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Nocardiosis (see Nocardiosis) is commonly reported in debilitated marine mammals. It has been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins, beluga whales, pil

(Globicephala spp), harbor porpoises, killer whales (Orcinus orca), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris
seals (Hydrurga leptonyx). Infections due to Actinomyces spp also have been diagnosed in bottlenose dolphins.


Serologic evidence of brucellosis in marine mammals was first reported in 1994. Since then, a wide range of pinniped and cetacean species have b

antibodies to Brucella spp. Several marine Brucella species have been cultured, and genetic analyses show these to be different from known terres

The names Brucella ceti and B pinnipedialis are now accepted for isolates from cetaceans and seals, respectively. Strains from dolphins, porpoises,

appear to be distinct from each other, but strains from one type of animal do not seem to vary much from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. Diagnosis

controversial with challenges in both culture techniques and serologic methods. Little is known about the pathophysiology of brucellosis in marine m

have been reported to cause orchitis, abortions, and meningoencephalitis. When present, brucellae often appear to be secondary or opportunistic p

experience with the disease is not extensive and no therapy or control methods are established. Zoonotic potential has not yet been determined, alt
infection has been reported.

Clostridial Myositis
Severe myositis due to infections with Clostridium spp has been diagnosed in captive killer whales, pilot whales, bottlenose dolphins, California sea

manatees. All marine mammals are probably susceptible. The disease is characterized by acute swelling, muscle necrosis, and accumulations of ga

tissues, accompanied by a severe leukocytosis. Untreated, it can be fatal. Diagnosis is based on detection of gram-positive bacilli in aspirates of the

confirmed by anaerobic culture and identification of the organism. Treatment includes systemic and local antibiotics, surgical drainage of abscessed

flushing with hydrogen peroxide. Commercially available inactivated clostridial bacterins are used routinely in some facilities, although efficacy in ma

not been studied. Botulism has been reported in captive California sea lions during an endemic outbreak of the disease in waterfowl. Affected anima

and appeared unable to swallow several days before dying.


The chief cause of death in captive marine mammals (other than polar bears) is believed to be pneumonia. Most cases of marine mammal pneumon

bacterial involvement, and most organisms cultured from terrestrial species have been identified in marine mammals. Pneumonia often can be cons

mismanagement. Marine mammals require good air quality, including high rates of air exchange at the water surface in indoor facilities. Tempered a

cold temperatures is also important to prevent lung disease, even in polar species. Animals acclimated to cold temperatures are usually quite hardy;

transition from warm environments to cold air, even with warmer water, can precipitate fulminating pneumonias, particularly in nutritionally or otherw

animals. Clinical signs include lethargy, anorexia, severe halitosis, dyspnea, pyrexia, and marked leukocytosis. The disease can progress rapidly. D

based on clinical signs and confirmed by response to therapy. Treatment consists of correction of environmental factors and intensive antibiotic and

therapy. The initial antibiotic is usually broad-spectrum, commonly cephalexin (40 mg/kg, tid-qid); adjustments are based on cultures and sensitivitie
tracheal samples.

Erysipelas (Diamond Skin Disease)

Erysipelas can be a serious infectious disease of captive cetaceans and pinnipeds. The organism,Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which causes erysip

other domestic species, is a common contaminant of fish. A septicemic form of the disease in marine mammals can be peracute or acute; affected a

suddenly either with no prodromal signs or with sudden depression, inappetence, or fever. A cutaneous form that causes typical rhomboidal skin les
chronic form of the disease. Animals with this form usually recover with timely antibiotic treatment.

Erysipelas. dolphin .

