:
P:
:
d:
F:
:
S0:

b d d2

F S

bd

diameter difference: d1 - d2 (Lagerspiel)


mean pressure of bearing
viscosity of oil Pas
journal diameter (bearing diameter)
bearing force
angular speed of journal
Sommerfeld-Number

A lot of design data for sliding bearings are related to the Sommerfeld number S0:
The Sommerfeld number S0 can be calculated as a function of the relative
eccentricity and the width ratio = b/d of the bearing.
Calculation of Sommerfeld number
2
b

2
2
2 ( 1)
S0 =

1 + 16 1

2 +
d 2 (1 ) 2

with :

e
S/2

= 1

with =

h0
S/2

and e =

h0 =

1 = f(b/d) and 2 = f (b/d)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 13 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 10)
Calculation acc. to DIN31652-2 ( for full bearings) ( see also slide 10a,b)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 14 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 10a)
The Sommerfeld number S o = f ( , b / d L ) with pure rotation

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 15 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005
Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk


Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 10b)
heavy loaded bearings big S0-numbers
low loaded bearings small S0-numbers

Practically: S0 > 1 ; only with high sliding speeds and low bearing loads S0 > 1 !

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 16 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

Some practical values for the minimum oil film thickness in the bearing homin
(Slide 11) : Experimental data for homin

[ m ] acc. to DIN 31652 T3 for different

shaft diameter and sliding speeds


Empirical value of smallest allowable h0min acc. to DIN 31652 T3

The value h0 for the smallest gap in the bearing is given by 2 formulas:

For S0 > 1: h0 =

2 2 S0 1 +

For 0 < 2

with = b/d (width ratio of bearing)

S S0 1 +

1
2
2
2

And for S0 < 1 : h0 =

For 0.5 2
These formulas give good approximation for h0
During operation of the bearing is necessary:

h0 h0min
The rotational speed nmin, which is necessary to ensure homin is given by:
nmin =

h0 min
h0

in

[1/ s ]

Minimum rotational speed

The value of n is calculated by use of the S0-number for S0 < 1


~

n ( S0 = 1) =
LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

2
Seite 17 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

The transition rotational speed nT is given by:


nT =

h0T
h0

for h0 > h0min > h0T

A thumb-rule equation for the relative bearing clearance is given by:

S
d

d1 d 2
d1

0.8 u

u:

sliding speed

Where is given 1/1000 (promille)


Practical conditions are:
Small -values for high speeds and loads, greater -values for small loads and high
speeds
Some values for in relation to ISO-fits for shafts and bearings are given in
(Slide 12a,b)

(solide 12a)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 18 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

(Slide 12b)
Any sliding bearing do have friction in the oil film in the bearing gap.
Some thumb rules for a related friction factor is:

For S0 < 1 (high speed bearing)

For S0>1 (high load bearing)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

3
S0
3

S0

Seite 19 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

See also (slide 13): Vogelpohl diagram

(Slide 13)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 20 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

The related friction factor can also be calculated acc. to DIN 31652-2 to a formula
system: ( see slide 14)
The related friction factor / eff depending on the related excentricity and the
related bearing width B/D acc. to DIN 31652-2

= 10

where y = f (factor: based on S0 and b/d - ratio )

With this data the friction power is calculated

Pf = F u = F

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 21 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

The total friction power generates heat in the bearing, this heat must transferred out
of the bearing partly by convection through the bearing housing and partly by the oil
flow through the bearing:
Pf = PA+PQ
PA:
PQ:
If

cooling power by convection


cooling power by oil flow
bearings without pressured flow of oil: convection
bearings with pressured oil flow: oil cooling
Pf = PA
= F u = * A (v v 0 )

* : heat transition factor

* = 7 + 12 Vw

Nm = W by surrounding air
s m 2K m 2K

with Vw: air speed [m / s ]

Vw 1.25m / s

W
Max. values for * are 20
and A: surface area of bearing housing

m 2 K

For a cylindrical bearing housing: (DIN 31652)


A=

(d
2

dH:
dB:
bH:

dB

) + d

bH

diameter of housing
bearing diameter
width of housing

For a pedestal bearing (Stehlager)

A H bH +

H: height of pedestal

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 22 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

A bearing in a machine compound:


A = (15 20 ) d B bB
o :
:

ambient temperature ( 20c)


max. bearing temperature 70c 100c

If cooling is done by oil flow, the necessary oil flow is:


Qc =

m3
Qc: oil flow

Pf

c (2 1 )

c:
:
2:
1:

specific heat of oil = f ()


density of oil = f ()
run out temperature of oil
run in temperature of oil

(2-1) should be 10 20 K
For regular lubrication conditions in a oil film bearing a certain necessary oil flow is
required in the bearing:
QL h0 b

:
oil flow rate factor 1,5
min. oil film thickness
h0:
b:
bearing width
u:
sliding speed
Acc. to DIN31652 the calculation is as follows:
QL=Q1+Q2
Where:

Q1 = d 3 q1
1 b

3
b

q1 = 0.223
4 d
d

q1: related oil flow due to internal bearing pressure


Q2 is:

Q2 = d PE / q2
LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

(see slide 15)


Seite 23 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005
Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk


Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

The related oil flow q1 due to intrinsic pressure in the gap a relation of related
eccentricity and related bearing ratio B/D acc. to DIN 31652

Where Pe is the entry oil pressure from lubrication system and for q2 see (slide 16)
With the oil flow rate the bearing temperature is controlled, if the temperature is too
high bearing conditions must be changed!!

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 24 von 25

IAM-DT-3: SS 2005

Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. J. Mauk

Universitt Duisburg-Essen

Institut fr Angewandte Materialtechnik

The related oil rate q2 depending on the series of the lubricant entries

(Slide 16)

LEC-DT3-Journal_Bearings.doc

Seite 25 von 25