Nocardiosis (see Nocardiosis) is commonly reported in debilitated marine mammals. It has been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins, beluga whales, pil

(Globicephala spp), harbor porpoises, killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris
seals (Hydrurga leptonyx). Infections due to Actinomyces spp also have been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins.


Serologic evidence of brucellosis in marine mammals was first reported in 1994. Since then, a wide range of pinniped and cetacean species have b

antibodies to Brucella spp. Several marine Brucella species have been cultured, and genetic analyses show these to be different from known terres

The names Brucella ceti and B pinnipedialis are now accepted for isolates from cetaceans and seals, respectively. Strains from dolphins, porpoises,

appear to be distinct from each other, but strains from one type of animal do not seem to vary much from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. Diagnosis

controversial with challenges in both culture techniques and serologic methods. Little is known about the pathophysiology of brucellosis in marine m

have been reported to cause orchitis, abortions, and meningoencephalitis. When present, brucellae often appear to be secondary or opportunistic p

experience with the disease is not extensive and no therapy or control methods are established. Zoonotic potential has not yet been determined, alt
infection has been reported.

Clostridial Myositis
Severe myositis due to infections with Clostridium spp has been diagnosed in captive killer whales, pilot whales, bottlenose dolphins, California sea

manatees. All marine mammals are probably susceptible. The disease is characterized by acute swelling, muscle necrosis, and accumulations of ga

tissues, accompanied by a severe leukocytosis. Untreated, it can be fatal. Diagnosis is based on detection of gram-positive bacilli in aspirates of the

confirmed by anaerobic culture and identification of the organism. Treatment includes systemic and local antibiotics, surgical drainage of abscessed

flushing with hydrogen peroxide. Commercially available inactivated clostridial bacterins are used routinely in some facilities, although efficacy in ma

not been studied. Botulism has been reported in captive California sea lions during an endemic outbreak of the disease in waterfowl. Affected anima

and appeared unable to swallow several days before dying.


The chief cause of death in captive marine mammals (other than polar bears) is believed to be pneumonia. Most cases of marine mammal pneumon

bacterial involvement, and most organisms cultured from terrestrial species have been identified in marine mammals. Pneumonia often can be cons

mismanagement. Marine mammals require good air quality, including high rates of air exchange at the water surface in indoor facilities. Tempered a

cold temperatures is also important to prevent lung disease, even in polar species. Animals acclimated to cold temperatures are usually quite hardy;

transition from warm environments to cold air, even with warmer water, can precipitate fulminating pneumonias, particularly in nutritionally or otherw

animals. Clinical signs include lethargy, anorexia, severe halitosis, dyspnea, pyrexia, and marked leukocytosis. The disease can progress rapidly. D

based on clinical signs and confirmed by response to therapy. Treatment consists of correction of environmental factors and intensive antibiotic and

therapy. The initial antibiotic is usually broad-spectrum, commonly cephalexin (40 mg/kg, tid-qid); adjustments are based on cultures and sensitivitie
tracheal samples.

Erysipelas (Diamond Skin Disease)

Erysipelas can be a serious infectious disease of captive cetaceans and pinnipeds. The organism,Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which causes erysip

other domestic species, is a common contaminant of fish. A septicemic form of the disease in marine mammals can be peracute or acute; affected a

suddenly either with no prodromal signs or with sudden depression, inappetence, or fever. A cutaneous form that causes typical rhomboidal skin les
chronic form of the disease. Animals with this form usually recover with timely antibiotic treatment.

dolphin .Erysipelas.