Bacterin should be administered in the dorsal musculature anterior and lateral to the d Administration posterior to the dorsal fin can result in a severe tissue reaction. Leptospirosis This has been diagnosed in otarid pinnipeds and bears. even in nonsensitive mammals. Captive animals can be vacc areas. Fatal anaphylaxis can occur on revaccination. some vaccination programs have been reduced to one-time administrati antibody titers fall below the presumed effective level. with renal with spirochetes. interstitial nephritis. Hyperplasia of Kupffer's cells. or body cavities. Control seems primarily related to the provision of high-quality fish that is properly stored and handled. For this reason.Necropsy of peracute cases generally fails to reveal grossly discernible lesions other than widespread petechiation. Animals wit form usually recover with administration of penicillins. diffuse. The gallbladder may contain inspissated black bile. . Lesions include a severe. Gastroenteritis can be a feature. To maintain high antibody ti after 6 mo and annual revaccination are required. sensitivity tests should be performed by injecting a small amount of bacterin submucosally on the lower surface Hypersensitive animals develop swelling and redness at the injection site within 30 min. and py cause abortions and neonatal deaths in California sea lions and Northern fur seals. Diagnosis is based on culture o the blood. tetracyclines. spleen. Modified live bacterins should be avoid vaccination. Control in captive animals requires serologic examination of new animals during quarantine. In seals. Treatment in pinnipeds is similar to that in (see Leptospirosis in Dogs). or a sterile abscess can result. Arthritis has been found in animals that have died with the chronic form. A long needle (≥ 2 in. reluctance to move. or chloramphenicol and supportive treatment. [5 cm]) should be used to assure that the vaccine is deposited in the mu between muscle and blubber. and appropriate precautions should be taken. immobilizing the animal for several days. Vaccination is controversial. polydipsia. Leptospirosis is zoonotic. Antibodies to various Leptospiraserovars (L Canicola. the disease is characterized by depression. If cetaceans are to be revaccinated. L Icte-rohaemorrh Autumnalis. no more than 3– used at any one site. and L Pomona) have been identified in affected animals by fluorescent antibody techniques. Because the vaccine is extremely irritating. but hepatitis may not be apparent grossly. erythr and hemosiderosis are seen histologically. and vaccine bre Vials of killed erysipelas bacterin should be cultured for surviving organisms before use in marine mammals. Treatment of the peracute and acute forms has rarely been attempted because the absence of prodromal signs obscures the diagnosis.

Cutaneous Dermatophilosis) Streptothricosis. Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) are thought to be the common link in the spread of the pinniped species because they cohabit with the other known affected species. Unconfirmed mycobacteriosis has been reported in a stranded. has been reported in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus obliquidens). the cause of a subcutaneous mycosis. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of the organism in biopsies or culture prolonged high dosages of systemic antibiotics can be successful. a subcutaneous bacterial infection with Dermatophilus congolensis. Originally tho by Mycobacterium bovis.Streptothricosis (Dolphin Pseudopox. Simultaneous infections of streptothricosis and pox have been recorded in sea lions. Cutaneous streptothricosis usually manifests as sharp nodules distributed over the entire body and usually progresses to death. Mycobacteriosis Marine mammals are susceptible to various mycobacteria. has been reported in pinnipeds and polar bears. Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand fur seals ( . subsequent molecular assessment places the isolates from free-ranging southern hemisphere pinnipeds in a unique cluste own species in the M tuberculosis complex. Sporothrix schenckii. and evidence points to mycobacterial disease being possibly endemic in free-ranging otarids off the coast of Australia. It must be dist sealpox. wild bottlenose dolphin in Mediterranean.

