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Unit IX: Worksheet 2


1. Kim holds a 2.0 kg air rifle loosely and fires a bullet of mass 1.0 g. The muzzle velocity of the bullet is 150
m/s. What is the recoil speed of the rifle? (if diagram has gun pointing to right, Vfgun = -0.075m/s)
Conservation of momentum

pi = pf
pig + pib = pfg + pfb

Vi for bullet and gun = 0m/s

0 + 0 = pfg + pfb
- pfg = pfb

Vfg

Vfb

-mgvfg = mbvfb
Solve for final velocity of gun

vfg =

mb v fb
mg

vfg =

( 0.001kg )( 150 m/s )


( 2 kg )

= -0.075 m/s

2. If the girl in the previous question holds the rifle tightly against her body, the recoil speed is less. Explain.
Calculate the new recoil speed assuming the girl has a mass of 48 kg. (Vfgun = -0.003m/s)
Holding the gun tighter makes it act like the gun and
person are one object (add their masses).

vfg =

( 0.001kg )( 150 m/s )


( 48 kg+2 kg )

= -0.003 m/s

3. In a freight yard a train is being put together from freight cars. An empty freight car, coasting at 10 m/s,
strikes a loaded car that is stationary and the cars couple together. Each of the cars has a mass of 3000 kg
when empty, and the loaded car contains 12,000 kg of canned soda (a year's supply for the Physics class).
With what speed does the combination of the two cars start to move? (If the diagram shows moving car is moving
to the right, then Vfboth = 1.7m/s)

Vi = 10m/s

Conservation of momentum
Add masses together because they couple
Empty cars Vi = 0m/s

Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Vi = 0m/s

Vf = ?

pi = pf
pifull + piempty = (mfull + mempty)Vfboth
mfullVifull + 0 = (mfull + mempty)Vfboth
mfull V ifull
=V
( mfull +mempty ) fboth
1

Unit IX ws2 v3.0

( ms )

( 3000 kg ) 10

1.7

m
=
=V fboth
s ( 3000 kg+15000 kg )

4. An astronaut whose mass is 80. kg carries an empty oxygen tank with a mass of 10. kg. He throws the tank
away from himself with a speed of 2.0 m/s. With what velocity does he start to move off into space? (If
diagram has the astronaut pushing the tank to the right, then VfAstro = -0.25 m/s)

Conservation of momentum
Both Vi = 0m/s

pi = pf
0 + 0 = pfa + pft
- pfa = pft
-mavfa = mtvft
mt v ft
vfa =
ma

Vi = 0m/s

Vf = ?

Vf = 2m/s

( ms ) =0.25 m

( 10 kg ) 2

vfa =

80 kg

5. A tennis player returns a 30. m/s serve straight back at 25. m/s, after making contact with the ball for 0.50 s.
If the ball has a mass of 0.20 kg, what is the force she exerted on the ball? (If diagram shows serve moving left to
right, and return the opposite direction, then F = -22N)

Ft = mv
m ( v f v i )
F=
t
m
m
( 0.2 kg ) 25 30
s
s
F=
=22 N
0.5 s

Vi = 30 m/s

Vf = -25 m/s

6. A 50. kg cart is moving across a frictionless floor at 2.0 m/s. A 70. kg boy, riding in the cart, jumps off so
that he hits the floor with zero velocity.
a. What impulse did the boy give to the cart? (If diagram has cart moving left to right, then J = 140kgm/s)
J = p = pf - pi
J = mbVfb - mbVib
J = (70kg)(0m/s) (70kg)(2m/s)
J = -140 kgm/s This is impulse cart gives to boy
J = +140 kgm/s This is impulse boy gives to cart
b. What was the velocity of the cart after the boy jumped? (VfCart = 4.8 m/s)
Conservation of momentum
Modeling Workshop Project 2006

pi = pf
2

Unit IX ws2 v3.0

(mc+mb)Viboth = pfc + pfb


(mc+mb)Viboth = mcVfc + mbVfb
(mc+mb)Viboth = mcVfc + 0
(m + m ) V
V fc = c b iboth
( mc )

The Vf of the boy is zero

( ms ) =4.8 m

(50 kg+70 kg) 2


V fc =

( 50 kg )

7. Two girls with masses of 50.0 kg and 70.0 kg are at rest on frictionless in-line skates. The larger girl pushes
the smaller girl so that the latter rolls away at a speed of 10.0 m/s. What is the effect of the action on the
larger girl? What is the impulse that each girl exerts on the other? (If diagram has larger girl on left & smaller girl
on right, then VfLarger = -7.14m/s, JLarger = -500kgm/s, JSmaller = 500kgm/s)

Conservation of momentum

pi = pf
piL + pis = pfL + pfs

Vi for both girls = 0m/s

0 + 0 = pfL + pfs

Vi = 0m/s

VfL = ?

Vfs = 10m/s

- pfL= pfs
-mLvfL = msvfs
Solve for final velocity of Larger

vfL =

ms v fs ( 50 kg )( 10 m/s )
m
=
=7.14
mL
s
( 70 kg )

( ms )=499.8 kgms
m
kgm
( 50 kg ) (10.0 )=500
s
s

Impulse for larger girl

J = ( 70 kg ) 7.14

Impulse for smaller girl

J=

8. A 2.0 kg melon is balanced on a bald man's head. His son shoots a 50.0 g arrow at it with a speed of 30.0 m/s.
The arrow passes through the melon and emerges with a speed of 18.0 m/s. Find the speed of the melon as it
flies off the man's head. (If diagram has arrow moving to the right, then Vf = 0.3m/s)
Conservation of momentum
Vim = 0m/s
Solve for pfm

Solve for Vfm

pi = pf
pia + pim = pfa + pfm
pia + 0 = pfa + pfm
pia - pfa = pfm
maVia - maVfa = mmVfm
V fm=

Vi = 30m/s

( ma V ia) ( m a V fa )
mm

Vi = 0m/s

Vf = 18m/s

m
m
( 0.05 kg ) 18
s
s
m
=0.3
2 kg
s

( )

( 0.05 kg ) 30

Vf = ?

( )

9. Mighty Miguel has a mass of 100. kg and is running towards the end zone at 9.0 m/s. Joey Gonzales (mass
?
of 75.0 kg), runs at 12.0 m/s towards Miguel. They collide at the 2-yard line. Does Miguel score?
Explain.
(If diagram has Miguel running to the right, and Joey moving to the left, then their combined velocities = 0m/s, does not score)

Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Unit IX ws2 v3.0

Conservation of momentum

pi = pf
piM+ piJ = (mm + mJ)Vfboth
mmVim + mJVfJ = (mm + mJ)Vfboth
mm V + mJ V fJ
V fboth=
=
( mm +mJ )

Modeling Workshop Project 2006

( ms )+ ( 75 kg) (12 ms ) =0 m

( 100 kg ) 9

( 100 kg+75 kg )

Unit IX ws2 v3.0