Captive animals can be vacc areas. Treatment in pinnipeds is similar to that in (see Leptospirosis in Dogs). reluctance to move. [5 cm]) should be used to assure that the vaccine is deposited in the mu between muscle and blubber. Arthritis has been found in animals that have died with the chronic form. Leptospirosis This has been diagnosed in otarid pinnipeds and bears. spleen. Lesions include a severe. and vaccine bre Vials of killed erysipelas bacterin should be cultured for surviving organisms before use in marine mammals. or body cavities. and appropriate precautions should be taken. The gallbladder may contain inspissated black bile. Hyperplasia of Kupffer's cells.Necropsy of peracute cases generally fails to reveal grossly discernible lesions other than widespread petechiation. Gastroenteritis can be a feature. Leptospirosis is zoonotic. . A long needle (≥ 2 in. Animals wit form usually recover with administration of penicillins. tetracyclines. Because the vaccine is extremely irritating. interstitial nephritis. some vaccination programs have been reduced to one-time administrati antibody titers fall below the presumed effective level. or a sterile abscess can result. Treatment of the peracute and acute forms has rarely been attempted because the absence of prodromal signs obscures the diagnosis. Antibodies to various Leptospiraserovars (L Canicola. L Icte-rohaemorrh Autumnalis. sensitivity tests should be performed by injecting a small amount of bacterin submucosally on the lower surface Hypersensitive animals develop swelling and redness at the injection site within 30 min. To maintain high antibody ti after 6 mo and annual revaccination are required. For this reason. erythr and hemosiderosis are seen histologically. Control seems primarily related to the provision of high-quality fish that is properly stored and handled. or chloramphenicol and supportive treatment. but hepatitis may not be apparent grossly. In seals. and py cause abortions and neonatal deaths in California sea lions and Northern fur seals. immobilizing the animal for several days. and L Pomona) have been identified in affected animals by fluorescent antibody techniques. Fatal anaphylaxis can occur on revaccination. the disease is characterized by depression. Control in captive animals requires serologic examination of new animals during quarantine. with renal with spirochetes. Vaccination is controversial. diffuse. Bacterin should be administered in the dorsal musculature anterior and lateral to the d Administration posterior to the dorsal fin can result in a severe tissue reaction. no more than 3– used at any one site. even in nonsensitive mammals. Modified live bacterins should be avoid vaccination. If cetaceans are to be revaccinated. Diagnosis is based on culture o the blood. polydipsia.

Cutaneous streptothricosis usually manifests as sharp nodules distributed over the entire body and usually progresses to death. Sporothrix schenckii. Unconfirmed mycobacteriosis has been reported in a stranded. It must be dist sealpox. has been reported in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus obliquidens). has been reported in pinnipeds and polar bears. Simultaneous infections of streptothricosis and pox have been recorded in sea lions. Mycobacteriosis Marine mammals are susceptible to various mycobacteria. Originally tho by Mycobacterium bovis. and evidence points to mycobacterial disease being possibly endemic in free-ranging otarids off the coast of Australia. subsequent molecular assessment places the isolates from free-ranging southern hemisphere pinnipeds in a unique cluste own species in the M tuberculosis complex. Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand fur seals ( . wild bottlenose dolphin in Mediterranean. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of the organism in biopsies or culture prolonged high dosages of systemic antibiotics can be successful.Streptothricosis (Dolphin Pseudopox. Cutaneous Dermatophilosis) Streptothricosis. Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) are thought to be the common link in the spread of the pinniped species because they cohabit with the other known affected species. a subcutaneous bacterial infection with Dermatophilus congolensis. the cause of a subcutaneous mycosis.

