Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

ENGR%244:%Mechanics%of%materials%

!
!
!
!
!
Lab!report!#6!
!
BEHAVIOUR%OF%COLUMNS%UNDER%AXIAL%LOAD%
!
!
!
!
!
!
Made!By!
!
Samuel!Chevalier!
!
SID!#:!6797350!
!
Section!MI!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Presented!To!
!
Marcel!Boer!
!
!
!

%
%
Concordia!University!
!
April!9th!2014!

Table&of&Contents&
1.! Introduction:%.....................................................................................................................%2!
2.! Procedure:%..........................................................................................................................%3!
3.! Results%&%Calculations:%..................................................................................................%3!
4.! Discussion%..........................................................................................................................%9!
5.! Conclusion%.......................................................................................................................%10!
6.! References%.......................................................................................................................%11!
A.! Appendix!1%.................................................................................................................................%12!
B.! Appendix%2%...............................................................................................................................%13!
C.! Appendix%3%................................................................................................................................%14!
D.! Appendix%4%...............................................................................................................................%15!
E.! Appendix%5%...............................................................................................................................%16!
F.! Appendix%6%................................................................................................................................%17!
G.! Appendix%7%...............................................................................................................................%18!
H.! Appendix%8%...............................................................................................................................%19!
!

1!

1. Introduction:&

!
The!objective!of!this!experiment!is!to!identify!the!buckling!critical!load,!Pcr,!and!the!
various!different!factors!affecting!it,!as!to!understand!the!behavior!of!columns!under!
axial!load.!As!well,!determine!the!most!efficient!between!a!tube!and!bar!to!withstand!
buckling!
!
The!action!of!bulking!happens!when!a!structural!member!suddenly!fails!due!to!high!
compressive! stress;! however,! the! actual! stress! is! lower! than! the! ultimate!
compressive!stress!that!the!material!is!capable!of!withholding.!!The!critical!buckling!
load,! Pcr!,! is! dependent! of! numerous! factors,! such! as,! the! length! of! the! column,! the!
support!conditions,!the!crossSsectional!shape!of!the!column!and!the!location!of!the!
load!relative!to!the!centroid!of!the!crossSsection.!Using!the!equation!of!the!deflection!
of!an!elastic!member,!we!can!identify!the!critical!buckling!load!from!Eulers!formula.!
Afterwards,! we! can! identify! various! different! desired! values! of! the! column.!
However,!the!assumptions!made!by!the!derivation!of!Eulers!formula!are!when!both!
ends!of!the!column!are!pinned.!Using!Eulers!formula!and!the!critical!normal!stress,!
you! may! identify! the! radius! of! gyration,! the! slenderness! ratio! and! the! crossS
sectional!area!of!the!column.!The!smaller!specimens!are!logically!the!ones!that!will!
be!able!to!withstand!the!higher!compressive!stress!caused!by!the!testing!machine!as!
the! bending! moment! will! be! smaller! than! with! a! longer! column.! The! solid! bars!
should!be!able!to!resist!higher!compressive!stress!due!to!a!bigger!moment!of!inertia.!
If! the! specimens! are! properly! fixed! they! should! be! able! to! withstand! higher!
compressive! stress! as! the! compressive! will! be! applied! directly! on! the! center! of!
column!not!favoring!any!side!and!reducing!the!risk!of!buckling.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
%
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

2!

2. Procedure:&

!
Equipment:%
%
S Mechanical!testing!machine!
S Load!measuring!devices!
S Vernier!Caliper!
S Aluminum!tubes!and!rods!specimens:!225,!125!and!75!mm!long!
!
!
Firstly,!measure!the!diameter!of!each!specimens,!inner!and!outer!diameter!if!hollow.!
Properly!set!up!the!rod!or!tube!in!the!testing!machine!to!maximize!the!precision!of!
the!test.!Perform!individual!tests!for!each!of!the!desired!conditions!(Both!ends!fixed,!
one! end! fixed! and! the! other! is! pinned! and! both! ends! fixed).! For! the! 225! mm! long!
specimens! (Solid! and! hollow)! apply! each! conditions,! as! for! the! 75! and! 125! mm!
hollow!specimens!they!are!only!to!be!tested!when!both!ends!are!pinned.!When!the!
specimens! are! accordingly! installed,! increase! the! compressive! load! gradually! on!
each!specimen!until!failure.!Afterwards,!record!the!highest!load!applied.!
!
!
!
!
!

