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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the yearlong


Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught at most two- and
four-year colleges and universities to students majoring in nursing
and allied health. A&P is 29 chapters of pedagogically effective
learning content, organized by body system, and written at an

in an organized way, you will be able to connect what you learn


about anatomy and physiology to what you already know about your
own body.By taking this course, you will begin to think and speak in
the language of the domain while integrating the knowledge you gain
about anatomy to support explanations of physiological
phenomenon. The course focuses on a few themes that, when taken
together, provide a full view of what the human body is capable of
and of the exciting processes going on inside of it. The themes are:

audience-appropriate level. The lucid text, strategically constructed


art, inspiring career features, and links to external learning tools

Structure and function of the body, and the connection


between the two.

Homeostasis, the bodys natural tendency to maintain a


stable internal environment.

Levels of Organization, the major levels of organization in


the human organism from the chemical and cellular levels to the
tissues, organs and organ systems.

Integration of Systems, concerning which systems are


subsets of larger systems, and how they function together in
harmony and conflict.

address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the


course. Color is used for pedagogical effect in A&P. Most art will
consist of elegant black line, with the strongest line illustrating the
most important structure(s) and shading used to show dimension
and shape. Color (used only when needed) highlights and clarifies
the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. Student
focus is drawn to the most important learning point in each
illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows,
and loud highlights. The online book provides students with links to
surgical videos, histology, interactive diagrams, and cadaver imagery
at critical junctures.
Anatomy & Physiology
You probably have a general understanding of how your body works.
But do you fully comprehend how all of the intricate functions and
systems of the human body work together to keep you healthy? This
course will provide that insight. By approaching the study of the body

Developed with best practices in applied learning theory, this course


offers an active learning experience for any student in the form of
pre-tests, ample practice opportunities, 3D interactive images,
walkthrough videos, and other special tools and applications that will
increase your comprehension of anatomy and physiology. Ultimately,
your understanding of the material offered in this course will provide
you with a solid foundation to explore careers in the health and
fitness industries.

Additional Course Details

8.

Digestion (includes Metabolism & Nutrition)

Topics Covered:

9.

Cardiovascular System

10.

Respiratory System

11.

Urinary System

12.

Lymphatic System and Immunity

13.

Review and Synthesis (with a disease and diagnosis focus)

Structure and Function, Homeostasis, Levels of


Organization, and Integration of Systems.
Estimated Time to Complete Course:
This is a two-semester course, covering topics similar to Anatomy &
Physiology I and II. This course is meant to be delivered alongside
in-classroom instruction. The instructor is able to order the topics of
the OLI course to suit the order in which they cover them in their
usual classroom setting.
In-Depth Description
In addition to the course themes of: Structure and Function,
Homeostasis, Levels of Organization, and Integration of Systems,
this course has the following units:
1.

Introduction

2.

Levels of Organization

3.

Homeostasis

4.

Skeletal System

5.
6.
7.

Anatomy & Physiology presents core functions of all body systems,


including:

Cells and Tissues

Integumentary

Skeletal

Muscular

Nervous

Endocrine

Circulatory

Lymphatic

Respiratory

Muscular System
Integumentary System
Endocrine System (includes Reproduction)

Digestive

Urinary

Acid Rain - air pollution, sulfuric acid.

Reproductive

Global Warming - greenhouse gases, greenhouse


effect.

Ozone Layer - CFC chlorofluorocarbons, O3, ultra


violent radiation.

Loss of Biodiversity - deforestation, extinction of


species.

Toxic Magnification - accumulation of toxins in


higher trophic levels.

Resource Depletion - topsoil erosion, ground water


pollution and depletion, non-renewable resources,
rate of renewable resources.

Human Population Growth - growth rate,


ecological footprint.

Environmental Science Lesson Plans

Population Ecology Lesson Plans


o

Populations - size, density, dispersion.

Population Growth Model - exponential growth,


carrying capacity, density-dependent factors, logistic
growth, density-independent factors, r-strategists, Kstrategists.

Hardy-Weinberg Equalibrium - allele frequencies

Ecology Lesson Plans


Ecology lesson plans designed for high school, middle school, and
elementary school science teachers are downloadable here. Click
the titles below to see a list of lessons for each category.Free
biological evolution lesson plans include:

Biological Communities Lesson Plans

Ecosystem Biodiversity - biotic factors and abiotic


factors.