due to Staphylococcus aureus successfully with a prolonged course of cefazolin sodium and cephalexin. Smaller cetaceans can be kept out of water in a sling for 2–24 hr. and in several pinnipeds including Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). There are strong indications that immunosuppression ma the development of infections by the atypical mycobacteria. Topical medication of pinnipeds for dermatophytosis is feasible.M chelonae. and California sea lions. Diagnosis is made by culture and identification of the lesion biopsies. tracheal washes. Otherwise. Otherwise. Most appear to be secondary to stress. S aureus also has been incriminated in a fatal pneumonia in a killer whale slow-healing wounds of cetaceans managed in open sea pens. or other infectious disease. systemic therapy is used. Tissue smears cleared in warm 10% potassium hydroxide can be examined to identify characteristic fruiting bodies or hyphae. Wet mounts in lactophenol or cotton blue may render an immediate diagnosis with some of the morphologically distinct fungi. culture. chitae. It has also been reported to cause pneumonia in pinniped dolphins. Mycotic Captive marine mammals seem particularly prone to fungal infections (see Fungal Infections). Plesiomonas shigelloides has been responsible for gastroenteritis in harbor seals. Mycobacteriosis in marine mammals is an emerging disease and is possibly of public health significance also Tuberculosis and other Mycobacterial Infections. Cutaneous aspergillosis has been seen in gray seals (Halichoerus . mycobacteriosis has been a disease of captivity.forsteri). Some systemic mycoses have distinct geographic distributions. Intradermal testing with high concentrations of bovine or avian purified protein derivative tuberculin can be used to screen exposed animals.) Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Marine mammals are probably susceptible to the entire range of pathogenic bacteria. ELISA screening has antibodies in seals but requires further evaluation before it can be considered a screening test. cetaceans. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and confirmed by identification of the organism in biopsy or. preferably. Salmonella spp have caused fatal gastroenteritis in manatees and beluga whales. Another case of intradiskal osteomyelitis. In pinnipeds. harbor seals. Mannheimia haemolytica has been incriminated in hemorrhagic tracheitis that responded to chloram-phenicol therapy. Aspergillosis Fatal pulmonary asper-gillosis has been diagnosed in several species of cetaceans including bottlenose dolphins and killer whales. M fortuitum. Burkholderia pseudomallei has caused serious fatal outbreaks of marine mammals in captivity in the Far East. and M marinum. injections in the webbing of the rear flippers should be read at 48 and 72 hr. and sirenians have developed disease due to M bovis. howeve and the usefulness is controversial. Staphylococcal sept the death of a dolphin with osteomyelitis of the spine (pyogenic spondylitis). environmental compromise. provided areas of the body not being treated are kept moist. Pasteurella multocida has caused several outbreaks of hemor with depression and abdominal distress leading to acute death in dolphins and pinnipeds. Pinnipeds. or feces. Cutaneous and systemic forms are seen.

inflammation at the mucocutaneous junctions. In phocid pinnipeds.01 mg/kg) may be appropriate to compensate for ketoconazole inhibition of glucocorticoid production. At necropsy. Fluconazole (2 mg/kg. sid) along with correction of any environmental deficits. Supplementation with prednisolone (0. Cryptococcus neoformans. has been diagnosed in fatal advanced pulmonary disease in a bottlenose dolphin. esophageal ulcers are often found. PO. anus. In cetaceans. The respiratory form has been a postmortem diagnosis. particularly at the commissures of the mouth and around the eyes. bid) has also been used successfully.grypus) with concomitant mycobacteriosis. Candidiasis is also reported in pinnipeds. Diagnosis is based on identification of the yeast in cultures or biopsy. sid). and vulva. Early detection and treatment is usually successful. is the common presentation. Candidiasis This common mycotic disease in captive cetaceans occurs secondary to stress. PO. . Prolonged treatment with itraconazole (120 days) at routine mammalian doses was ineffective despite serum drug levels above the suggested therapeutic range. unbalanced water disinfection with chlorines. Candidiasis generally responds well to ketoconazole (6 mg/kg. particularly in the area of the gastroesophageal junction. the lesions usually are found around body orifices. One anecdotal report suggests a possible toxic reaction to ketoconazole in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). or indiscriminate antibiotic therapy. Cutaneous lesions respond to topical povidone-iodine with ketoconazole therapy (10 mg/kg. Another opportunistic yeast.


oral griseofulvin. Lobomycosis This disfiguring cutaneous disease is caused by infection with Lacazia loboi. Culture of the organism has . dolphin Dermatophytosis Mycotic dermatitis due to Trichophyton spp or Microsporum canisgenerally responds to topical povidone-iodine. or both.Lingual candidiasis. dolphin Candidiasis. The disease has only been reported in humans and in Atlantic bottlenose Sotalia (Sotalia fluviatilis) dolphins.

Zoonotic transmission has not been demonstrated. Excisional therapy and systemic antifungal drugs have been used with varying success.not been possible. .

dolphin .Lobomycosis.