3. Results&&&Calculations:&
!
I:!moment!of!inertia!
E:!Elastic!modulus!
L:!Length!
Leff:!Effective!length!
r:!Radius!of!gyration!
:!Slenderness!ration!
K:!Effective!length!factor!
A:!Cross!sectional!area!
d:!diameter!
din:!Inner!diameter!
dout:!Outer!diameter!
All:!Allowable!stress!
Pcr:!Critical!load!
cr:!Critical!Stress!
!

3!

Moment!of!inertia:!
!
For!solid:!

!
! !
!=
!
4
2

!
6.31 !
!=
!
4
2

! = 72.82!!!! !

For!hollow:!
!
!
!=
4

!!"#
2

!
!=
4

6.36
2

!
!
For!hollow:!

!
!

6.31 !
! = !
!
2
! = 31.27!!!! !

!=!

!!"#
2

!=!

6.36
2

!!"
2

4.36
2

! = 16.48!!!! !

!
Radius!of!gyration:!

4.36

! !
! = !
!
2

!!"

! = 62.58!!!! !

!
!
!
Cross!sectional!area:!
!
For!solid:!

4!

!
!

!
!
!

r=
!

62.58
!
16.48

r=
!

r = 1.93!mm!

!
Slenderness!ration:!

!=
!
!=
!

!!"" = 131!!"#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"#!! < 9.5!


!!"" = 139 0.868 ! !!"#!!!!!!!!!"#!9.5 < ! > 66!
!!""

!
!
!
!

35110!
=
!"#!!!!!!!!!!!"#!! > 66!
!!
!!"" = 139 0.868 38.91 !
!!"" = 105.23!!"#!

!!"" =
!
!
Critical!load:!
!

35110!
!
114.61!

!!"" = 26.72!!"#!

!!" =
!
!

175
!
1.93

! = 38.91!

!
Allowable!stress:!
!

!"
!
!

! ! !"
!!"" !

! ! 7010! 62.5810!!"
!!" =
!
0.075!

5!

!
Critical!stress:!
!
Theoretical:!

!!" = 7685.80!!!

!!!

!!" =
!
!!"
!
!!" =
!
!
!
Experimental:!
!

!
!

!!!
= ! !
!

! ! 7010!
!
38.91!

!!" = 456.43!!"#!

!!" =
!
!!" =
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!!

!!"
!
!

2610
!
16.84

!!" = 155!!"#!

6!

Table&1:&Properties&and&dimensions&of&hollow&aluminum&specimens&
Type&of&column&

Hollow&

Column&length,&L&(mm)&

75&

125&

225&

225&

225&

End&condition&

PinDPin&

PinDPin&

PinDPin&

PinDFixed&

FixedDFixed&

Effective&length&factor,&k&

1&

1&

1&

0.707&

0.5&

Effective&length,&Leff&(mm)&

75&

125&

225&

159.08&

112.5&

Inner&diameter,&din&(mm)&

4.36&

4.54&

4.62&

4.53&

4.54&

Outer&diameter,&dout&(mm)&

6.36&

6.35&

6.35&

6.33&

6.36&

16.84&

15.48&

14.91&

15.35&

15.58&

Moment&of&inertia,&I&(mm )&

62.58&

58.96&

57.45&

58.14&

59.46&

Radius&of&gyration,&r&(mm)&

1.93&

1.95&

1.96&

1.95&

1.95&

Slenderness&ratio,&&

38.91&

64.05&

114.61&

81.75&

57.59&

Allowable&stress,&all&(Mpa)&

105.23&

83.40&

26.72&

52.53&

89.01&

Theoretical&critical&load,&Pcr&(N)&

7685.80&

2606.84& 783.98&

1587.32&

3245.83&

Theoretical&critical&stress,&cr&(Mpa)&

456.43&

168.39&

52.60&

103.39&

208.32&

Experimental&critical&load,&Pcr&(N)&

2610&

2886&

1204&

1124&

2071&

Experimental&critical&stress,&cr&(Mpa)&

155.00&

186.42&

80.78&

73.21&

132.92&

Cross&sectional&Area,&A&(mm )&
4

!
!
Table&2:&Properties&and&dimensions&of&solid&aluminum&specimens&
Type&of&column&
Column&length,&L&(mm)&
End&condition&
Effective&length&factor,&k&
Effective&length,&Leff&(mm)&
Inner&diameter,&din&(mm)&
Outer&diameter,&dout&(mm)&
Cross&sectional&Area,&A&(mm2)&
Moment&of&inertia,&I&(mm4)&
Radius&of&gyration,&r&(mm)&
Slenderness&ratio,&&
Allowable&stress,&all&(Mpa)&
Theoretical&critical&load,&Pcr&(N)&
Theoretical&critical&stress,&cr&(Mpa)&
Experimental&critical&load,&Pcr&(N)&
Experimental&critical&stress,&cr&(Mpa)&
!
!
!