It has also been reported to cause pneumonia in pinniped dolphins. and M marinum. and California sea lions. Pinnipeds. Mycotic Captive marine mammals seem particularly prone to fungal infections (see Fungal Infections). and sirenians have developed disease due to M bovis. and in several pinnipeds including Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). howeve and the usefulness is controversial. or feces. Wet mounts in lactophenol or cotton blue may render an immediate diagnosis with some of the morphologically distinct fungi. Tissue smears cleared in warm 10% potassium hydroxide can be examined to identify characteristic fruiting bodies or hyphae. Another case of intradiskal osteomyelitis. Plesiomonas shigelloides has been responsible for gastroenteritis in harbor seals. ELISA screening has antibodies in seals but requires further evaluation before it can be considered a screening test. Salmonella spp have caused fatal gastroenteritis in manatees and beluga whales. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and confirmed by identification of the organism in biopsy or. due to Staphylococcus aureus successfully with a prolonged course of cefazolin sodium and cephalexin. Intradermal testing with high concentrations of bovine or avian purified protein derivative tuberculin can be used to screen exposed animals. Some systemic mycoses have distinct geographic distributions.) Miscellaneous Bacterial Diseases Marine mammals are probably susceptible to the entire range of pathogenic bacteria. M fortuitum. Smaller cetaceans can be kept out of water in a sling for 2–24 hr. In pinnipeds. preferably. or other infectious disease. Otherwise. Cutaneous and systemic forms are seen. Topical medication of pinnipeds for dermatophytosis is feasible. Otherwise. harbor seals. tracheal washes. Most appear to be secondary to stress. Pasteurella multocida has caused several outbreaks of hemor with depression and abdominal distress leading to acute death in dolphins and pinnipeds. Aspergillosis Fatal pulmonary asper-gillosis has been diagnosed in several species of cetaceans including bottlenose dolphins and killer whales. chitae. culture. There are strong indications that immunosuppression ma the development of infections by the atypical mycobacteria. provided areas of the body not being treated are kept moist. cetaceans. Mannheimia haemolytica has been incriminated in hemorrhagic tracheitis that responded to chloram-phenicol therapy. Staphylococcal sept the death of a dolphin with osteomyelitis of the spine (pyogenic spondylitis).forsteri).M chelonae. Cutaneous aspergillosis has been seen in gray seals (Halichoerus . systemic therapy is used. S aureus also has been incriminated in a fatal pneumonia in a killer whale slow-healing wounds of cetaceans managed in open sea pens. environmental compromise. injections in the webbing of the rear flippers should be read at 48 and 72 hr. Mycobacteriosis in marine mammals is an emerging disease and is possibly of public health significance also Tuberculosis and other Mycobacterial Infections. Burkholderia pseudomallei has caused serious fatal outbreaks of marine mammals in captivity in the Far East. mycobacteriosis has been a disease of captivity. Diagnosis is made by culture and identification of the lesion biopsies.

Candidiasis is also reported in pinnipeds. Candidiasis This common mycotic disease in captive cetaceans occurs secondary to stress. Cutaneous lesions respond to topical povidone-iodine with ketoconazole therapy (10 mg/kg. At necropsy. esophageal ulcers are often found. Cryptococcus neoformans. particularly at the commissures of the mouth and around the eyes. PO. Prolonged treatment with itraconazole (120 days) at routine mammalian doses was ineffective despite serum drug levels above the suggested therapeutic range. . or indiscriminate antibiotic therapy. The respiratory form has been a postmortem diagnosis. Early detection and treatment is usually successful. sid). sid) along with correction of any environmental deficits. Diagnosis is based on identification of the yeast in cultures or biopsy. bid) has also been used successfully.grypus) with concomitant mycobacteriosis. is the common presentation. Fluconazole (2 mg/kg. and vulva. Another opportunistic yeast. In cetaceans. anus. the lesions usually are found around body orifices. unbalanced water disinfection with chlorines. particularly in the area of the gastroesophageal junction. One anecdotal report suggests a possible toxic reaction to ketoconazole in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).01 mg/kg) may be appropriate to compensate for ketoconazole inhibition of glucocorticoid production. PO. Candidiasis generally responds well to ketoconazole (6 mg/kg. In phocid pinnipeds. Supplementation with prednisolone (0. has been diagnosed in fatal advanced pulmonary disease in a bottlenose dolphin. inflammation at the mucocutaneous junctions.


or both. dolphin Dermatophytosis Mycotic dermatitis due to Trichophyton spp or Microsporum canisgenerally responds to topical povidone-iodine. oral griseofulvin.Lingual candidiasis. Culture of the organism has . dolphin Candidiasis. The disease has only been reported in humans and in Atlantic bottlenose Sotalia (Sotalia fluviatilis) dolphins. Lobomycosis This disfiguring cutaneous disease is caused by infection with Lacazia loboi.

. Excisional therapy and systemic antifungal drugs have been used with varying success. Zoonotic transmission has not been demonstrated.not been possible.

Lobomycosis. dolphin .

