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ANALYSIS OF TEACHER TEACHING PRACTICE AT A JUNIOR HIGH

SCHOOL
An Observation of The Eight Grade Students at SMP N 1 Kandeman
in The Academic Year of 2015 / 2016

A Mini Research Project


Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the final assignment of Theories in Language Teaching and Learning

by
I Gede Arga Anggara
0203515026

STATE UNIVERSITY OF SEMARANG


GRADUATE SCHOOL PROGRAM
2015

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
The globalization era impacts the need of mastering English rapidly. People
use this language as the tool of communication which has an important role to
reveal an intention to someone else through the spoken or written form. Spoken
form helps people to communicate with others by speaking, while written form
holds them to communicate others through writing.
Based on the School Based Curriculum 2006, it is assumed that the process of
teaching and learning English in junior high school is expected to develop the
students language skills on listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Therefore,
they will get ability to communicate both in oral or written language in any certain
purposes situations. Related to that, Hyland (2002:53) states that a person tends to
be viewed as literate if they have the ability to manipulate a set of discrete, valuefree which include the process of encoding and decoding meanings, manipulating
writing tools, perceiving shape sound correspondences, then they are acquired
through formal education. Nevertheless, he also proposes in Harmer (2007:325)
that the view of literacy has changed in the last few years so people look literacy
as the complex context in social situation. A person is considered as literate if he
or she can read and write in certain situations for certain purposes. As the result,
the literacy shall be reflected to the peoples understanding of some genre type
of text in certain situations and certain purposes when they read and produce
some kind of texts.
Based on the observation, there were still found some problems that could be
identified during the process of teaching and learning reading process. The first
problem is students motivation. They are mostly passive in teaching and learning
reading process. Once the teacher gave them opportunity to ask question or to
answer question, they kept on silent. Only few of them participate in class. The
second problem is the interaction. The teacher had given opportunities to the
students for engaging themselves during reading class such as doing group or pair
work and presenting their work to her. Nevertheless, there was a lack of

communication among the students to discuss and to finish the given task. The
third problem is the use of media in teaching learning reading. When presenting
the reading text input material, the teacher sometimes wrote the text in the
whiteboard or presented in power point. However, she did not design these media
well to motivate the students in reading. The last problem is the sequenced
following reading activities. When conducting teaching reading, the sequenced
following reading activities were just presenting reading text material, discussing
the meaning and language features, and then doing working group discussion to
answer the given questions related to the text. She did not link the reading activity
to other skills.
In order to be successful in teaching practice, the teacher needs to consider
some factors which are possible influencing the learning process in class. They
include teaching principles, approaches, techniques and, methods applied to the
teaching and learning English process. The use of these terms mentioned before
are expected to be applied in order to make the students active participating and to
make the effective teaching learning process.
Regarding to these matters, this paper aimed to describe and to analyze the
teacher teaching practice to the eight grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman related
to what teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and, methods
employed. In addition, the effectiveness of using these terms in class and existed
problems occur during teaching learning reading process are also been observed.
B. Research Questions
This research focuses to find out the answers of the following questions:
1. What are teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and, methods
employed in teacher teaching practice to the eight grade students at SMP 1
Kandeman?
2. Are teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and, methods
employed in teacher teaching practice to the eight grade students at SMP 1
Kandeman effective?
3. What are the problems that may still occur in teacher teaching practice in the
eight grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman?

C. Objectives
Based on the research questions, thee objectives of this observation are:
1. To describe teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and,
methods employed in teacher teaching practice to the eight grade students
at SMP 1 Kandeman.
2. To analyze the effectiveness of teaching reading principles, approaches,
techniques and, methods employed in teacher teaching practice to the eight
grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman.
3. To describe and evaluate the problems that may still occur in teacher
teaching practice in the eight grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman.
D. Significances of the Study
This study is expected to give some advantages to some parties
1. For the school principal of SMP N 1 Kandeman, the result is expected to
become the good inputs for evaluation of teacher teaching practice.
2. For the English teacher in SMP N 1 Kandeman, the result will be the
reference how to employ teaching reading principles, approaches,
techniques and, methods in teacher teaching practice to the class properly.
3. For the researcher, the result will give the experience for the researcher on
how to employ teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and,
methods in teacher teaching practice to the class properly.

