Nocardiosis (see Nocardiosis) is commonly reported in debilitated marine mammals. It has been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins, beluga whales, pil

(Globicephala spp), harbor porpoises, killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris
seals (Hydrurga leptonyx). Infections due to Actinomyces spp also have been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins.


Serologic evidence of brucellosis in marine mammals was first reported in 1994. Since then, a wide range of pinniped and cetacean species have b

antibodies to Brucella spp. Several marine Brucella species have been cultured, and genetic analyses show these to be different from known terres

The names Brucella ceti and B pinnipedialis are now accepted for isolates from cetaceans and seals, respectively. Strains from dolphins, porpoises,

appear to be distinct from each other, but strains from one type of animal do not seem to vary much from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. Diagnosis

controversial with challenges in both culture techniques and serologic methods. Little is known about the pathophysiology of brucellosis in marine m

have been reported to cause orchitis, abortions, and meningoencephalitis. When present, brucellae often appear to be secondary or opportunistic p

experience with the disease is not extensive and no therapy or control methods are established. Zoonotic potential has not yet been determined, alt
infection has been reported.

Clostridial Myositis
Severe myositis due to infections with Clostridium spp has been diagnosed in captive killer whales, pilot whales, bottlenose dolphins, California sea

manatees. All marine mammals are probably susceptible. The disease is characterized by acute swelling, muscle necrosis, and accumulations of ga

tissues, accompanied by a severe leukocytosis. Untreated, it can be fatal. Diagnosis is based on detection of gram-positive bacilli in aspirates of the

confirmed by anaerobic culture and identification of the organism. Treatment includes systemic and local antibiotics, surgical drainage of abscessed

flushing with hydrogen peroxide. Commercially available inactivated clostridial bacterins are used routinely in some facilities, although efficacy in ma

not been studied. Botulism has been reported in captive California sea lions during an endemic outbreak of the disease in waterfowl. Affected anima

and appeared unable to swallow several days before dying.


The chief cause of death in captive marine mammals (other than polar bears) is believed to be pneumonia. Most cases of marine mammal pneumon

bacterial involvement, and most organisms cultured from terrestrial species have been identified in marine mammals. Pneumonia often can be cons

mismanagement. Marine mammals require good air quality, including high rates of air exchange at the water surface in indoor facilities. Tempered a

cold temperatures is also important to prevent lung disease, even in polar species. Animals acclimated to cold temperatures are usually quite hardy;

transition from warm environments to cold air, even with warmer water, can precipitate fulminating pneumonias, particularly in nutritionally or otherw

animals. Clinical signs include lethargy, anorexia, severe halitosis, dyspnea, pyrexia, and marked leukocytosis. The disease can progress rapidly. D

based on clinical signs and confirmed by response to therapy. Treatment consists of correction of environmental factors and intensive antibiotic and

therapy. The initial antibiotic is usually broad-spectrum, commonly cephalexin (40 mg/kg, tid-qid); adjustments are based on cultures and sensitivitie
tracheal samples.

Erysipelas (Diamond Skin Disease)

Erysipelas can be a serious infectious disease of captive cetaceans and pinnipeds. The organism,Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which causes erysip

other domestic species, is a common contaminant of fish. A septicemic form of the disease in marine mammals can be peracute or acute; affected a

suddenly either with no prodromal signs or with sudden depression, inappetence, or fever. A cutaneous form that causes typical rhomboidal skin les
chronic form of the disease. Animals with this form usually recover with timely antibiotic treatment.

Erysipelas. dolphin .