Mucor spp and Entomophthora spp have caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. Fatal systemic histoplasmosis has been reported in a captive harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus). Diagnosis is by detection of eggs in feces. fluconazole (0. the underlying cause of the low host resistance to these opportunistic infections must be corrected if therapy is to be successful. harbor porpoises. Coccidioidomycosis has been found in bottlenose dolphins. and polar bears. a Stellar sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Laegenorhynchus acutus). but clinical disease and therapy are not well documented. These should be considered diseases of debilitated animals. PO. Parasitic Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites. which have pinnipeds and sea otters as primary hosts. and northern elephant seals. lice. and sea otters. Cases have responded to ketoconazole (5 mg/kg. cestodes. and a Pacific white-sided dolphin. sid for 10 days). California sea lions. and precautions should be taken to prevent infection when handling dead and diseased animals. but newer imidazoles warrant consideration.Systemic Mycoses The systemic mycoses of marine mammals are a zoonotic risk. and harp seals. California sea lions. Blastomycosis has caused fatal disease in bottlenose dolphins. sid) combined with antibiotic and supportive therapy when indicated. mites. Three species of Profilicollis(also found in birds) are reported to cause . and acanthocephalans. while others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens.5 mg/kg. Acanthocephalans Cetaceans are the primary host of Bolbosoma spp but can be infested with parasites of the genusCorynosoma. Amphotericin B is the therapy of choice for zygomycete infections. Other zygomycetes have been diagnosed as a cause of fatal disseminated disease in various species of marine mammals. C enhydra has only been reported from sea otters. Bolbosoma spp have been reported in pinnipeds. bid for 21 days). trematodes. Blastomycosis has been successfully treated with intensive management including 70 days of itraconazole (3. gray seals. including various nematodes. Northern fur seals. California sea lions. Clinical experience with many of these is limited. Zygomycetes Dermatologic conditions caused by various Fusarium spp have been reported in pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps). sid for 120 days). Diagnosis is based on culture or organism identification from biopsy. or itraconazole (1 mg/kg. a bottlenose dolphin.5 mg/kg. harbor seals.

Otostrongylus circumlitus. The affected animal must be removed from the water. Predisposing factors in pinnipeds are unknown. 2 wk apart. and sometimes blood-flecked mucus are the first signs of pulmonary parasitism. There are at least 4 species of lungworms in various cetacean hosts. No successful treatment has been reported. Nasal mites cause nasal discharge but apparently little discomfort. and excoriation occur on the flippers and other body surfaces that contact the substrate. Heavy infestations of sucking lice are common in wild pinnipeds and can cause severe anemia. Treatments must be repeated in 10–12 days. The latter parasite is also found in the hearts of some phocids. Treatment of P decorus infection . larva Lungworm infection can be diagnosed by examination of feces or bronchial mucus. Animals in captivity can be freed of parasites. Demodectic mange has been diagnosed in California sea lions. but their overall significance or treatment is unknown. Lung mites cause rattling coughs. Both of these parasites use fish as intermediate hosts. it does not produce a microfilaremia. The life cycles of these mites are unknown. The lice can be seen grossly and are readily transmitted. Sea lions have Parafilaroides decorus. scaling. coughing. and kept out of the water ≥12 hr. Acariasis Nasal and lung mites are found in phocid and otarid seals. Mites have been associated with large. Diagnosis is made by identifying the mite in nasal secretions or sputum. Lungworm Lungworms are common in all pinnipeds. Premortem diagnosis is problematic. which has caused prenatal infections in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Anorexia. however. Infections have been cleared rapidly with 2 injections of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg. Mortality usually occurs before the parasite produces ova.peritonitis associated with intestinal perforation in sea otters. Diagnosis is made by deep skin scrapings and identification of the mite. while true seals are usually parasitized by Otostrongylus circumlitus. roughened lesions of the laryngeal area of cetaceans. Nonpruritic. Treatment is the same as in dogs (see Mange in Dogs and Cats). The mites are not readily transmitted among contact animals. Rotenone powder is also effective. provided no new sources of infestation are introduced. Secondary bacterial infection that results in pyoderma occurs in chronic cases. alopecic lesions with hyperkeratosis. Treatment of infected animals eliminates the problem in captive enclosures without environmental treatment. including Halocercus lagenorhynchi. allowed to dry before being dusted. They are highly sensitive to ivermectin as well as chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides.

