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The high strength reinforcing concrete has been recently introduced and
many studies have been conducted on it. this kind of high steel is expected
to have a strength that reaches up to 120 ksi. This research paper
discusses the design and mechanical characteristics of the high strength
reinforcing steel. Moreover, it gives an insight about the advantages of
using it and the reasons that might keep some engineers from choosing to
use it. in addition to that, the paper will discuss the results of an
experiment that tests the bond characteristics between the concrete and
the high strength rebars. In addition to that, this paper discusses the
design specifications and techniques of the high strength reinforcing steel.
Keywords: High strength, rebar, steel, reinforcement, bond characteristics, tensile
strength, design.


Research has shown that concrete used to construct buildings is strong in compression
but weak in tension. Structural concrete members like columns, beams, bracings are
subjected to tensile and flexural stresses as well as compression. Hence, the concrete
needs to be reinforced to be able to withstand a variety of loads.
As time passes and technology progresses mankind becomes more ambitious and
demanding. Secondly, due to the rapid population growth and scarce resources like land
the need for high rise buildings has developed. However, due to unforeseen changes like
the financial crisis we need to make the best use of the given materials. Hence, high
strength fiber reinforced steel concrete (HSFRC) is the best candidate according to
researchers Song and Hwang.
In one of the researches, an experiment was conducted to check the bond characteristics
of the rebars that confront to ASTM A1035 and which are considered high-strength
reinforcing steel rebars. The steel used in the experiment was the MMFX steel, which is a
new high-strength reinforcement that meets the requirements of ASTM A1035.3 this kind
of steel rebars have a high tensile strength and its stress strain diagram has no specific
yield point.The bond characteristics obtained were compared with the bond equations in
the ACI 318-05 code. The experiments yielded that, in most cases, the most common
mode of failure was Splitting of the concrete cover. Moreover, the experiment showed
that in order to obtain a gradual failure, transverse reinforcement should be used to
confine the spliced high strength steel bars as the use of transverse reinforcement will
cause the development of splitting cracks along the spliced bars which will lead to a more
gradual spalling of the concrete cover. In addition to that, the experiment indicates that
using transverse reinforcement, a higher bar stress will be obtained. The ASTM1035 high
strength bars that were confined with transverse reinforcement had a bond failure that
went up to 150Ksi. However, the bars that were not confined had a maximum bond
failure of 120ksi which is considered high as well. (1)
When normal steel is used, the usual spacing of the confinement steel in the columns is 4
to 5 inches which leads to congestion at the intersection areas. The high strength
reinforcing steel can be an effective solution for the congestion issues, as it helps in
increase bar spacing and reducing bar diameter in these congested areas which eliminates
the congestion and reduce the time needed for placement of the steel rebars. As the
construction process will require less field labor, material that is lighter in weight.
Moreover, using the high strength steel will eliminate the problems while threading
things through the rebar and will guarantee an easier concrete casting. However, some
researchers in the field claimed that eliminating the congestion is not being enough to
increase the demand on high strength reinforcing steel as the use of highly flowable

concrete can be a good alternative solution for the congestion problem. In addition to
that, high strength reinforcing steel can be used in It can be used in high rise buildings,
without using oversized columns. (2, 3)
Structural Engineers are trying to increase the strength of composite
concrete beams by increasing the strength of reinforcement steel used.
However, they do not have sufficient information on how to design it
safely. The current allowable design strength of steel is equal to 80
ksi, and is to 75 ksi in bridge design. The steel with higher strength
has different yield points as it is more brittle. According to Florida DOT
report, ASTM specifications are insufficient for high strength
reinforcement steel because high strength reinforcement steel yield
strength is not clear, so engineers should develop new codes and
specification for the use of it. (4)
One of the ways to increase strength is to design for the chemical
composition of steel. Nowadays, low alloy steel, a type of steel with
high strength, is being produced by controlling the chemical
composition. For example, the carbon in low alloy steel should not be
greater than 0.2% to control weldability and formability, yet with this
percentage of carbon it is hard to achieve the required strength. To get
the required strength, engineers can control the chemical composition
like: manganese, silicon, tungsten, and Niobium. The strength for steel
has these components can be computed in the following equation: (5)
f, = 15(16 + 125C% + 15Mn% + 3OSi% + +6W% + 25Nb%)
Another way of designing for high strength reinforcement steel is to
design it geometry and cross section and to minimizing the economical
cost of it. Engineers provided a new economical section for steel. This
section is rolled from high strength reinforcement steel in a 500 four
stand mill train. This section (figure.1) has special features like: it is
asymmetry to both axis, and there is a difference between the flanges
and the base. The flange is approximately equal to 113 mm and the
base to 18 mm whereas the base is inclined at six degree from the side
face which is 29.5 mm from the center. The billet has dimensions of 73
mm and 110 mm strip. (6)

Figure.1: structural section

The previous section provides a rolling system for the steel. This
system provides a deformation in six forming passes with two 90
degree manipulations. The first roll will pass one with a low connection
which is planned for the two elements of the strip to be formed. The
edging passes two with a joint in center. Moreover, the symmetry
about the axis adjust the degree of filling of the subsequent roll passes
where the half closed roll will pass 3 forms two elements on the base of
the section and the strip. In control pass 4 where there is a connection
with the top, four elements will be formed. Lately, at the half closed
preleader pass five the base of the section and its flange will be
formed, and pass six is open pass. When this system is used, the
elements of this section will be formed at the height deformation in all
the passes of the rolls except the edging pass where the deformation
direction change. Figure (2) shows this system. (6)

Figure.2: rolling system of the section with Breaking up of the roll passes into elements

When we first started this research paper, we had no clue about the topic. Now, we know
how beneficial the high strength reinforcement steel is. However, this new type of the
steel needs special knowledge and information to deal with. The scientists and engineers
are acquiring this knowledge nowadays to develop specifications and limits for using it.
In addition, this steel is still not perfectly safe to use though it provides higher strength
when it used in structures.
1. Hatem M Seliem, Amr Hosny, Sami Rizkalla, Paul Zia, et al. Bond
Characteristics of ASTM A1035 Steel Reinforcing Bars ACI Structural Journal,
Vol. 106, Iss. 4, Jul/Aug 2009, pg. 530, 10 pgs.
2. RisserBob, High-Strength Reinforcing Steel: Next Generation or Niche?
Concrete Construction Magazine, January 1, 2008.
3. Nadine M. Post, High-Strength Rebar Market Is Heating Up, Engineering
News-Record Magazine, V. 263, No. 18, December 14, 2009, p.8
4. http://www.concreteconstruction.net/industrynews.asp?
5. Liu Cheng, Wang DeZun, Liu YunXu, Zhu QiHui, Zhao Yu Composition design
of a new type low-alloy high-strength steel, Materials & Design, Volume 18,
Issue 2, April 1997, Pages 53-59
6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4q67l3573h23227/fulltext.pdf?page=1
7. Figure( 1&2):