7!

225&
PinDPin&
1&
225&

Solid&
225&
PinDFixed&
0.707&
159.08&

225&
FixedDFixed&
0.5&
112.5&

6.31&

6.33&

6.35&

31.27&
77.82&
1.58&
142.63&
17.25&
1061.99&
33.96&
1209&
38.66&

31.47&
78.81&
1.58&
100.52&
34.74&
2151.68&
68.37&
1213&
38.54&

31.67&
79.81&
1.59&
70.87&
69.89&
4356.70&
137.57&
2598&
82.04&

500.00!

graph%1:%Critical%stress%and%allowable%
stress%(Mpa)%in%function%of%the%
slenderness%ratio%

450.00!

y!=!690872xS2!
R!=!1!

Critical%stress%(Mpa)%

400.00!
350.00!
300.00!
250.00!
200.00!

Theoretical!
y!=!13946xS1.17!
R!=!0.67236!

Experimental!
Allowable!
stress!

150.00!
100.00!
50.00!
0.00!
0.00!

y!=!250.9eS0.019x!
R!=!0.98362!
20.00! 40.00! 60.00! 80.00! 100.00! 120.00! 140.00! 160.00!
Slenderness%ratio%

!
!
!
!
!
!
%
Analysis%of%results:%
!
As!observed!in!table!1!and!2!the!critical!stress!of!the!hollow!aluminum!specimens!is!
higher! than! the! solid! aluminum! specimens.! The! critical! stress! of! the! smaller!
specimens! are! higher! than! the! longer! specimens,! the! 75! mm! long! specimen!
possesses!a!higher!critical!stress!then!its!counterpart.!!The!specimens!with!both!end!
fixed!achieve!higher!critical!stress!(132.92!Mpa!and!82.04!Mpa!for!solid!and!hollow!
fixedSfixed!specimens!respectively)!then!the!pinSfixed!and!pinSpin!specimens.!
!
!

8!

4. Discussion&

!
!
The! theoretical! values! obtained! from! Eulers! formula! are! mostly! similar! to! the!
experimental!values!for!the!pinSpin!conditions.!The!Eulers!formula!considers!both!
end!pinned!which!may!cause!erroneous!values!when!both!ends!are!not!pinned.!As!
observed!in!table!1!and!2,!the!theoretical!values!of!the!critical!stress!of!the!pinSpin!
end! conditions! are! more! accurate! then! the! pinSfixed! and! fixedSfixed! condition,!
without!considering!the!75!mm!specimen.!The!load!may!also!not!have!been!applied!
along!the!neutral!axis!causing!discrepancies!and!making!the!specimens!buckle!faster!
then! indicated! by! the! theoretical! values! (eccentricity! of! loading).! Regarding,! the!
small!column,!it!should!fail!by!compression!yield!as!oppose!to!the!longer!specimen!
who! will! fail! by! predominant! buckling! which! explains! the! large! divergence! of! the!
theoretical!and!experimental!values!for!the!75!mm!column.!
!
!
The! allowable! stress! is! a! safety! factor! and! respecting! this! limit! ensures! that! the!
column!will!not!buckle!with!compressive!stresses!under!this!threshold.!Comparing!
my! theoretical! values! of! the! critical! stress! obtained! from! Eulers! formula! with! the!
allowable!stress,!the!theoretical!values!are!all!larger!then!the!allowable!stress!and!
are!logically!correct.!!As!for!the!experimental!critical!stress,!some!are!similar!to!the!
theoretical! values;! however,! most! vary! between! the! allowable! stress! and! the!
theoretical! values.! These! discrepancies! could! have! been! caused! by! the! factors!
affecting! real! columns! such! as! initial! imperfection,! eccentricity! of! loading! and!
residual!stress.!
!
!
They!are!many!different!factors,!affecting!the!buckling!strength!of!real!columns.!The!
buckling!strength!being!dependent!of!the!slenderness!ratio,!they!are!other!variables,!
which! may! affect! the! beam.! The! initial! imperfection! of! the! column! that! happened!
during! its! manufacture! can! cause! premature! buckling! of! the! column.! The!
eccentricity!of!the!load!and!the!straightness!of!the!column!can!cause!a!higher!stress!
on! a! certain! side! of! the! column! leading! to! buckling! in! that! direction.! Residual!
stresses!that!remain!in!a!solid!material!after!the!original!causes!of!the!stresses!have!
been! removed! may! also! tend! to! lower! the! buckling! strength! of! the! column.! The!
strain! hardening! effects! caused! by! the! plastic! deformation! may! however! increase!
the!buckling!strength.!!
!
!
For!the!same!cross!sectional!area,!the!column,!which!provides!the!higher!buckling!
load,!is!the!circular!tube.!The!radius!of!gyration!in!structural!engineering!is!used!to!
describe! the! distribution! of! cross! sectional! area! in! a! column! around! its! centroidal!
axis!The!hollow!part!of!the!tube!provokes!a!higher!radius!of!gyration!compared!to!
the! circular! bar! that! possesses! a! lower! radius! of! gyration! than! the! circular! tube,!
which!concurrently!affects!the!slenderness!ratio.!The!critical!stress!is!dependent!of!