Gastroenteritis can be a feature. Control in captive animals requires serologic examination of new animals during quarantine.Necropsy of peracute cases generally fails to reveal grossly discernible lesions other than widespread petechiation. The gallbladder may contain inspissated black bile. and L Pomona) have been identified in affected animals by fluorescent antibody techniques. interstitial nephritis. Treatment in pinnipeds is similar to that in (see Leptospirosis in Dogs). polydipsia. or body cavities. To maintain high antibody ti after 6 mo and annual revaccination are required. A long needle (≥ 2 in. but hepatitis may not be apparent grossly. Leptospirosis This has been diagnosed in otarid pinnipeds and bears. even in nonsensitive mammals. or chloramphenicol and supportive treatment. . For this reason. Treatment of the peracute and acute forms has rarely been attempted because the absence of prodromal signs obscures the diagnosis. Because the vaccine is extremely irritating. Vaccination is controversial. some vaccination programs have been reduced to one-time administrati antibody titers fall below the presumed effective level. spleen. diffuse. If cetaceans are to be revaccinated. Hyperplasia of Kupffer's cells. Fatal anaphylaxis can occur on revaccination. Captive animals can be vacc areas. L Icte-rohaemorrh Autumnalis. sensitivity tests should be performed by injecting a small amount of bacterin submucosally on the lower surface Hypersensitive animals develop swelling and redness at the injection site within 30 min. erythr and hemosiderosis are seen histologically. [5 cm]) should be used to assure that the vaccine is deposited in the mu between muscle and blubber. Leptospirosis is zoonotic. Antibodies to various Leptospiraserovars (L Canicola. immobilizing the animal for several days. Modified live bacterins should be avoid vaccination. no more than 3– used at any one site. reluctance to move. with renal with spirochetes. or a sterile abscess can result. the disease is characterized by depression. Lesions include a severe. Arthritis has been found in animals that have died with the chronic form. Control seems primarily related to the provision of high-quality fish that is properly stored and handled. In seals. and py cause abortions and neonatal deaths in California sea lions and Northern fur seals. and vaccine bre Vials of killed erysipelas bacterin should be cultured for surviving organisms before use in marine mammals. tetracyclines. Bacterin should be administered in the dorsal musculature anterior and lateral to the d Administration posterior to the dorsal fin can result in a severe tissue reaction. Diagnosis is based on culture o the blood. and appropriate precautions should be taken. Animals wit form usually recover with administration of penicillins.

wild bottlenose dolphin in Mediterranean. Unconfirmed mycobacteriosis has been reported in a stranded. It must be dist sealpox. Cutaneous streptothricosis usually manifests as sharp nodules distributed over the entire body and usually progresses to death. Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) are thought to be the common link in the spread of the pinniped species because they cohabit with the other known affected species. and evidence points to mycobacterial disease being possibly endemic in free-ranging otarids off the coast of Australia. a subcutaneous bacterial infection with Dermatophilus congolensis. Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand fur seals ( . Mycobacteriosis Marine mammals are susceptible to various mycobacteria. Cutaneous Dermatophilosis) Streptothricosis.Streptothricosis (Dolphin Pseudopox. the cause of a subcutaneous mycosis. has been reported in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus obliquidens). Sporothrix schenckii. subsequent molecular assessment places the isolates from free-ranging southern hemisphere pinnipeds in a unique cluste own species in the M tuberculosis complex. Simultaneous infections of streptothricosis and pox have been recorded in sea lions. Originally tho by Mycobacterium bovis. has been reported in pinnipeds and polar bears. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of the organism in biopsies or culture prolonged high dosages of systemic antibiotics can be successful.