Competition - niche, limited resources.

Predator and Prey Interactions

Symbiosis - parasites, mutualism, commensalism,


symbiotic relationship.

Food Web - multiple food chains.

Energy Pyramid - energy transfer, 10%, energy


efficiency, biomass.

Trophic Levels - producers, consumers, herbivores,


carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, decomposers.

Biogeochemical Cycles Lesson Plans

Biological Communities - the different species


living in a habitat.

Water Cycle - ground water, percolation, run off,


transpiration, precipitation, evaporation, water vapor.

Biomes of the World - tundra biome, desert biome,


marine biome, grassland biome, taiga biome,
temperate grassland biomes, temperate deciduous
forest biome, tropical rain forest biome, savanna
biome, polar ice biome.

Carbon Cycle - atmospheric CO2, cellular


respiration, photosynthesis, combustion, death and
decomposition, fossil fuels, erosion from marine
organisms.

o
o

What is an Ecosystem - biological community and


physical environmental factors.

Forest Ecosystems - rainforest ecosystem, tropical


rainforest ecosystems, temperate rainforest
ecosystems, tropical dry forests, deciduous forests,
coniferous forests.

Nitrogen Cycle - nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fixing


bacteria, assimilation, ammonification, nitrification,
nitrifying bacteria, denitrification, denitrifying
bacteria, atmospheric N2, ammonia, nitrates, nitrites.

Phosphorous Cycle

Aquatic Ecosystems - freshwater ecosystems,


ocean ecosystems, wetland ecosystem, marine
ecosystems, pond ecosystems.

Other Ecosystems - desert ecosystems, tundra


ecosystem, grassland ecosystems, soil ecosystems.

Energy Flow Lesson Plans


o

Food Chain - feed from lower trophic level.

Ecology
Ecology is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called,
the economy of nature. "Environmental" usually means relating to the
natural, versus human-made world; the "systems" means that ecology is, by
its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature individually
but especially in how the parts interact. Ecology is technically an academic
discipline, such as mathematics or physics, although in public or media use,
it is often used to connote some sort of normative or evaluative issue as in
something is ecologically bad or is or is not good for the ecology. More
properly ecology is used only in the sense that it is an academic discipline,
no more evaluative than mathematics or physics. When a normative or

evaluative term is needed then it is more proper to use the term


environmental, i.e., environmental quality or environmentally degrading.
Most professional ecologists are not terribly unhappy when ecology is used
in the normative sense, preferring the wider public awareness of
environmental issues today compared to the widespread ignorance of three
decades ago.
The subject matter of ecology is normally divided onto four broad
categories: physiological ecology, having to do with the response of single
species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light;population
ecology, usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual
species and the factors that cause such distribution; community
ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given location
and their interactions; and ecosystems ecology, having to do with the
structure and function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals,
and their abiotic environment, and how the parts interact to generate the
whole. This branch of ecology often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows
of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis
and simulation we often call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology,
which may operate at any of these levels but most commonly at the
physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology
focusing on attempting to understand how natural selection developed the
structure and function of the organisms and ecosystems at any of these
levels.
Levels of Organization of Ecology. (Credit: Erle Ellis)
Ecology is usually considered from the perspective of the specific
geographic environment that is being studied at the moment: tropical rain
forest, temperate grassland, arctic tundra, benthic marine, the

entire biosphere, and so on. Thus you might study the population ecology of
lions in an African savanna, an ecosystems study of a marine benthic
environment, global nutrient budgets, and so on. The subject matter of
ecology is the entire natural world, including both the living and the non living
parts. Biogeography focuses on the observed distribution of plants and
animals and the reasons behind it. More recently ecology has included
increasingly the human-dominated world of agriculture, grazing lands
for domestic animals, cities, and even industrial parks. Industrial ecology is a
discipline that has recently been developed, especially in Europe, where the
objective is to follow the energy and material use throughout the process of,
e.g., making an automobile with the objective of attempting to improve the
material and energy efficiency of manufacturing. For any of these levels or
approaches there are some scientists that focus on theoretical ecology,
which attempts to derive or apply theoretical or sometimes mathematical
reasons and generalities for what is observed in nature, and empirical
ecology, which is concerned principally with measurement. Applied ecology
takes what is found from one or both of these approaches and uses it to
protect or manage nature in some way. Related to this discipline is
conservation biology. Plant ecology, animal ecology, and microbial ecology
have obvious foci.
There are usually four basic reasons given to study and as to why we might
want to understand ecology: first, since all of us live to some degree in a
natural or at least partly natural ecosystem, then considerable pleasure can
be derived by studying the environment around us. Just as one might learn
to appreciate art better through an art history course so too might one
appreciate more the nature around us with a better understanding of

