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DifferencesbetweenShuntReactorandPower

Transformer

DifferencesbetweenShuntReactorandPowerTransformer

MainDifferences
ShuntReactorandTransformerbothappearsimilarinconstruction.Reactorsarealsooften
equippedwithFansforcoolingsimilartoPowerTransformers.
However,therearemajordifferencesbetweenthetwo.WhileaPowerTransformerisdesignedfor
efficientpowertransferfromonevoltagesystemtoanother,ashuntreactorisintendedonlyto
consumereactiveVArs(orinotherwordsitcanbestatedastoproducelaggingVArs).
Thus,therearemorethanonewindingonaPowerTransformerwithmagneticcorewhichcarry
themutualfluxbetweenthetwo.Inreactorthereisjustonewinding.Thecoreisnottherefore
meantonlytoprovidealowreluctancepathforfluxofthatwindingtoincreasetheInductance.
IncaseofaPowerTransformer,primaryAmpereTurns(AT)issumofexcitingATandsecondary
AT.ATloss(inwindingresistance,eddylossandhystericloss)iskepttoasminimumaspossible.
ExcitingATissmallcomparedwiththesecondaryAT.Ratedcurrentisbasedontheloadtransfer
requirement.

Magnetizingcurrentissmallandisnegligiblevaluewhencompared
withthesecondaryratedcurrent.Further,sincemutualfluxismain
fluxwhichresultsintransformation,leakagefluxiskeptsmallandwill
bebasedonfaultcurrentlimitation.

Detailedviewofanironcore
dividedbyairgaps

IncaseofaShuntReactorduetoabsenceofotherwindings,all
primaryATisequaltotheexcitingAT.SimilartoaPower
Transformer,lossinAT(inwindingresistance,eddycurrentand
hysteresis)arealsokepttominimumbydesign.MagnetizingATis
majorcomponentofaShuntReactor.Reactormagnetizingcurrentis
itsratedcurrent.

SinceaShuntReactormagnetizingcurrentislarge,ifitisdesignedwithIronaloneasaPower
Transformer,therewillbelargehysteresisloss.AirgapsinIroncoreareprovidedinaShunt
Reactortoreducethislossandtominimizetheremanentfluxinthecore.
ThusaShuntReactormayalsobeconstructedwithoutiron(aircore).

Byconstruction,aShuntReactorcanbeoilimmersedordrytypeforbothwithand
withoutironcore.

DrytypeReactorsareconstructedassinglephaseunitsandarethusarrangedinafashionto
minimizestraymagneticfieldonsurrounding(intheabsenceofmetallicshielding).Whensuchan
arrangementisdifficult,someformofmagneticshieldingisrequiredanddesignedwithcareto
minimizeeddycurrentlossandarcingatanyjointswithinthemetallicloops.Oneoftheadvantages
ofdrytypereactorisabsenceofinrushcurrent.
Oilimmersedreactorscanbecorelessorwithgappedironcore.Theseareeithersinglephase
orthreephasedesignwithorwithoutfancooling.Theseareinstalledwithintankswhichholdoil&
actasmetallicmagneticshields.
Insomecases,aShuntReactormayhaveadditionalsmallcapacitywindingwhichcanprovide
powerforsmallstationpowerloads.SinceShuntReactorratingisnormallybasedonMVArrating,
thisaddedstationloadVAshallbeaccountedforindesigningtheReactorforsuchapplications.

Typesofshuntreactors

Shuntreactorsareusedinhighvoltagesystemstocompensateforthecapacitivegenerationof
longoverheadlinesorextendedcablenetworks.

Thereasonsforusingshuntreactorsaremainlytwo
Thefirstreasonistolimittheovervoltagesandthesecondreasonistolimitthetransferofreactive
powerinthenetwork.Ifthereactivepowertransferisminimizedi.e.thereactivepoweris
balancedinthedifferentpartofthenetworks,ahigherlevelofactivepowercanbetransferredin
thenetwork.

Reactorstolimitovervoltagesaremostneededinweakpowersystems,i.e.when
networkshortcircuitpowerisrelativelylow.

Voltageincreaseinasystemduetothecapacitivegenerationis:

U(%)=QCx100/Ssh.c
where:
Qcisthecapacitiveinputofreactivepowertothenetwork
Ssh.cistheshortcircuitpowerofthenetwork
Withincreasingshortcircuitpowerofthenetworkthevoltageincreasewillbelowerandtheneed
ofcompensationtolimitovervoltageswillbelessaccentuated.
Reactorstoachievereactivepowerbalanceinthedifferentpartofthenetworkaremostneededin
heavyloadednetworkswherenewlinescannotbebuiltbecauseofenvironmental
reasons.Reactorsforthispurposemostlyarethyristorcontrolledinordertoadaptfasttothe
reactivepowerrequired.
Especiallyinindustrialareaswitharcfurnacesthereactivepowerdemandisuctuatingbetween
eachhalfcycle.

Insuchapplicationsthereareusuallycombinationsof:
1. Thyristorcontrolledreactors(TCR)and
2. Thyristorswitchedcapacitorbanks(TSC).

Thesetogethermakesitpossibletobothabsorb,andgeneratereactivepoweraccordingtothe
momentarydemand.
Fourlegreactorsalsocanbeusedforextinctionofthesecondaryareatsinglephasereclosingin
longtransmissionlines.Sincetherealwaysisacapacitivecouplingbetweenphases,this
capacitancewillgiveacurrentkeepingtheareburning,asecondaryarc.
Byaddingonesinglephasereactorintheneutralthesecondaryarccanbeextinguishedandthe
singlephaseautoreclosingsuccessful.

Resource:ShuntReactorsandShuntReactorProtectionS.R.JavedAhmed