or feces. mycobacteriosis has been a disease of captivity. tracheal washes. and California sea lions. Pinnipeds. environmental compromise. M fortuitum. Intradermal testing with high concentrations of bovine or avian purified protein derivative tuberculin can be used to screen exposed animals.) Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Marine mammals are probably susceptible to the entire range of pathogenic bacteria. Otherwise. injections in the webbing of the rear flippers should be read at 48 and 72 hr. S aureus also has been incriminated in a fatal pneumonia in a killer whale slow-healing wounds of cetaceans managed in open sea pens. Another case of intradiskal osteomyelitis. Burkholderia pseudomallei has caused serious fatal outbreaks of marine mammals in captivity in the Far East. Aspergillosis Fatal pulmonary asper-gillosis has been diagnosed in several species of cetaceans including bottlenose dolphins and killer whales. systemic therapy is used. It has also been reported to cause pneumonia in pinniped dolphins. ELISA screening has antibodies in seals but requires further evaluation before it can be considered a screening test. Mycobacteriosis in marine mammals is an emerging disease and is possibly of public health significance also Tuberculosis and other Mycobacterial Infections. cetaceans. Wet mounts in lactophenol or cotton blue may render an immediate diagnosis with some of the morphologically distinct fungi. Diagnosis is made by culture and identification of the lesion biopsies. harbor seals. provided areas of the body not being treated are kept moist.forsteri). Salmonella spp have caused fatal gastroenteritis in manatees and beluga whales. culture. Cutaneous aspergillosis has been seen in gray seals (Halichoerus . Cutaneous and systemic forms are seen. In pinnipeds. or other infectious disease. Mycotic Captive marine mammals seem particularly prone to fungal infections (see Fungal Infections). due to Staphylococcus aureus successfully with a prolonged course of cefazolin sodium and cephalexin. Otherwise. Most appear to be secondary to stress. Tissue smears cleared in warm 10% potassium hydroxide can be examined to identify characteristic fruiting bodies or hyphae. howeve and the usefulness is controversial. and in several pinnipeds including Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). and M marinum. Pasteurella multocida has caused several outbreaks of hemor with depression and abdominal distress leading to acute death in dolphins and pinnipeds.M chelonae. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and confirmed by identification of the organism in biopsy or. and sirenians have developed disease due to M bovis. There are strong indications that immunosuppression ma the development of infections by the atypical mycobacteria. Staphylococcal sept the death of a dolphin with osteomyelitis of the spine (pyogenic spondylitis). Plesiomonas shigelloides has been responsible for gastroenteritis in harbor seals. chitae. Mannheimia haemolytica has been incriminated in hemorrhagic tracheitis that responded to chloram-phenicol therapy. Topical medication of pinnipeds for dermatophytosis is feasible. preferably. Some systemic mycoses have distinct geographic distributions. Smaller cetaceans can be kept out of water in a sling for 2–24 hr.

In cetaceans. inflammation at the mucocutaneous junctions. sid) along with correction of any environmental deficits. One anecdotal report suggests a possible toxic reaction to ketoconazole in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). .01 mg/kg) may be appropriate to compensate for ketoconazole inhibition of glucocorticoid production. Another opportunistic yeast. Early detection and treatment is usually successful. Supplementation with prednisolone (0. and vulva. Candidiasis is also reported in pinnipeds. Cryptococcus neoformans.grypus) with concomitant mycobacteriosis. particularly at the commissures of the mouth and around the eyes. unbalanced water disinfection with chlorines. Fluconazole (2 mg/kg. anus. particularly in the area of the gastroesophageal junction. In phocid pinnipeds. Cutaneous lesions respond to topical povidone-iodine with ketoconazole therapy (10 mg/kg. sid). esophageal ulcers are often found. is the common presentation. Prolonged treatment with itraconazole (120 days) at routine mammalian doses was ineffective despite serum drug levels above the suggested therapeutic range. Candidiasis This common mycotic disease in captive cetaceans occurs secondary to stress. bid) has also been used successfully. has been diagnosed in fatal advanced pulmonary disease in a bottlenose dolphin. Candidiasis generally responds well to ketoconazole (6 mg/kg. PO. or indiscriminate antibiotic therapy. the lesions usually are found around body orifices. The respiratory form has been a postmortem diagnosis. PO. At necropsy. Diagnosis is based on identification of the yeast in cultures or biopsy.


dolphin Candidiasis. dolphin Dermatophytosis Mycotic dermatitis due to Trichophyton spp or Microsporum canisgenerally responds to topical povidone-iodine. or both.Lingual candidiasis. Lobomycosis This disfiguring cutaneous disease is caused by infection with Lacazia loboi. Culture of the organism has . The disease has only been reported in humans and in Atlantic bottlenose Sotalia (Sotalia fluviatilis) dolphins. oral griseofulvin.

Zoonotic transmission has not been demonstrated. . Excisional therapy and systemic antifungal drugs have been used with varying success.not been possible.

Lobomycosis. dolphin .