ecology. Second, human economies are in large part based on the

on. Since ecology is so broad there are many things that an ecologist might

exploitation and management of nature. Applied ecology is used every day

wish to do and to train for. Today many ecology courses are taught in biology

in forestry, fisheries, range management,agriculture, and so on to provide us

departments, where the focus is often on population or community ecology

with the food and fiber we need. For example, in Argentina in many circles

and also individual species.

there is no difference between ecology and agriculture, which is essentially

There are a number of classical areas of interest in ecology, and they

the ecology of crops and pastures. Third, human societies can often be

revolve around questions similar to the following: how much is

understood very clearly from an ecological perspectives as we study, for

the photosynthesis of a hectare of land? How many animals of what types

example, the population dynamics (demography) of our own species, the

might that photosynthesis be able to support as a base for their food

food and fossil energy flowing through our society. Fourth, humans appear to

resources? How many species might divide up the land or food resources

be changing aspects of the global environment in many ways. Ecology can

available? How do the species present change as the physical conditions

be very useful to help us understand what these changes are, what the

change, for example as one ascends a mountain? What is the proportion of

implications might be for various ecosystems, and how we might intervene in

food that is passed on from each food or trophic level to the next? What

either human economies or in nature to try to mitigate or otherwise alter

are the mechanisms that control the populations, communities

these changes. There are many professional ecologists, who believe that

andecosystems in some area? How are human activities impacting these

these apparent changes from human activities have the potential to generate

natural systems?

enormous harm to both natural ecosystems and human economies.

Ecology should be more than just a set of ideas and principles that one

Understanding, predicting and adapting to these issues could be the most

might learn in a classroom or book but rather more a way of looking at the

important of all possible issue for humans to deal with. In this case ecology

world which emphasizes the assessment and understanding of how the

and environmentalism can be the same.

pieces fit together, how each influences and is influenced by the other pieces

Since ecology by its very nature is an integrative discipline, science students

and how the whole operates in ways not really predictable from the pieces.

preparing themselves professionally in the field are encouraged to take a

When we are lucky we are able to capture these relations in conceptual,

broad suite of courses, mostly in the natural sciences and including physics,

mathematical or, increasingly, computer models that allow us some sense of

chemistry, and biology of many sorts but certainly including evolution,

truly understanding the great complexity of nature, including as it is impacted

meteorology, hydrology, geography, and so on. Ecologists interested in

by human activity. This is the goal of most ecologists.

human ecology are encouraged to take courses and undertake readings in


agronomy, demography, human geography, sociology, economics, and so

The Importance of Ecology

Humans are dependent on their environment, as are all other organisms.

collapse because they were being eaten by caterpillars. The caterpillars had

Any change in the environment even in distant parts of the planet affects

previously been held under control by certain predatory waspswhich had

living things and their environment elsewhere. All organisms are dependant

been killed off by the DDT.

on each other in many ways. Destruction of one organism in the


environment can lead to the destruction of other organisms. The human
environment includes the entire earth and may some day include other
planets as well. Technological advances have given humans the ability to
exert great influence over the environment of all living things. For this
reason, it is necessary to have an understanding of ecology in order to
survive.