Lungworm infections often remain asymptomatic for long periods with clinical signs appearing only when an animal becomes debilitated for other reasons. phocid seals are abnormal hosts. sid for 5 days). however.3 mg/kg) weekly. ulceration. and otarids are infected subcutaneously by A odendhali. Some success in treatment has been reported using intratracheal administration of levamisole phosphate (5 mg/kg. the sudden deaths of 2 beluga whales injected IM with levamisole phosphate suggest this drug administered by that route may be contraindicated. sid for 1 wk) has successfully cleared infection in captive pinnipeds. Raw fish is most often incriminated as the source of infection. Infections with Contracaecum spp are common in wild cetaceans and pinnipeds. sea otters. and neutrophilia before the parasites become patent and first-stage larvae can be detected in sputum or feces. Polar bears in captivity are prone to heavy ascarid infection. Granulomas form at their attachment sites and can lead to blood loss. Diagnosis ofO circumlitus in elephant seals is complicated by mortality occurring after generalized clinical signs of depression. A graded regimen of levamisole phosphate progressing to a high dosage (40 mg/kg. with the advantage of oral administration. In captivity.consists of mucolytic agents administered intratracheally. Dirofilariasis is diagnosed by identifying microfilariae in the blood. lungworm infections are usually self-limiting if larvae are not introduced in fresh fish intermediate hosts. however. ivermectin. combined therapy with ivermectin and fenbendazole given 3 days after initiation of therapy with dexamethasone. Transmission of A spirocauda is thought to be by the seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus). PO or SC administration has been recommended. Acanthocheilonema microfilariae Other Nematodes The Anasakidae are pathogenic nematodes found in the stomach of marine mammals. A percentage of pinnipeds also show neurologic reactions to IM injection of levamisole. Transmission is thought to be by the same mosquitos that bite dogs. Phocid seals are affected by A spirocauda. Heartworm Heartworms of the genus Acanthocheilonema are a common necropsy finding in pinnipeds but have not been reported in cetaceans. in food during the mosquito season (see Heartworm Disease). antibiotics to treat any concomitant bacterial pneumonia. antibiotics. dehydration. Prevention in endemic areas has been successful with oral administration of ivermectin (canine dosages) monthly or diethylcarbamazine (3. and ultimately perforation and peritonitis. Gastric nematodes can . however. or sirenians. and concurrent prednisone or dexamethasone. Feeding frozen fish prevents reinfection. Cetacean lungworms probably are also susceptible to levamisole and ivermectin. Both groups of pinnipeds can be infected with the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis in endemic areas. and mucolytic agents may be more effective.

be successfully treated with oral dichlorvos (30 mg/kg). Nasitrema spp are found in the nasal passages and sinuses of cetaceans. Many species of a large spirurid nematode (Crassicauda spp) infect the cranial sinuses. Infections are often accompanied by halitosis and brown mucus around the blowhole and occasionally by coughing. Trematodiasis Fluke infections are common in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Reinfection can be prevented by not feeding fresh or live fish. Ova of these trematodes have been associated with necrotic foci in the brains of animals showing behavioral aberrations and have been incriminated as a cause of localized pneumonia in cetaceans. and heavy infection is thought to cause intestinal obstruction. major vessels.5 mg/kg) or ivermectin (100 μg/kg) injected SC are effective against these parasites. Contracaecum spp. ova Hookworms (Uncinaria spp) are found in pinnipeds. .Diplogonoporus tetrapterous in all pinnipeds. or mebendazole (9 mg/kg) given twice. These usually are the larval forms of tapeworms of sharks. Oral praziquantel (10 mg/kg. Successful treatments are not documented but are potentially possible with systemic parasiticides. fenbendazole (11 mg/kg). Other cestodes commonly seen include D lanceolatum in phocid seals. Diagnosis is based on demonstration of typical operculated trematode ova in blowhole swabs or feces. Newborn pups are infected via colostrum. but are not known to have clinical significance. Ivermectin may be considered. and mammary gland ducts of cetaceans. Disophenol (12. kidneys. ova Anisakis spp. Severe infections are known only in the fur seals. Praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or niclosamide (160 mg/kg) are effective treatments. and Tetrabothrium forsteri and Strobilocephalus triangularisin cetaceans. 2 treatments 1 wk apart) is usually effective. Several species of cestodes are reported in sea otters and polar bears. Cetaceans are also commonly infected with subcutaneous tapeworm cysts throughout the blubber. Cestodiasis Diphyllobothrium pacificum is commonly found in sea lions. 10 days apart.