CHAPTER II
Literature Review
a. Teaching and Learning English in Junior High Schools
1) Teaching Teenagers
The junior high school students can be classified as teenagers. Harmer
(2007:83) states that the search of identity becomes the important points to give
them challenge. As the result, teenagers are considered having big capacity to
learn, creative, and a passionate commitment of things, interested in. These
characteristics affect the teaching learning process in class hence the teacher
should consider in accommodating the teenagers need based on their
characteristics mentioned formerly. In addition, Leegutke (2010) suggests some
ways in accommodating this teenagers need namely, (1) teachers should search
appropriate topics, tasks, and texts used in teaching learning process, (2) students
are provided some supporting learning resources material by the teacher during
teaching and learning process, (3) some supporting meetings can be done for the
students in order to test their language abilities beyond the world of the classroom,
and (4) teachers should think of some appropriate actions for the students such as
in decision making and negotiation of classroom procedures.
2) The Teaching of Reading
a. Reading Skills
Reading is classified as a receptive skill however it does not define that reading
is a passive activity. Spratt, Pulverness, and Williams (2005:22) states that some
activities have been involved in the brain for example (1) understanding the text at
the level of letters, words, and sentence, (2) understanding cohesion and
coherence, (3) understanding various kinds of text, relating the text to the
knowledge of the world, making sense of the text and using appropriate sub skill
when conducting reading activities. Furthermore, they also add that the reading
subs skills employed by people are determined through the reason on why they
read. Especially, there are some subs skills of reading that can be used for
different reading. They are: reading for specific information or scanning, reading
for gist or skimming, reading for detail, extensive reading and intensive reading.

In addition, Rosenbalt in Tompkin and Hoskin (1995:198-99), and Mahood


(2006:7) specify reading based on its purposes into two kinds. They are aesthetic
and efferent reading. In aesthetic reading, the readers only focus on the thoughts,
images, and feelings. Hence, the aesthetic reading can be defined as reading for
enjoyment. While in efferent reading, the readers must focus on the public,
common referents of the words and symbols in the text. Later, the efferent
reading can be defined as reading for getting information.
Furthermore, Davies (1995) in Nunan (1999:25) tries to summarize research
conducted by Lunser and Gardener (1979), Harry Augstein and Thomas (1984)
which defines the different types of reading that exist today. They are (1)
receptive reading which can be defined as the rapid, automatic reading that
readers do when they read like narratives, (2) reflective reading which requires the
readers to often pause and to reflect on what they read, (3) skim reading which
requires readers to read rapidly to create in a general way that a text is about, and
(4) scanning which require the readers to search for specific information on the
text.
b. Principles of Teaching Reading
Brown (2001:7) defines teaching is giving guidance and facilitating learning.
Hence, teaching reading should be conducted through activities such as guiding,
facilitating, enabling and setting the conditions for the learners to read. Harmer
(2007:283) states that in order to get maximum benefit from the reading activities,
teacher should involve the extensive and intensive reading. According to Nations
(2009:49-60), extensive reading requires the learners to be interested in on what
they reading and only focuses on the meaning of the text rather than on learning
language features of text. Nevertheless, the intensive reading requires the learners
focusing on language features on the text. Besides, the learners comprehension
skill can also be improved by conducting intensive reading.
Then, Nations (2009:49-60) also suggests that extensive reading fits into the
meaning focused input and fluency development while intensive reading fits into
language focused learning strand of a course. Related to that, Nations (2009:6-8)
proposes some principles for teaching reading. They are mentioned as follow:

1) Meaning- Focused Input


The reading class should establish some practices with a range of reading
purposes such as reading for understanding information, reading for getting new
knowledge, reading for pleasure, reading for academic goals, and reading for
writing. Furthermore, the reading material chosen should be appropriate with the
students language proficiency and should be used to develop their language
proficiency as well.
2) Meaning- Focused Output
The reading class should be created linked to other language skills such as
listening, speaking and writing. It is accordance with Brown (2001:298) statement
that reading will be developed finest in association with writing, listening, and
speaking activities such as when conducting teaching reading, teacher will
integrate between four skills, it might include some activities like a pre reading
discussion on the topic to stimulate schemata, listening to a lecture about the topic
on a given reading passage , then a focus on a certain reading strategy such as
scanning, skimming, and writing summary of the given reading passage.
3) Language- focused Learning
The reading class should be able to help the students to develop their skills as
well as knowledge for effective reading. The teaching of reading should be
conducted based on the micro skills of reading and the language features needed
to read including phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, vocabulary and
grammar. In addition, the reading strategies are provided to the learners including
previewing, predicting, posing questions, connecting to background knowledge,
guessing meaning from context, and so on. Then, training and practice in
integrating a range of strategies like reciprocal teaching or concept-oriented
reading should be provided as well. Therefore, the learners can be familiar with
the structure of the texts used in reports, stories, recount and any text.
4) Fluency Development
This principle includes three main points. They are (1) the teaching process of
reading should help and push the learners to develop their reading fluency, (2) the

learners should enjoy reading and feel motivated to read, and (3) the learners
should read aloud.
The principles of teaching reading above should be considered by teacher to
achieve the effectiveness of teaching reading. The purpose of reading, the
complexity of the texts, and the development of reading skills and strategies are
needed to be reflected by teachers while teaching reading. When teaching reading,
a text becomes a main source for reading activity.
In addition to that, a good reading text criterion is proposed by Spratt,
Pulverness, and Williams (2005:22). First, the text should create the students
interested and motivated during the reading class. Second, the text should not be
difficult too to understand. Third, the text should be able to establish the students
in practicing the relevant reading sub skills.
c. The Roles of Teachers in Teaching and Learning Reading Process
According to Harmer (2007:288), in order to create students read
enthusiastically in class, a teacher should establish interest in the given topic and
tasks. Though, some roles proposed below are needed to be adopted by the teacher
when asking students to read intensively in reading class. They are:
1.