These should be considered diseases of debilitated animals. gray seals. Acanthocephalans Cetaceans are the primary host of Bolbosoma spp but can be infested with parasites of the genusCorynosoma. the underlying cause of the low host resistance to these opportunistic infections must be corrected if therapy is to be successful. Coccidioidomycosis has been found in bottlenose dolphins. and polar bears. Parasitic Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites. or itraconazole (1 mg/kg. and precautions should be taken to prevent infection when handling dead and diseased animals. sid) combined with antibiotic and supportive therapy when indicated. Other zygomycetes have been diagnosed as a cause of fatal disseminated disease in various species of marine mammals. Zygomycetes Dermatologic conditions caused by various Fusarium spp have been reported in pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps). and northern elephant seals. but clinical disease and therapy are not well documented. Amphotericin B is the therapy of choice for zygomycete infections. Clinical experience with many of these is limited. Blastomycosis has caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. PO. and a Pacific white-sided dolphin. but newer imidazoles warrant consideration. C enhydra has only been reported from sea otters. and harp seals. a Stellar sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Three species of Profilicollis(also found in birds) are reported to cause . bid for 21 days). lice. Northern fur seals. while others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens. Bolbosoma spp have been reported in pinnipeds. California sea lions. mites. Blastomycosis has been successfully treated with intensive management including 70 days of itraconazole (3. California sea lions. cestodes. sid for 120 days). Diagnosis is by detection of eggs in feces. and acanthocephalans. Diagnosis is based on culture or organism identification from biopsy. Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus acutus).5 mg/kg. including various nematodes. California sea lions. Cases have responded to ketoconazole (5 mg/kg. Mucor spp and Entomophthora spp have caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. trematodes. fluconazole (0. a bottlenose dolphin.Systemic Mycoses The systemic mycoses of marine mammals are a zoonotic risk. harbor seals. Fatal systemic histoplasmosis has been reported in a captive harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus). harbor porpoises. and sea otters. sid for 10 days).5 mg/kg. which have pinnipeds and sea otters as primary hosts.

Otostrongylus circumlitus. Animals in captivity can be freed of parasites. There are at least 4 species of lungworms in various cetacean hosts. Diagnosis is made by deep skin scrapings and identification of the mite. larva Lungworm infection can be diagnosed by examination of feces or bronchial mucus. roughened lesions of the laryngeal area of cetaceans. Lung mites cause rattling coughs. provided no new sources of infestation are introduced. Treatments must be repeated in 10–12 days. Diagnosis is made by identifying the mite in nasal secretions or sputum. Nasal mites cause nasal discharge but apparently little discomfort. and kept out of the water ≥12 hr. Heavy infestations of sucking lice are common in wild pinnipeds and can cause severe anemia. Mites have been associated with large. Lungworm Lungworms are common in all pinnipeds. Infections have been cleared rapidly with 2 injections of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg. coughing. but their overall significance or treatment is unknown. however. Demodectic mange has been diagnosed in California sea lions. Both of these parasites use fish as intermediate hosts. Rotenone powder is also effective. The latter parasite is also found in the hearts of some phocids. Acariasis Nasal and lung mites are found in phocid and otarid seals. and sometimes blood-flecked mucus are the first signs of pulmonary parasitism. Predisposing factors in pinnipeds are unknown. No successful treatment has been reported. allowed to dry before being dusted. The affected animal must be removed from the water. Treatment of infected animals eliminates the problem in captive enclosures without environmental treatment. Treatment is the same as in dogs (see Mange in Dogs and Cats). The life cycles of these mites are unknown. Premortem diagnosis is problematic. scaling. Anorexia. Mortality usually occurs before the parasite produces ova. The lice can be seen grossly and are readily transmitted. Nonpruritic. while true seals are usually parasitized by Otostrongylus circumlitus. Sea lions have Parafilaroides decorus. and excoriation occur on the flippers and other body surfaces that contact the substrate. which has caused prenatal infections in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins.peritonitis associated with intestinal perforation in sea otters. it does not produce a microfilaremia. alopecic lesions with hyperkeratosis. 2 wk apart. The mites are not readily transmitted among contact animals. Treatment of P decorus infection . including Halocercus lagenorhynchi. Secondary bacterial infection that results in pyoderma occurs in chronic cases. They are highly sensitive to ivermectin as well as chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides.