other workers consider the parasite to have been a fish coccidia not associated with the disease. Signs are usually seen in adults and include icterus.) Sarcocystis Sarcocystis neurona is found in high prevalence in the California population of sea otters. or husbandry changes. ova Various other trematodes infect the stomach.Sarcocystis spp have been found in the muscles of many cetacean. otarid. handling. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is known to infect the California population of sea otters causing disease that ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe encephalitis. (See also Coccidiosis. ova Zalophotrema hepaticum is an important hepatic trematode of California sea lions. Pancreatic fibrosis due to trematodiasis is a common necropsy finding. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development. amprolium. and E nodulosa reported from the Florida manatee. Coccidiosis Coccidia (Eimeria phocae) have been found in harbor seals with a fatal. it causes biliary hypertrophy and fibrosis of the liver. however. bloody diarrhea.Cystoisospora delphini. Diagnosis is based on identification of trematode ova in the feces. are also not associated with disease. Bilirubinemia and increased serum hepatic enzymes are common. No successful treatment has been reported. eg. Clinical disease with this parasite is thought to be rare unless the host is stressed through capture.Nasitrema spp. pancreas. A coccidian. liver. intestines. Infection can be asymptomatic or cause severe encephalitis characterized by generalized neurologic signs. Zalophotrema hepaticum. Eimeria trichechi reported from the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis). has been reported as the cause of enteritis in bottlenose dolphins. and other abdominal organs of marine mammals. These coccidia are probably susceptible to anticoccidial drugs used against other species. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to T gondii has also been . Treatment with praziquantel (10 mg/kg) or with bithional (20 mg/kg) has been successful. and anorexia. lethargy. and phocid species and do not seem to be associated with any recognized clinical signs.

emaciation. a California sea lion. and opaleye fish (Girella nigricans). Pinnipeds developed weakness. most California sea lions have neutralizing antibodies to one or more of the serotypes. All pinnipeds developed pneumonia and died within The most prominent histologic lesion in all cases was hepatic necrosis. Methods of premortem diagnosis are currently under development. and eventually posterior paresis. To date. The most consistent lesion in marine mammals is skin vesicles. Affected pups have interstitial pneumonitis and encephalitis and fail to thrive. abdominal splinti diarrhea. and a gray seal. Opaleye fish are probab the endemic status of caliciviruses in marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters of California. Herpesvirus-like particles have been demonstr from beluga whales and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). Other than a postmortem diagnosis of herpesvirus encephalitis in a dead harbor porpois herpesviral disease in cetaceans have been limited to skin and mucosal lesions with little clinical significance. Herpesvirus-like lesions occur in a wide variety of other pinnipeds and cetacea herpesviruses have been characterized from harbor seals and gray seals. a relative lymphopenia and monocytosis were seen. Massive coagulation necrosis without apparent zonal distribution occurred in Basophilic intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes or granular amphophilic intranuclear inclusions in Kupffer's cells were seen. see Vesicular Exanthema of Swine). Inoculation of marine caliciviruses into pigs causes vesicular lesions identical to those seen in vesicular exanthema. and spinner dolphins. Caliciviruses (San Miguel Sea Lion Virus) Caliciviruses have been isolated from otarid seals. In humans. Herpesvirus Herpesviruses have been isolated from neonatal harbor seals. the vesicles are most prevalent on the dorsal surfaces of the fore flipp vesicular lesions have been seen in association with “tattoo” lesions and old scars. They usually erode and l healing ulcers. Vesicles are 1 mm to 3 cm in diameter. By 4 mo of age. Viral Diseases Adenovirus Adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) and in livers from 6 stranded you lions with hepatitis. photophobia. T gondii is reported from Atlantic bottlenose. skin lesions usually resolve without tre may cause premature parturition in pinnipeds. but occasionally vesicles regress and leave plaque-like lesions. Localized lesions in an accidental laboratory exposure as well as isolation of calicivirus from a clin indicate that these viruses should be handled carefully. No successful treatment has been reported. infections have not been diagnosed in m the Atlantic Ocean.reported in a Florida manatee. Toxoplasma spp encephalitis is also reported in harbor seals and Northern fur seals. No evidence of adeno in the lungs. Risso's (Grampus griseus). A herpes-like virus was found associa ulcers in sea otters stressed in oil spill rehabilitation processing. The marine caliciviruses serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV. Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. heavy exposure to caliciviruses can result in neutralizing antibodies. No disease was noted in the cetaceans. In pinnipeds. striped (Stenella coeruleoalba). Several species of mysticete cetaceans have antibodies t serotypes of VESV. polydipsia. Disseminated toxoplasmosis is reported in California sea lions. Treatment is supportive only. walrus. Phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) is an α-herpesvirus similar to canine Phocid herpesvirus-2 (PhHV-2) is a putative γ-herpesvirus. . Adenovirus from California sea lions is not known to cause disease in humans.