In addition to spraying for mosquitoes, the villagers also sprayed inside their
homes to kill flies. Previously, the houseflies had been more or less
controlled by lizards called geckos. As the geckos continued eating
houseflies, now laden with DDT, the geckos began to die. The dead or dying
geckos were eaten by house cats. The cats, which were at the end of the
food chain, also began to die from the DDT concentrated in the bodies of the
geckos they were eating. So many cats died that rats began invading the

Applied ecology is concerned with the practical applications of the theories

houses, eating the villagers' food. The rats multiplied and eventually became

of ecology. Among the many applications of ecology are those used in

potential plague carriers.

agriculture and medicine. Scientific study of the relations of organisms with


their environments helps farmers grow crops in the right soils and climates;
provide livestock with suitable food and shelter; eliminate harmful pests; and
breed new varieties of plants and animals. Ecological knowledge helps in the
fight against disease. For example, knowledge of the malarial mosquito's
environmental niche makes it possible to help control malaria by draining the

Another example of ecological imbalance caused by human manipulation of


the natural environment involves the Kaibab Plateau in Arizona, where
Indians used to hunt deer for meat and skins. The plateau was designated
as the Grand Canyon National Game Preserve in 1906. Public hunting was
discontinued and hunters were hired by the government to kill off the deer's
natural predators, such as wolves, coyotes, and cougars.

swamps in which the mosquitoes breed.


Subsequently the deer population rose from about 4,000 to about 100,000.
However, in their efforts to improve the environment humans often make
mistakes through lack of ecological understanding. A notable example of an
ecological catastrophe caused by seemingly beneficial human intervention in
natural processes occurred in Borneo shortly after World War II. A program
was undertaken there to control mosquitoes by spraying with DDT. The
number of mosquitoes declined drastically, but the roofs of houses began to

The vegetation of the plateau that the deer normally fed on was not enough
to sustain such a huge deer population. Not only was the plateau stripped of
its vegetation, but many deer died of starvation. In order to stabilize the deer
population and restore ecological balance, predators were reintroduced and
public hunting was reinstated.

Humans have destroyed wildlife habitats in order to build cities, homes,

Assessment involves the use of empirical data on student learning


to refine programs and improve student learning. (Assessing
Academic Programs in Higher Education by Allen 2004)

Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information


from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep
understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with
their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the
process culminates when assessment results are used to improve
subsequent learning. (Learner-Centered Assessment on College
Campuses: shifting the focus from teaching to learning by Huba
and Freed 2000)

Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about


the learning and development of students. It is the process of
defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting,
and using information to increase students learning and
development. (Assessing Student Learning and Development: A
Guide to the Principles, Goals, and Methods of Determining
College Outcomes by Erwin 1991)

Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of


information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose
of improving student learning and development. (Assessment
Essentials: planning, implementing, and improving assessment in
higher education by Palomba and Banta 1999)

factories, and highways. They have contaminated the environment with such
technological products and by-products as pesticides, motor exhaust fumes,
industrial wastes, and radioactive fallout. Nonrenewable resources such as
fossil fuels are being consumed very fast, and their by-products cause
pollution. As a result, the environment has been changed in ways that could
eventually make the earth uninhabitable. Because of such problems,
increasing attention is being paid to the study of ecology in schools,
governments, and by interested groups elsewhere. By understanding
ecology, people can take steps to reduce pollution, deforestation, and other
negative fallouts of human activity, and the human cost associated with
them.

A Taxonomy of Approaches to Assessment

What Is Assessment?
Definitions

(Terenzini, Patrick T., Assessment with open eyes: Pitfalls in studying


student outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 644-664,
November/December 1989)

Various definitions of assessment and the role it plays in teaching and


learning:
Fundamental Components of Assessment
Four fundamental elements of learner-centered assessment:

about what graduates know or can do with their


knowledge.

Formulating Statements of Intended Learning Outcomes


statements describing intentions about what students should know,
understand, and be able to do with their knowledge when they
graduate.

Developing or Selecting Assessment Measures designing or


selecting data gathering measures to assess whether or not our
intended learning outcomes have been achieved. Includes

Creating Experiences Leading to Outcomes ensuring that


students have experiences both in and outside their courses that
help them achieve the intended learning outcomes.

Discussing and Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching


and Learning using the results to improve individual student
performance.

Direct assessments projects, products, papers/theses,


exhibitions, performances, case studies, clinical
evaluations, portfolios, interviews, and oral exams which
ask students to demonstrate what they know or can do
with their knowledge.
Indirect assessments self-report measures such as
surveys in which respondents share their perceptions

(Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: shifting the focus


from teaching to learning by Huba and Freed 2000)