Infections with Contracaecum spp are common in wild cetaceans and pinnipeds. A percentage of pinnipeds also show neurologic reactions to IM injection of levamisole. Some success in treatment has been reported using intratracheal administration of levamisole phosphate (5 mg/kg. Both groups of pinnipeds can be infected with the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in endemic areas. Transmission is thought to be by the same mosquitos that bite dogs. Cetacean lungworms probably are also susceptible to levamisole and ivermectin.consists of mucolytic agents administered intratracheally. combined therapy with ivermectin and fenbendazole given 3 days after initiation of therapy with dexamethasone. however. and neutrophilia before the parasites become patent and first-stage larvae can be detected in sputum or feces. Lungworm infections often remain asymptomatic for long periods with clinical signs appearing only when an animal becomes debilitated for other reasons. antibiotics to treat any concomitant bacterial pneumonia. Dirofilariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae in the blood. ivermectin. Feeding frozen fish prevents reinfection. Acanthocheilonema microfilariae Other Nematodes The Anasakidae are pathogenic nematodes found in the stomach of marine mammals. Diagnosis ofO circumlitus in elephant seals is complicated by mortality occurring after generalized clinical signs of depression. Phocid seals are affected by A spirocauda. antibiotics. In captivity. and otarids are infected subcutaneously by A odendhali. Prevention in endemic areas has been successful with oral administration of ivermectin (canine dosages) monthly or diethylcarbamazine (3. ulceration. in food during the mosquito season (see Heartworm Disease). PO or SC administration has been recommended. or sirenians. and mucolytic agents may be more effective. sid for 1 wk) has successfully cleared infection in captive pinnipeds.3 mg/kg) weekly. dehydration. and concurrent prednisone or dexamethasone. Heartworm Heartworms of the genus Acanthocheilonema are a common necropsy finding in pinnipeds but have not been reported in cetaceans. Transmission of A spirocauda is thought to be by the seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus). however. and ultimately perforation and peritonitis. lungworm infections are usually self-limiting if larvae are not introduced in fresh fish intermediate hosts. A graded regimen of levamisole phosphate progressing to a high dosage (40 mg/kg. sid for 5 days). sea otters. with the advantage of oral administration. phocid seals are abnormal hosts. Gastric nematodes can . Granulomas form at their attachment sites and can lead to blood loss. the sudden deaths of 2 beluga whales injected IM with levamisole phosphate suggest this drug administered by that route may be contraindicated. however. Raw fish is most often incriminated as the source of infection. Polar bears in captivity are prone to heavy ascarid infection.

2 treatments 1 wk apart) is usually effective. Several species of cestodes are reported in sea otters and polar bears. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of typical operculated trematode ova in blowhole swabs or feces. successfully treated with oral dichlorvos (30 mg/kg). These usually are the larval forms of tapeworms of sharks. and heavy infection is thought to cause intestinal obstruction. ova Anisakis spp. or mebendazole (9 mg/kg) given twice. . Successful treatments are not documented but are potentially possible with systemic parasiticides. Disophenol (12. but are not known to have clinical significance. Oral praziquantel (10 mg/kg. major vessels. Infections are often accompanied by halitosis and brown mucus around the blowhole and occasionally by coughing. Many species of a large spirurid nematode (Crassicauda spp) infect the cranial sinuses. ova Hookworms (Uncinaria spp) are found in pinnipeds. Reinfection can be prevented by not feeding fresh or live fish. Cestodiasis Diphyllobothrium pacificum is commonly found in sea lions. and Tetrabothrium forsteri and Strobilocephalus triangularisin cetaceans.Diplogonoporus tetrapterous in all pinnipeds.5 mg/kg) or ivermectin (100 μg/kg) injected SC are effective against these parasites. Newborn pups are infected via colostrum. Nasitrema spp are found in the nasal passages and sinuses of cetaceans. 10 days apart. fenbendazole (11 mg/kg). Contracaecum spp. Trematodiasis Fluke infections are common in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Other cestodes commonly seen include D lanceolatum in phocid seals. Ova of these trematodes have been associated with necrotic foci in the brains of animals showing behavioral aberrations and have been incriminated as a cause of localized pneumonia in cetaceans. Ivermectin may be considered. Cetaceans are also commonly infected with subcutaneous tapeworm cysts throughout the blubber. Severe infections are known only in the fur seals. Praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or niclosamide (160 mg/kg) are effective treatments. and mammary gland ducts of cetaceans.

