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HeatingoftheDrytypeTransformer

Heating of the Drytype Transformer (on photo Trihal Drytype Transformer 1600kVA 10/0,42kV by Schneider Electric)

TransformerClassifications
Althoughtransformerscanbeclassifiedby coreconstruction(shellorcoretype),themore
functionaltypesofstandardizedclassificationsarebasedonhowthetransformerisdesignedfor
itsspecificapplication,andhowtheheatcreatedbyitslossesisdissipated.
Thereareseveraltypesofinsulatingmediaavailable.
Twobasicclassificationsforinsulatingmediaare:
1. Drytypeand
2. Liquidfilled
Wewilltalkhereaboutheatingofthedrytypetransformerswithoccasionallycomparisonwithoil
typetransformer.

WhatAboutDrytypeTransformer?

Drytypetransformersdependprimarilyonaircirculationtodrawawaythe
heatgeneratedbythetransformerslosses.
AirhasarelativelylowthermalcapacityWhenavolumeofairispassedoveranobjectthathasa
highertemperature,onlyasmallamountofthatobjectsheatcanbetransferredtotheahand
drawnaway.
Liquids,ontheotherhand,arecapableofdrawingawaylargeramountsofheat.

Aircooledtransformers,althoughoperatedathighertemperatures,arenotcapableof
sheddingheataseffectivelyasliquidcooledtransforms.

Thisisfurthercomplicatedbytheinherentinefficiencyofthedrytypetransformer.Transformer
oilsandothersynthetictransformerfluidsarecapableofdrawingawaylargerquantitiesofexcess
heat.
Drytypetransformersareespeciallysuitedforanumberofapplications.Becausedrytype
transformershavenooil,theycanbeusedwherefirehazardsmustbeminimized.However,
becausedrytypetransformersdependonairtoprovidecooling,andbecausetheirlossesare
usuallyhigher,thereisanupperlimittotheirsize(usuallyaround10,000kVA,althoughlarger
onesareconstantlybeingdesigned).
Also,becauseoilisnotavailabletoincreasethedielectricstrengthoftheinsulation,more
insulationisrequiredonthewindings,andtheymustbewoundwithmoreclearancebetweenthe
individualturns.
Drytypetransformerscanbedesignedtooperateatmuchhighertemperaturesthanoiltilled
transformers(temperaturerisesashighs150C).
Althoughoiliscapableofdrawingawaylargeramountsofheat,theactualoiltemperaturemust
bekeptbelowapproximately100Ctopreventacceleratedbreakdownoftheoil.
Becauseoftheinsulatingmaterialsused(glass,paper,epoxy,etc.)andtheuseofairasthe
coolingmedium,theoperatingtemperaturesofdrytypetransformersareinherentlyhigher.Itis
importantthatadequateventilationbeprovided.Agoodruleofthumbistoprovideatleast20
squarefeetofinletandoutletventilationintheroomorvaultforeach1,000kVAoftransformer
capacity.
Ifthetransformerslossesareknown,anairvolumeof100cfm(cubicfeetperminute)foreach
kWoflossgeneratedbythetransformershouldbeprovided.Drytypetransformerscanbe
eitherselfcooledorforcedaircooled.
Aselfcooleddrytypetransformeriscooledbythenaturalcirculationofairthroughthe
transformercase.

ThecoolingclassdesignationforthistransformerisAA.
Thistypeoftransformerdependsontheconvection
currentscreatedbytheheatofthetransformertocreate
anairflowacrossthecoilsofthetransformer.

Trihal Drytype transformer 1600 kVA


10/0,42kV connected to busbar system Canalis
KTA 2500A (Schneider Electric)

Often,fanswillbeusedtoaddtothecirculationofairthroughthecase.Louversorscreened
openingsareusedtodirecttheflowofcoolairacrossthetransformercoils.ThekVAratingofa
fancooleddrytypetransformerisincreasedbyasmuchas33percentoverthatofaselfcooled
drytypeofthesamedesign.

ThecoolingclassdesignationforfancooledorairblasttransformersisFA.Drytype
transformerscanbeobtainedwithbothselfcooledandforcedaircooledratings.The
designationforthistypeoftransformersisANFA.

Manyothertypesofdrytypetransformersareinuse,andnewerdesignsareconstantlybeing
developed.Fillingthetankwithvarioustypesofinertgasorcastingtheentirecoreassembliesin
epoxyresinsarejustafewofthemethodscurrentlyisuse.

Twooftheadvantagesofdrytypetransformersarethattheyhavenofluidtoleakor
degenerateovertime,andthattheypresentpracticallynofirehazard.Itisimportantto
rememberthatdrytypetransformersdependprimarilyontheirsurfaceareatoconducttheheat
awayfromtocore.Althoughtheyrequirelessmaintenance,thecoreandcasematerialsmustbe
keptclean.
Athinlayerofdustorgreasecanactasaninsulatingblanket,andseverelyreducethe
transformersabilitytosheditsheat.

ConstructionofDryTypePowerTransformers(VIDEO)

Resource:Powertransformermaintenenceandacceptancetesting