Amphotericin B is the therapy of choice for zygomycete infections. harbor seals. California sea lions.5 mg/kg. sid for 10 days). Acanthocephalans Cetaceans are the primary host of Bolbosoma spp but can be infested with parasites of the genusCorynosoma. but newer imidazoles warrant consideration. and acanthocephalans. lice. Blastomycosis has been successfully treated with intensive management including 70 days of itraconazole (3. Three species of Profilicollis(also found in birds) are reported to cause . trematodes. Northern fur seals. Zygomycetes Dermatologic conditions caused by various Fusarium spp have been reported in pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps). sid) combined with antibiotic and supportive therapy when indicated. C enhydra has only been reported from sea otters. Coccidioidomycosis has been found in bottlenose dolphins. sid for 120 days). and harp seals.Systemic Mycoses The systemic mycoses of marine mammals are a zoonotic risk. Mucor spp and Entomophthora spp have caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. Cases have responded to ketoconazole (5 mg/kg. or itraconazole (1 mg/kg. California sea lions. Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus acutus). Clinical experience with many of these is limited. Bolbosoma spp have been reported in pinnipeds. the underlying cause of the low host resistance to these opportunistic infections must be corrected if therapy is to be successful. fluconazole (0. a bottlenose dolphin. gray seals. and precautions should be taken to prevent infection when handling dead and diseased animals. and northern elephant seals.5 mg/kg. Diagnosis is based on culture or organism identification from biopsy. which have pinnipeds and sea otters as primary hosts. and polar bears. These should be considered diseases of debilitated animals. cestodes. bid for 21 days). and sea otters. Fatal systemic histoplasmosis has been reported in a captive harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus). while others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens. Blastomycosis has caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. but clinical disease and therapy are not well documented. and a Pacific white-sided dolphin. a Stellar sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). PO. Other zygomycetes have been diagnosed as a cause of fatal disseminated disease in various species of marine mammals. including various nematodes. Parasitic Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites. mites. Diagnosis is by detection of eggs in feces. California sea lions. harbor porpoises.

The life cycles of these mites are unknown. coughing. Mites have been associated with large. The mites are not readily transmitted among contact animals. Secondary bacterial infection that results in pyoderma occurs in chronic cases. 2 wk apart. Both of these parasites use fish as intermediate hosts. provided no new sources of infestation are introduced. scaling. alopecic lesions with hyperkeratosis. Treatment of P decorus infection . Acariasis Nasal and lung mites are found in phocid and otarid seals. Demodectic mange has been diagnosed in California sea lions. larva Lungworm infection can be diagnosed by examination of feces or bronchial mucus. Mortality usually occurs before the parasite produces ova. allowed to dry before being dusted. Heavy infestations of sucking lice are common in wild pinnipeds and can cause severe anemia. Sea lions have Parafilaroides decorus. No successful treatment has been reported. roughened lesions of the laryngeal area of cetaceans. Diagnosis is made by deep skin scrapings and identification of the mite. The lice can be seen grossly and are readily transmitted. The affected animal must be removed from the water. it does not produce a microfilaremia. Treatments must be repeated in 10–12 days. Premortem diagnosis is problematic. and excoriation occur on the flippers and other body surfaces that contact the substrate. Otostrongylus circumlitus. Diagnosis is made by identifying the mite in nasal secretions or sputum.peritonitis associated with intestinal perforation in sea otters. There are at least 4 species of lungworms in various cetacean hosts. Anorexia. The latter parasite is also found in the hearts of some phocids. Rotenone powder is also effective. and kept out of the water ≥12 hr. Lungworm Lungworms are common in all pinnipeds. Infections have been cleared rapidly with 2 injections of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg. Treatment is the same as in dogs (see Mange in Dogs and Cats). Nasal mites cause nasal discharge but apparently little discomfort. They are highly sensitive to ivermectin as well as chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. Treatment of infected animals eliminates the problem in captive enclosures without environmental treatment. and sometimes blood-flecked mucus are the first signs of pulmonary parasitism. Predisposing factors in pinnipeds are unknown. which has caused prenatal infections in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. but their overall significance or treatment is unknown. however. Lung mites cause rattling coughs. Nonpruritic. while true seals are usually parasitized by Otostrongylus circumlitus. Animals in captivity can be freed of parasites. including Halocercus lagenorhynchi.