lethargy. are also not associated with disease. it causes biliary hypertrophy and fibrosis of the liver. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is known to infect the California population of sea otters causing disease that ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe encephalitis. and anorexia. and E nodulosa reported from the Florida manatee. pancreas. Signs are usually seen in adults and include icterus. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to T gondii has also been . otarid. however. intestines. liver. Infection can be asymptomatic or cause severe encephalitis characterized by generalized neurologic signs. has been reported as the cause of enteritis in bottlenose dolphins.Nasitrema spp. and other abdominal organs of marine mammals. These coccidia are probably susceptible to anticoccidial drugs used against other species. handling. Clinical disease with this parasite is thought to be rare unless the host is stressed through capture. or husbandry changes. and phocid species and do not seem to be associated with any recognized clinical signs. amprolium.) Sarcocystis Sarcocystis neurona is found in high prevalence in the California population of sea otters. Coccidiosis Coccidia (Eimeria phocae) have been found in harbor seals with a fatal. Pancreatic fibrosis due to trematodiasis is a common necropsy finding. Diagnosis is based on identification of trematode ova in the feces. eg. No successful treatment has been reported. bloody diarrhea. Zalophotrema hepaticum. (See also Coccidiosis. Eimeria trichechi reported from the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis). A coccidian. Bilirubinemia and increased serum hepatic enzymes are common. other workers consider the parasite to have been a fish coccidia not associated with the disease. ova Zalophotrema hepaticum is an important hepatic trematode of California sea lions. Treatment with praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or with bithional (20 mg/kg) has been successful.Sarcocystis spp have been found in the muscles of many cetacean. ova Various other trematodes infect the stomach.Cystoisospora delphini. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development.

skin lesions usually resolve without tre may cause premature parturition in pinnipeds. Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. By 4 mo of age. All pinnipeds developed pneumonia and died within The most prominent histologic lesion in all cases was hepatic necrosis. Affected pups have interstitial pneumonitis and encephalitis and fail to thrive. and spinner dolphins. Phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) is an α-herpesvirus similar to canine Phocid herpesvirus-2 (PhHV-2) is a putative γ-herpesvirus. Herpesvirus-like lesions occur in a wide variety of other pinnipeds and cetacea herpesviruses have been characterized from harbor seals and gray seals. walrus. and opaleye fish (Girella nigricans). abdominal splinti diarrhea. the vesicles are most prevalent on the dorsal surfaces of the fore flipp vesicular lesions have been seen in association with “tattoo” lesions and old scars. and eventually posterior paresis. but occasionally vesicles regress and leave plaque-like lesions. In humans. Adenovirus from California sea lions is not known to cause disease in humans. heavy exposure to caliciviruses can result in neutralizing antibodies. Herpesvirus Herpesviruses have been isolated from neonatal harbor seals. The most consistent lesion in marine mammals is skin vesicles. Herpesvirus-like particles have been demonstr from beluga whales and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). Pinnipeds developed weakness. They usually erode and l healing ulcers. Caliciviruses (San Miguel Sea Lion Virus) Caliciviruses have been isolated from otarid seals. Vesicles are 1 mm to 3 cm in diameter. In pinnipeds.reported in a Florida manatee. polydipsia. A herpes-like virus was found associa ulcers in sea otters stressed in oil spill rehabilitation processing. striped (Stenella coeruleoalba). . Localized lesions in an accidental laboratory exposure as well as isolation of calicivirus from a clin indicate that these viruses should be handled carefully. and a gray seal. Massive coagulation necrosis without apparent zonal distribution occurred in Basophilic intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes or granular amphophilic intranuclear inclusions in Kupffer's cells were seen. infections have not been diagnosed in m the Atlantic Ocean. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development. T gondii is reported from Atlantic bottlenose. Other than a postmortem diagnosis of herpesvirus encephalitis in a dead harbor porpois herpesviral disease in cetaceans have been limited to skin and mucosal lesions with little clinical significance. The marine caliciviruses serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. No successful treatment has been reported. see Vesicular Exanthema of Swine). photophobia. To date. Opaleye fish are probab the endemic status of caliciviruses in marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters of California. Risso's (Grampus griseus). Several species of mysticete cetaceans have antibodies t serotypes of VESV. most California sea lions have neutralizing antibodies to one or more of the serotypes. Inoculation of marine caliciviruses into pigs causes vesicular lesions identical to those seen in vesicular exanthema. a California sea lion. No disease was noted in the cetaceans. emaciation. Viral Diseases Adenovirus Adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) and in livers from 6 stranded you lions with hepatitis. a relative lymphopenia and monocytosis were seen. Toxoplasma spp encephalitis is also reported in harbor seals and Northern fur seals. Treatment is supportive only. Disseminated toxoplasmosis is reported in California sea lions. No evidence of adeno in the lungs.

