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Submitted By:
Michelle B. Andeza

Submitted to:

Mrs. Theresita Q. Quiambao

Arabian Literature
Arabian Geography
Found in the Middle East between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. It borders Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait to the north,
Yemen to the south, and Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Qatar to the east. The country, which is divided into
13 provinces, is composed primarily of desert. Each region has a governor appointed by the king. With a land area of
about 1.96 million square kilometers (756,981 square miles), Saudi Arabia is about one-fourth the size of the continental
United States. Riyadh, the capital, is located in the central eastern part of the country.

Cultures and Traditions

Pork is considered unclean and is prohibited. Lunch is traditionally the days main meal.
Alcohol consumption, nightlife are forbidden.
Saudi Arabian women are required, according to Islamic law, to cover their bodies in abaya (black robes and face
coverings) as a sign of respect for Muslim modesty laws.
Large, extended families live together, and nepotism is encouraged.
Storytelling is another favorite form of artistic expression, but in keeping with Islamic law, guidelines govern public
performances, and artists cant make "graven images.
Hand-lettered Qurans are considered sacred art thats to be
respected and kept safe for generations.

For Women
- Adherence to traditional dress varies across societies.
- Traditional Arab dress features the full length body cover
(abayah, jilbob) and Veil (hijab or chador).

For Men
- Traditional flowing robes to blue jeans, T-shirts and western
business suits.
Headdress pattern might be an indicator of which tribe,
clan, or family the wearer comes from. However this is not
always the case.


The structure of the Arabic language is well-suited to harmonious word-patterns, with elaborate rhymes and
rhythms. The earliest known literature emerged in northern Arabia around 500 AD and took the form of poetry which was
recited aloud, memorized and handed down from one generation to another. It began to be written down towards the end
of the seventh century. The most celebrated poems of the pre-Islamic period were known as the Muallgqat ("the

suspended"), reputedly because they were considered sufficiently outstanding to be hung on the walls of the ka'ba in

The typical poem of this period is the Qasidah (ode), which normally consists of 70-80 pairs of half-lines.
Traditionally, they describe the nomadic life, opening with a lament at an abandoned camp for a lost love. The second part
praises the poet's horse or camel and describes a journey, with the hardships it entails. The third section contains the main
theme of the poem, often praises the poet's tribe and vilifying its enemies.

Historical Periods
The history of Arabic literature is usually divided into periods making the dynastic changes and divisions that
took place within the Islamic world.
A. Umayyad Period (A.D. 661-750)
Arabic prose literature was limited primarily to grammatical treatise, commentaries on the Koran, and compiling of
stories about Muhammad and his companions .
B. Abbasid Empire (750-1258)
In the early years of this empire, many forms were invented for Arabic literature , which then entered what is
generally regarded its greatest period of development and achievement. It is certain that the Persian influences
contributed significantly to this development.
An inventive type of folk literature, exemplified in The Thousand and One Nights (popularly known as The
Arabian Nights), drew upon the recitations of wandering storytellers called rawis.
C. Modern Period
During the centuries of Ottoman Turkish domination, Arabic literature falls into decline. Not until the mid-19th
century was it revived by its intellectual movement known as Nahdah (reawakening), which originated in Syria and
spread to Egypt. From being imitative to Europeans, Modern Arabic literature, both prose and poetry has gradually freed
itself from centuries of neglect and has assumed its former place among the worlds greatest literatures.
Arabic Poetry
There is not much evidence of written literature among the Arabs before the Islamic period. Oral traditions, the
poetry of the North Arabs, particularly the Bedouin tribes of the fifth and sixth centuries, are the most outstanding in
artistry and sensuousness of feelings. Poetry was constructed in elaborate meters of which sixteen are universally

All verses are divided into types:

Occasional Poems
Collection or Anthologies
Occasional Poems Consisting 2 to 20 lines whose themes are usually war and revenge and praise of ones own tribe.
Collection or Anthologies Al-Muallgqat, a group of pre-Islamic Odes.