consists of mucolytic agents administered intratracheally. and mucolytic agents may be more effective. PO or SC administration has been recommended. combined therapy with ivermectin and fenbendazole given 3 days after initiation of therapy with dexamethasone. with the advantage of oral administration. Feeding frozen fish prevents reinfection. Lungworm infections often remain asymptomatic for long periods with clinical signs appearing only when an animal becomes debilitated for other reasons. Infections with Contracaecum spp are common in wild cetaceans and pinnipeds. lungworm infections are usually self-limiting if larvae are not introduced in fresh fish intermediate hosts. Granulomas form at their attachment sites and can lead to blood loss. dehydration. or sirenians.3 mg/kg) weekly. sea otters. Cetacean lungworms probably are also susceptible to levamisole and ivermectin. In captivity. sid for 1 wk) has successfully cleared infection in captive pinnipeds. and otarids are infected subcutaneously by A odendhali. Diagnosis ofO circumlitus in elephant seals is complicated by mortality occurring after generalized clinical signs of depression. Both groups of pinnipeds can be infected with the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in endemic areas. however. Raw fish is most often incriminated as the source of infection. ulceration. the sudden deaths of 2 beluga whales injected IM with levamisole phosphate suggest this drug administered by that route may be contraindicated. Transmission is thought to be by the same mosquitos that bite dogs. Some success in treatment has been reported using intratracheal administration of levamisole phosphate (5 mg/kg. however. and concurrent prednisone or dexamethasone. antibiotics. Heartworm Heartworms of the genus Acanthocheilonema are a common necropsy finding in pinnipeds but have not been reported in cetaceans. however. A graded regimen of levamisole phosphate progressing to a high dosage (40 mg/kg. Transmission of A spirocauda is thought to be by the seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus). antibiotics to treat any concomitant bacterial pneumonia. in food during the mosquito season (see Heartworm Disease). phocid seals are abnormal hosts. ivermectin. Polar bears in captivity are prone to heavy ascarid infection. Dirofilariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae in the blood. and ultimately perforation and peritonitis. Gastric nematodes can . Prevention in endemic areas has been successful with oral administration of ivermectin (canine dosages) monthly or diethylcarbamazine (3. A percentage of pinnipeds also show neurologic reactions to IM injection of levamisole. and neutrophilia before the parasites become patent and first-stage larvae can be detected in sputum or feces. Acanthocheilonema microfilariae Other Nematodes The Anasakidae are pathogenic nematodes found in the stomach of marine mammals. Phocid seals are affected by A spirocauda. sid for 5 days).

be successfully treated with oral dichlorvos (30 mg/kg). Cestodiasis Diphyllobothrium pacificum is commonly found in sea lions. kidneys. ova Hookworms (Uncinaria spp) are found in pinnipeds. . Many species of a large spirurid nematode (Crassicauda spp) infect the cranial sinuses. Cetaceans are also commonly infected with subcutaneous tapeworm cysts throughout the blubber. and Tetrabothrium forsteri and Strobilocephalus triangularisin cetaceans. Praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or niclosamide (160 mg/kg) are effective treatments. Severe infections are known only in the fur seals. and heavy infection is thought to cause intestinal obstruction. major vessels. ova Anisakis spp. 10 days apart. Newborn pups are infected via colostrum. Disophenol (12. Reinfection can be prevented by not feeding fresh or live fish. Infections are often accompanied by halitosis and brown mucus around the blowhole and occasionally by coughing. Other cestodes commonly seen include D lanceolatum in phocid seals. but are not known to have clinical significance. Successful treatments are not documented but are potentially possible with systemic parasiticides. Contracaecum spp. These usually are the larval forms of tapeworms of sharks. fenbendazole (11 mg/kg).Diplogonoporus tetrapterous in all pinnipeds. Several species of cestodes are reported in sea otters and polar bears. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of typical operculated trematode ova in blowhole swabs or feces.5 mg/kg) or ivermectin (100 μg/kg) injected SC are effective against these parasites. and mammary gland ducts of cetaceans. Oral praziquantel (10 mg/kg. Nasitrema spp are found in the nasal passages and sinuses of cetaceans. or mebendazole (9 mg/kg) given twice. Ova of these trematodes have been associated with necrotic foci in the brains of animals showing behavioral aberrations and have been incriminated as a cause of localized pneumonia in cetaceans. Trematodiasis Fluke infections are common in pinnipeds and cetaceans. 2 treatments 1 wk apart) is usually effective. Ivermectin may be considered.