High population densities and unseasonably warm tem contribute to high mortality. pneumonia. In systemic herpesvirus infection. Vaccination with 1 mL of trivalent poliovirus vaccine to control recrudescence of suspected herpesvirus lesions ha some success. the lu hemorrhagic and a hilar node was greatly enlarged. Disea influenza virus in seals is better characterized. above. Herpetic lesions in beluga whales a circular. The incubation period during epidemic ≤ 3 days. and dyspnea. The virulence of epidemics has precluded attempts at intensive supportive care. All affected people have recovere within 7 days without developing any antibody titers. Influenza Virus Four different influenza A viruses have been isolated from harbor seals and 2 other subtypes from a stranded pilot whale. Even well-fed captive animals become weak. There is no evidence that the herpesviruses of pinnipeds or zoonotic. A delphinoid distemper virus (cetacean morbillivirus [CMV]). In harbor seals. seeHERPESVIRUS. vomiting. up to 2 cm in diameter. nasal discharge. and lethargy that can result in death in 1–6 days. Swollen necks due to fas escaping through the thoracic inlet is reported. white or bloody nasal discharge will be evident. and identical virus has been recovered. Morbillivirus Phocid seals are susceptible to canine distemper virus (see Canine Distemper) and to a closely related but distinct morbillivirus (phocine distemper vir Generally. and may appear slightly depressed with a target appearance or be raised and proliferative. Seals vaccinated with canine distempe been rendered immune to challenge with the virus (suspension of organ material) obtained from dead wild seals. inflammation of the oral mucosa. anorexia. which suggests that the reaction is local. have developed keratoconjunctivitis within 2–3 days. was emaciated. although it reduced the severity of recrudescence in seals. Occasionally. Outbreaks in wild harbor seals have been extensive in the North Sea. The incubation period appears to be 10–14 days. Diagnosis is often made at necropsy or by clinical signs and observation of characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in biopsies of early skin lesio interstitial pneumonia caused by herpesvirus must be distinguished from bronchial pneumonia caused by influenza virus. Infection is probably comm nonspecific clinical signs were reported in the stranded pilot whale. Pneumonia develops and high in previously unexposed animals. o on by affected seals. therapy is supportive. anorexia. which had difficulty maneuvering. as occurs with Newcastle disease virus. Pacific harbor seals with PhHV-1 tend to develop signs related to adrenal and hepatic dys PhHV-2 has been associated with recurring circumscribed areas of alopecia ∼0. Persons whose eyes were contaminated while doing necropsies. In a documented epidemic. influenza pneumonia is characterized by necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and hemorrhagic alveolitis. The centers of some les may contain verrucous growths.5 cm in diameter in gray seals. Many factors probably contribute to the explosive nature of the reported epidemics. there is a potential public health risk because live poliovirus may be shed Stress and immunosuppression are associated with recrudescence of latent infections. young seals are affected and show depression. diarrhea.Young harbor seals from Atlantic waters infected with PhHV-1 develop nasal discharge. and dyspneic. closely related to rinderpest (see Rinderpest) and peste des petits ruminants (see Peste d . crusting conjunctivitis. and fev coughing. incoordinated. For differential diagnosis. Systemic infections have not been documented in the whales. In the pilot whale. oral acyclovir did not eliminate the infection but appeared to sig clinical signs in primary infections. Morbidity can approach 100% in stressed seals in crowded condi ∼50%. and was sloughing skin.