9!

the! slenderness! ratio.! The! slenderness! ratio! of! the! hollow! specimens! is! lower! as!
observed!in!table!1!and!2!causing!a!higher!critical!stress.!.!This!meaning!the!further!
the! cross! sectional! area! from! the! centroidal! axis! the! higher! the! buckling! strength,!
however,! when! the! wall! thickness! of! the! tube! gets! too! low! the! tube! will! buckle!
sooner.!
!
!

5. Conclusion&
!
In! conclusion,! the! most! effective! column! to! resist! buckling! is! a! small! hollow! with!
properly! fixed! ends.! The! tube! is! more! adequate! to! withhold! buckling! than! the! bar!
due!to!its!radius!of!gyration.!There!are!also!many!real!factors!such!as!the!residual!
stress,!the!eccentricity!of!loading,!the!initial!imperfection!and!the!strain!hardening!
effect! that! affect! the! buckling! strength! and! cause! discrepancies! in! the! obtained!
results.!Regarding!Eulers!formula,!it!is!not!adequate!for!end!conditions!other!than!
pinnedSpinned.!The!length!and!the!conditions!of!its!end!(fixed,!pinned!or!free)!also!
affect!the!buckling!strength.!As!for!the!experiment,!when!the!length!of!the!column!is!
too!small!it!is!not!relevant!to!buckling.!It!will!fail!by!compressive!yield!rather!than!
by!predominant!buckling.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

10!

6. References&

!
1.!http://www.engineersedge.com/column_buckling/column_ideal.htm!S!Engineers!
edge,!Column!buckling,!April!2!2014.!
!
2.!http://www.steelSinsdag.org/TeachingMaterial/Chapter6.pdf!!S!Institute!for!Steel!
Development!&!Growth,!Introduction!to!column!buckling,!April!1!2014.!
!
3.http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/teaching_resources/archite
ctural_studio_reference/elements/design_of_columns_and_struts/radius_of_gyratio
n_cross_section/!S!Tata!Steel!Europe!Limited!2014,!Radius!of!gyration,!crossS
sectional!shape!and!buckling,!April!4!2014.!
!
4.!Lab!manual,!Mechanics!of!materials,!ENGR!244,!Concordia!University!
!
5.!Beer!F.!and!Johnston,!R.!(2013)!Mechanics!of!Materials,!McGrawSHill.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

11!

A.

Appendix&1&

Hollow!75!mm!!PinSPin:!

12!

B.

Appendix&2&

Hollow!125!mm!!PinSPin:!

!
!

13!

C.

Appendix&3&

Hollow!225!mm!!PinSPin:!

!
!
!
!

14!

D.

Appendix&4&

Hollow!225!mm!!PinSFixed:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

15!

E.

Appendix&5&

Hollow!225!mm!!FixedSFixed:!

!
!

16!

F.

Appendix&6&

Solid!225!mm!!PinSPin:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

17!

G.

Appendix&7&

Solid!225!mm!!PinSFixed:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

18!

H.

Appendix&8&

Solid!225!mm!!FixedSFixed:!

!
!

19!