Seals vaccinated with canine distempe been rendered immune to challenge with the virus (suspension of organ material) obtained from dead wild seals. pneumonia. incoordinated. above. which suggests that the reaction is local. oral acyclovir did not eliminate the infection but appeared to sig clinical signs in primary infections. and identical virus has been recovered. and dyspneic. crusting conjunctivitis. and may appear slightly depressed with a target appearance or be raised and proliferative. Morbidity can approach 100% in stressed seals in crowded condi ∼50%. The incubation period during epidemic ≤ 3 days. white or bloody nasal discharge will be evident. seeHERPESVIRUS. o on by affected seals. and lethargy that can result in death in 1–6 days. Persons whose eyes were contaminated while doing necropsies. and fev coughing. For differential diagnosis. diarrhea. young seals are affected and show depression. as occurs with Newcastle disease virus. The centers of some les may contain verrucous growths. In harbor seals. Infection is probably comm nonspecific clinical signs were reported in the stranded pilot whale. Systemic infections have not been documented in the whales.5 cm in diameter in gray seals. and dyspnea. In the pilot whale. Diagnosis is often made at necropsy or by clinical signs and observation of characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in biopsies of early skin lesio interstitial pneumonia caused by herpesvirus must be distinguished from bronchial pneumonia caused by influenza virus. Pacific harbor seals with PhHV-1 tend to develop signs related to adrenal and hepatic dys PhHV-2 has been associated with recurring circumscribed areas of alopecia ∼0. The incubation period appears to be 10–14 days. anorexia. there is a potential public health risk because live poliovirus may be shed Stress and immunosuppression are associated with recrudescence of latent infections. There is no evidence that the herpesviruses of pinnipeds or zoonotic. Influenza Virus Four different influenza A viruses have been isolated from harbor seals and 2 other subtypes from a stranded pilot whale. Morbillivirus Phocid seals are susceptible to canine distemper virus (see Canine Distemper) and to a closely related but distinct morbillivirus (phocine distemper vir Generally. was emaciated. Herpetic lesions in beluga whales a circular. influenza pneumonia is characterized by necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and hemorrhagic alveolitis. Many factors probably contribute to the explosive nature of the reported epidemics. and was sloughing skin. Occasionally. although it reduced the severity of recrudescence in seals. up to 2 cm in diameter. closely related to rinderpest (see Rinderpest) and peste des petits ruminants (see Peste d . inflammation of the oral mucosa. have developed keratoconjunctivitis within 2–3 days. High population densities and unseasonably warm tem contribute to high mortality. Disea influenza virus in seals is better characterized. Outbreaks in wild harbor seals have been extensive in the North Sea. nasal discharge. which had difficulty maneuvering. In a documented epidemic. vomiting. A delphinoid distemper virus (cetacean morbillivirus [CMV]).Young harbor seals from Atlantic waters infected with PhHV-1 develop nasal discharge. Pneumonia develops and high in previously unexposed animals. Vaccination with 1 mL of trivalent poliovirus vaccine to control recrudescence of suspected herpesvirus lesions ha some success. the lu hemorrhagic and a hilar node was greatly enlarged. In systemic herpesvirus infection. anorexia. Swollen necks due to fas escaping through the thoracic inlet is reported. The virulence of epidemics has precluded attempts at intensive supportive care. All affected people have recovere within 7 days without developing any antibody titers. therapy is supportive. Even well-fed captive animals become weak.