Ring or pinhole lesions appear as solitary. Although animals with cutaneous poxvirus lesions have died. which was confirmed by immunofluorescent examination of the brain. other fact responsible. Major differential diagnoses include cutaneous streptothricosis and calicivirus. lesions in South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) and Northern fur seals are probably not. Outbreaks typically occur in postweanling pinnipeds recently introduced into captivity. punctiform. often due to secondary infections facilitated by the immunosuppressive impact of active infection. striped dolphins in the Mediterrane dolphins in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. The incubation period is 3–5 wk. and flippers of a These may increase to 1. and several species of mystice .5–3 cm in diameter during the first week and may ulcerate or develop satellite lesions during the second week. The parapoxviruses of pinnipeds can c lesions on the hands of persons not wearing gloves during contact with infected animals. pectoral flippers. Miscellaneous Viral Diseases A ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in Norway was diagnosed with rabies. and Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) have been affected by PDV and/or CMV infections. Diagnosis is based on the presence of eosinophilic. Therapy is supportive. although the reverse color pattern is also seen persist for months or years without apparent ill effects. harp seals and pilot incriminated as apparent reservoirs of PDV and CMV. but this approach has not been a America.Ruminants). Papillomavirus infections have been reported in a wide range of cetaceans including narwals (Monodon monoceros). neck. although nodules are reported to persist as long as 15–18 wk. Poxvirus Poxvirus has been identified morphologically in skin lesions of both captive and free-ranging pinnipeds and cetaceans. After the fo begin to regress. An has been isolated from pox-like lesions on a gray seal. In the wild. Cutaneous poxvirus infections in cetaceans can occur on any part of the body but are most common on the head. Poxviruses of marine mammals do not appear to cause systemic infections. respectively. has been implicated in the deaths of harbor porpoises and common dolphins off the coast of the UK. dorsal fin. Therapy to control secondary bacterial infections is indicated only when skin lesions suppurate.5–3 cm. in large part due to lack of availability of the appropriate vaccine. Lesions can recur. 0. Mortality in naive populations is high. They are usually light gray and may have a dark gray border. hooded se cristata). and Burmeister's porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis) have also been reported. Pilot whale calves. which sometimes coalesce. Areas of alopecia and scar tissue may remain after resolution. and ta range from ring or pinhole lesions to black. An unclassified poxvirus has also been associated with skin lesions in Atlantic bottlenose do stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin. which are not recognized by antisera to representatives of the Ephemerovirus. harp seals. A break in the epithelial surfa required to start an infection. Lesions in California sea lion and gray seals are probably due to parapoxviruses. stippled patterns (“tattoo” lesions). cutaneous. dusky dolphins. may be related to rhabdoviruses of fish. long-beaked common dolphins (Delphis capensis). Vaccination with a subunit vaccine is practiced in European rescue centers and appears to be protective. Hector's dolphins ( hectori). Cases in killer whales. white-beaked dolphins (Laegenorhynchus albirostris). intracytoplasmic lesion biopsies and is confirmed by identification of typical poxvirus particles by electron microscopy. Other rhabdoviruses isolated from cetaceans. raised nodules (0. At the tim epidemic of rabies in foxes in the area.5–1 cm in diameter) occur on the head. Small. roun blemishes. or Vesiculovirus genera.

No therapy is available.are typical of those found in terrestrial species. Severe enteritis and vomiting that rapidly led to death in a captive beluga whale were suggestive of parvovirus enteritis. They are of little consequence except for malignant lymphom in which horizontal transmission can occur in a closed population. . Neoplastic Diseases Tumors in marine mammals are infrequent. Immunohistochemical staining consistent with coronavirus infections was found in 2 adult harbor seals that died without clinical signs and a third tha a brief period of anorexia and behavioral aberration. An enterovirus of unknown pathogenicity isolated from a rectal swab of a California gray whale has now been reclassified as a calicivirus. although a wide variety has been reported. but no virus was isolated. The only retrovirus identified to date in a marine mammal was a spumavirus isolated from recurring skin lesions in a California sea lion that subsequ of Pasteurella pneumonia complicated with herpesvirus. Antibodie with disease. Hepadnavirus infection with a hepatitis B-like agent has been documented in a Pacific white-sided dolphin with a long history of recurrent illness in c evidence of zoonotic transmission was identified. against human influenza virus (after challenge) and poliomyelitis virus were found in bottlenose dolphins. Lesions are usually self-limiting.