it causes biliary hypertrophy and fibrosis of the liver. liver. and anorexia. Zalophotrema hepaticum. Clinical disease with this parasite is thought to be rare unless the host is stressed through capture. Infection can be asymptomatic or cause severe encephalitis characterized by generalized neurologic signs.) Sarcocystis Sarcocystis neurona is found in high prevalence in the California population of sea otters. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development. however. intestines. Treatment with praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or with bithional (20 mg/kg) has been successful. A coccidian. or husbandry changes. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is known to infect the California population of sea otters causing disease that ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe encephalitis. eg. otarid.Nasitrema spp. lethargy. No successful treatment has been reported. (See also Coccidiosis. amprolium. ova Zalophotrema hepaticum is an important hepatic trematode of California sea lions. These coccidia are probably susceptible to anticoccidial drugs used against other species. and E nodulosa reported from the Florida manatee. Coccidiosis Coccidia (Eimeria phocae) have been found in harbor seals with a fatal. and other abdominal organs of marine mammals. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to T gondii has also been . other workers consider the parasite to have been a fish coccidia not associated with the disease. Eimeria trichechi reported from the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).Sarcocystis spp have been found in the muscles of many cetacean. Diagnosis is based on identification of trematode ova in the feces. Bilirubinemia and increased serum hepatic enzymes are common. and phocid species and do not seem to be associated with any recognized clinical signs. Pancreatic fibrosis due to trematodiasis is a common necropsy finding.Cystoisospora delphini. handling. bloody diarrhea. ova Various other trematodes infect the stomach. Signs are usually seen in adults and include icterus. are also not associated with disease. pancreas. has been reported as the cause of enteritis in bottlenose dolphins.

see Vesicular Exanthema of Swine). skin lesions usually resolve without tre may cause premature parturition in pinnipeds. In humans. a relative lymphopenia and monocytosis were seen. . By 4 mo of age. abdominal splinti diarrhea. Treatment is supportive only. Pinnipeds developed weakness. polydipsia.reported in a Florida manatee. Risso's (Grampus griseus). Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. and eventually posterior paresis. Localized lesions in an accidental laboratory exposure as well as isolation of calicivirus from a clin indicate that these viruses should be handled carefully. Herpesvirus Herpesviruses have been isolated from neonatal harbor seals. and a gray seal. A herpes-like virus was found associa ulcers in sea otters stressed in oil spill rehabilitation processing. Caliciviruses (San Miguel Sea Lion Virus) Caliciviruses have been isolated from otarid seals. All pinnipeds developed pneumonia and died within The most prominent histologic lesion in all cases was hepatic necrosis. Massive coagulation necrosis without apparent zonal distribution occurred in Basophilic intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes or granular amphophilic intranuclear inclusions in Kupffer's cells were seen. Several species of mysticete cetaceans have antibodies t serotypes of VESV. and opaleye fish (Girella nigricans). Phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) is an α-herpesvirus similar to canine Phocid herpesvirus-2 (PhHV-2) is a putative γ-herpesvirus. heavy exposure to caliciviruses can result in neutralizing antibodies. No successful treatment has been reported. Inoculation of marine caliciviruses into pigs causes vesicular lesions identical to those seen in vesicular exanthema. The most consistent lesion in marine mammals is skin vesicles. T gondii is reported from Atlantic bottlenose. To date. emaciation. Toxoplasma spp encephalitis is also reported in harbor seals and Northern fur seals. the vesicles are most prevalent on the dorsal surfaces of the fore flipp vesicular lesions have been seen in association with “tattoo” lesions and old scars. In pinnipeds. Other than a postmortem diagnosis of herpesvirus encephalitis in a dead harbor porpois herpesviral disease in cetaceans have been limited to skin and mucosal lesions with little clinical significance. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development. infections have not been diagnosed in m the Atlantic Ocean. and spinner dolphins. No disease was noted in the cetaceans. striped (Stenella coeruleoalba). most California sea lions have neutralizing antibodies to one or more of the serotypes. The marine caliciviruses serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. No evidence of adeno in the lungs. Vesicles are 1 mm to 3 cm in diameter. They usually erode and l healing ulcers. Herpesvirus-like particles have been demonstr from beluga whales and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). walrus. photophobia. Opaleye fish are probab the endemic status of caliciviruses in marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters of California. Adenovirus from California sea lions is not known to cause disease in humans. Affected pups have interstitial pneumonitis and encephalitis and fail to thrive. but occasionally vesicles regress and leave plaque-like lesions. a California sea lion. Viral Diseases Adenovirus Adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) and in livers from 6 stranded you lions with hepatitis. Disseminated toxoplasmosis is reported in California sea lions. Herpesvirus-like lesions occur in a wide variety of other pinnipeds and cetacea herpesviruses have been characterized from harbor seals and gray seals.