pectoral flippers. which sometimes coalesce. often due to secondary infections facilitated by the immunosuppressive impact of active infection. Therapy to control secondary bacterial infections is indicated only when skin lesions suppurate. An unclassified poxvirus has also been associated with skin lesions in Atlantic bottlenose do stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphin. Other rhabdoviruses isolated from cetaceans. and ta range from ring or pinhole lesions to black. Ring or pinhole lesions appear as solitary. Although animals with cutaneous poxvirus lesions have died. Areas of alopecia and scar tissue may remain after resolution. roun blemishes. which are not recognized by antisera to representatives of the Ephemerovirus. The parapoxviruses of pinnipeds can c lesions on the hands of persons not wearing gloves during contact with infected animals. In the wild. long-beaked common dolphins (Delphis capensis).5–3 cm. harp seals and pilot incriminated as apparent reservoirs of PDV and CMV. A break in the epithelial surfa required to start an infection. and Burmeister's porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis) have also been reported. Papillomavirus infections have been reported in a wide range of cetaceans including narwals (Monodon monoceros). respectively. cutaneous. dorsal fin. other fact responsible. although the reverse color pattern is also seen persist for months or years without apparent ill effects. intracytoplasmic lesion biopsies and is confirmed by identification of typical poxvirus particles by electron microscopy. neck. and flippers of a These may increase to 1. Diagnosis is based on the presence of eosinophilic. dusky dolphins. hooded se cristata). An has been isolated from pox-like lesions on a gray seal. punctiform. Cases in killer whales. striped dolphins in the Mediterrane dolphins in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. stippled patterns (“tattoo” lesions).Ruminants). raised nodules (0. Lesions can recur. Mortality in naive populations is high. Pilot whale calves. Hector's dolphins ( hectori). They are usually light gray and may have a dark gray border. Lesions in California sea lion and gray seals are probably due to parapoxviruses.5–3 cm in diameter during the first week and may ulcerate or develop satellite lesions during the second week. Major differential diagnoses include cutaneous streptothricosis and calicivirus. After the fo begin to regress. At the tim epidemic of rabies in foxes in the area.5–1 cm in diameter) occur on the head. but this approach has not been a America. Therapy is supportive. Poxviruses of marine mammals do not appear to cause systemic infections. and several species of mystice . Vaccination with a subunit vaccine is practiced in European rescue centers and appears to be protective. Outbreaks typically occur in postweanling pinnipeds recently introduced into captivity. has been implicated in the deaths of harbor porpoises and common dolphins off the coast of the UK. Miscellaneous Viral Diseases A ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in Norway was diagnosed with rabies. The incubation period is 3–5 wk. white-beaked dolphins (Laegenorhynchus albirostris). may be related to rhabdoviruses of fish. harp seals. or Vesiculovirus genera. and Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) have been affected by PDV and/or CMV infections. 0. Poxvirus Poxvirus has been identified morphologically in skin lesions of both captive and free-ranging pinnipeds and cetaceans. which was confirmed by immunofluorescent examination of the brain. Cutaneous poxvirus infections in cetaceans can occur on any part of the body but are most common on the head. lesions in South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) and Northern fur seals are probably not. although nodules are reported to persist as long as 15–18 wk. in large part due to lack of availability of the appropriate vaccine. Small.

They are of little consequence except for malignant lymphom in which horizontal transmission can occur in a closed population. Hepadnavirus infection with a hepatitis B-like agent has been documented in a Pacific white-sided dolphin with a long history of recurrent illness in c evidence of zoonotic transmission was identified. Immunohistochemical staining consistent with coronavirus infections was found in 2 adult harbor seals that died without clinical signs and a third tha a brief period of anorexia and behavioral aberration. .are typical of those found in terrestrial species. The only retrovirus identified to date in a marine mammal was a spumavirus isolated from recurring skin lesions in a California sea lion that subsequ of Pasteurella pneumonia complicated with herpesvirus. against human influenza virus (after challenge) and poliomyelitis virus were found in bottlenose dolphins. but no virus was isolated. Lesions are usually self-limiting. An enterovirus of unknown pathogenicity isolated from a rectal swab of a California gray whale has now been reclassified as a calicivirus. Antibodie with disease. No therapy is available. although a wide variety has been reported. Severe enteritis and vomiting that rapidly led to death in a captive beluga whale were suggestive of parvovirus enteritis. Neoplastic Diseases Tumors in marine mammals are infrequent.