Pacific harbor seals with PhHV-1 tend to develop signs related to adrenal and hepatic dys PhHV-2 has been associated with recurring circumscribed areas of alopecia ∼0. Many factors probably contribute to the explosive nature of the reported epidemics. Seals vaccinated with canine distempe been rendered immune to challenge with the virus (suspension of organ material) obtained from dead wild seals. Disea influenza virus in seals is better characterized. Pneumonia develops and high in previously unexposed animals. which had difficulty maneuvering. above. vomiting. The incubation period appears to be 10–14 days. and identical virus has been recovered. incoordinated. Systemic infections have not been documented in the whales. Outbreaks in wild harbor seals have been extensive in the North Sea. therapy is supportive. seeHERPESVIRUS. and dyspneic.5 cm in diameter in gray seals. There is no evidence that the herpesviruses of pinnipeds or zoonotic. Influenza Virus Four different influenza A viruses have been isolated from harbor seals and 2 other subtypes from a stranded pilot whale. Persons whose eyes were contaminated while doing necropsies. Diagnosis is often made at necropsy or by clinical signs and observation of characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in biopsies of early skin lesio interstitial pneumonia caused by herpesvirus must be distinguished from bronchial pneumonia caused by influenza virus. The incubation period during epidemic ≤ 3 days. In the pilot whale. For differential diagnosis. nasal discharge. and dyspnea. young seals are affected and show depression. anorexia. anorexia. Vaccination with 1 mL of trivalent poliovirus vaccine to control recrudescence of suspected herpesvirus lesions ha some success. there is a potential public health risk because live poliovirus may be shed Stress and immunosuppression are associated with recrudescence of latent infections. Morbillivirus Phocid seals are susceptible to canine distemper virus (see Canine Distemper) and to a closely related but distinct morbillivirus (phocine distemper vir Generally. All affected people have recovere within 7 days without developing any antibody titers. white or bloody nasal discharge will be evident. pneumonia. High population densities and unseasonably warm tem contribute to high mortality. The virulence of epidemics has precluded attempts at intensive supportive care. Occasionally. Herpetic lesions in beluga whales a circular.Young harbor seals from Atlantic waters infected with PhHV-1 develop nasal discharge. and was sloughing skin. diarrhea. Swollen necks due to fas escaping through the thoracic inlet is reported. and fev coughing. In harbor seals. In systemic herpesvirus infection. and may appear slightly depressed with a target appearance or be raised and proliferative. In a documented epidemic. A delphinoid distemper virus (cetacean morbillivirus [CMV]). have developed keratoconjunctivitis within 2–3 days. inflammation of the oral mucosa. Even well-fed captive animals become weak. o on by affected seals. closely related to rinderpest (see Rinderpest) and peste des petits ruminants (see Peste d . and lethargy that can result in death in 1–6 days. crusting conjunctivitis. the lu hemorrhagic and a hilar node was greatly enlarged. was emaciated. Infection is probably comm nonspecific clinical signs were reported in the stranded pilot whale. oral acyclovir did not eliminate the infection but appeared to sig clinical signs in primary infections. influenza pneumonia is characterized by necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and hemorrhagic alveolitis. up to 2 cm in diameter. as occurs with Newcastle disease virus. which suggests that the reaction is local. Morbidity can approach 100% in stressed seals in crowded condi ∼50%. although it reduced the severity of recrudescence in seals. The centers of some les may contain verrucous growths.

A break in the epithelial surfa required to start an infection. cutaneous. has been implicated in the deaths of harbor porpoises and common dolphins off the coast of the UK. but this approach has not been a America. Although animals with cutaneous poxvirus lesions have died. pectoral flippers.5–3 cm. stippled patterns (“tattoo” lesions).5–1 cm in diameter) occur on the head. Cutaneous poxvirus infections in cetaceans can occur on any part of the body but are most common on the head. which are not recognized by antisera to representatives of the Ephemerovirus. dusky dolphins. in large part due to lack of availability of the appropriate vaccine. and several species of mystice . Vaccination with a subunit vaccine is practiced in European rescue centers and appears to be protective. other fact responsible. Poxviruses of marine mammals do not appear to cause systemic infections. Major differential diagnoses include cutaneous streptothricosis and calicivirus. Hector's dolphins ( hectori). which was confirmed by immunofluorescent examination of the brain. white-beaked dolphins (Laegenorhynchus albirostris). 0. Papillomavirus infections have been reported in a wide range of cetaceans including narwals (Monodon monoceros). Other rhabdoviruses isolated from cetaceans. Ring or pinhole lesions appear as solitary. Cases in killer whales. although the reverse color pattern is also seen persist for months or years without apparent ill effects. In the wild. roun blemishes. dorsal fin. respectively. intracytoplasmic lesion biopsies and is confirmed by identification of typical poxvirus particles by electron microscopy. neck. Outbreaks typically occur in postweanling pinnipeds recently introduced into captivity. Lesions in California sea lion and gray seals are probably due to parapoxviruses. Lesions can recur. The parapoxviruses of pinnipeds can c lesions on the hands of persons not wearing gloves during contact with infected animals. lesions in South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) and Northern fur seals are probably not. often due to secondary infections facilitated by the immunosuppressive impact of active infection.Ruminants). Poxvirus Poxvirus has been identified morphologically in skin lesions of both captive and free-ranging pinnipeds and cetaceans. Miscellaneous Viral Diseases A ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in Norway was diagnosed with rabies. They are usually light gray and may have a dark gray border. long-beaked common dolphins (Delphis capensis). punctiform.5–3 cm in diameter during the first week and may ulcerate or develop satellite lesions during the second week. Therapy is supportive. which sometimes coalesce. An unclassified poxvirus has also been associated with skin lesions in Atlantic bottlenose do stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin. Small. harp seals. After the fo begin to regress. The incubation period is 3–5 wk. and Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) have been affected by PDV and/or CMV infections. striped dolphins in the Mediterrane dolphins in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. and ta range from ring or pinhole lesions to black. and flippers of a These may increase to 1. harp seals and pilot incriminated as apparent reservoirs of PDV and CMV. hooded se cristata). Therapy to control secondary bacterial infections is indicated only when skin lesions suppurate. Mortality in naive populations is high. At the tim epidemic of rabies in foxes in the area. Diagnosis is based on the presence of eosinophilic. or Vesiculovirus genera. raised nodules (0. An has been isolated from pox-like lesions on a gray seal. Pilot whale calves. although nodules are reported to persist as long as 15–18 wk. and Burmeister's porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis) have also been reported. Areas of alopecia and scar tissue may remain after resolution. may be related to rhabdoviruses of fish.

They are of little consequence except for malignant lymphom in which horizontal transmission can occur in a closed population. although a wide variety has been reported. Severe enteritis and vomiting that rapidly led to death in a captive beluga whale were suggestive of parvovirus enteritis. but no virus was isolated. Immunohistochemical staining consistent with coronavirus infections was found in 2 adult harbor seals that died without clinical signs and a third tha a brief period of anorexia and behavioral aberration. An enterovirus of unknown pathogenicity isolated from a rectal swab of a California gray whale has now been reclassified as a calicivirus. Neoplastic Diseases Tumors in marine mammals are infrequent. Hepadnavirus infection with a hepatitis B-like agent has been documented in a Pacific white-sided dolphin with a long history of recurrent illness in c evidence of zoonotic transmission was identified. The only retrovirus identified to date in a marine mammal was a spumavirus isolated from recurring skin lesions in a California sea lion that subsequ of Pasteurella pneumonia complicated with herpesvirus.are typical of those found in terrestrial species. Antibodie with disease. . No therapy is available. against human influenza virus (after challenge) and poliomyelitis virus were found in bottlenose dolphins. Lesions are usually self-limiting.