The Organizer
As the organizer, teacher should tell students exactly what their reading

purpose also give them clear instruction about the way of achieving this purpose
and the time of conducting the reading activity.
2.

The Observer
When teacher asks students to read in their own, students should be given

space in doing this activity. It means that teacher should restrain from interrupting
that reading activity, even tough the desire of adding more information or
instruction.
3.

The Feedback Organizer


When students complete the given task, a feedback session can be conducted

by teacher in order to check whether they had completed successfully or not. It


can be conducted through comparing their answers in pairs or groups. In addition,

when checking the students answer, teacher should ask them to provide the
relevant information including on the text.
4.

The Prompter
When students read a text, they should be prompted by teacher to notice

language features within it.


3) The Curriculum of Grade VIII Junior High School
English is one of compulsory subject for the students of Junior High School. In
relation to the regulation of ministry of national education, there are some reading
competencies that the students should achieve. Those competencies are described
by the standard competence and basic competence. The content of standard
competence and basic competence for junior high school specifically for the eight
grade students in first semester are presented in Appendix 1.
Based on school based curriculum presented in Appendix 1, the eight grade
students in junior high school are required to achieve and to perform certain genre
while studying English in class. The genres include descriptive texts and recount
text.
4) Approaches, Methods, and Techniques Used in Teaching Learning
English Process
a. Definition of Approaches, Methods, Procedures and Techniques
As stated by Harmer (2007:62), approach refers to the theoretical bases of
language teaching that contains on how the things are done in the classroom and
the reason. It is regarded as a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the
nature of language and the nature of language teaching and learning. Then,
method refers to a practical or procedural realization of an approach. After that,
techniques refer to a way or trick used to reach an objective in teaching learning
process.
b. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
According to Brown (2001:42), Communicative Language Teaching is a
currently recognized approach that is a generally accepted norm in the field. Later,
he also considers that CLT is a cover term for numbers of approaches that
developed in the 1970s to be the critical reaction toward the audio lingual method

and their insufficient results. The previous numbers of approaches are criticized
since they do not prepare learners for a productive in using target language in
many different communicative purposes situations in their daily life. Therefore,
the goals of CLT are proposed by Richards and Badgers (2001:153-154), they are
to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and to develop
procedures for teaching of the four language skills that recognize the
interdependence of language and communication
In addition, Brown (2001: 46) also stated that the development of CLT allied a
number of concepts that have. There are presented as follow:
1. Genre Based Approach / Text Based Instruction
As stated before, the goals of CLT are developing learners communicative
competence and procedures for teaching of the four language skills that recognize
the interdependence of language and communication. Hence, genre based
approach or text based instruction are developed as the concept allied to the
development of CLT.
Feez and Joyce (1998:28-33) propose that the implementation of genre based
approach is involved through some stages presented following:
1) Building the Context
In this step, students are introduced to the social context of an authentic model
of text type being studied then they do some exploration related to the features,
the social purposes, and context of situation allied the use of register in this text
type. There are some context building activities that teachers can apply such as
presenting the context via pictures, audio visual material, realia; establishing the
social purpose through some discussions and survey activities; then doing cross
cultural studies and related research activities; the last activity is comparing two
different texts.
2) Modeling and Deconstructing the text
This stage involves students to investigate the structural patterns and language
features of the model and to compare the model with other examples of the text
type. There are some activities which can be applied and drawn on the table
below:

Table 1 Activities at each level of language ( Feez and Joyce, 1998: 30)
Type of Activities
Text-Level Activities

Kind of Activities
Presentation activities using some device such
as OHT , board, etc.
Sorting, matching, and labelling activities
Activities focusing on cohesive devises such as
sets of related lexical items, conjunction,
modality , reference like semantic maps,
vocabulary networks etc.

Clause- Level Activities

Presentation and Practice activities relating to


the grammatical features of the texts.

Expression Level Activities

Oral-aural pronunciation, decoding, spelling,


handwriting or typing practice

3) Joint Constructions of the Text


Joint construction of the text steps asks students to begin by giving their
contribution in the construction of whole examples of the text type then teachers
will gradually reduce the contribution to text construction as the students get
closer to being able to face the text type independently. Then, some activities can
be applied in this stage such as question discussion session, skeleton keys, jigsaw
information gap activities, small group construction of the texts, dicto-glos, and
self also pair assessment. This step highlights that there are some negotiation
between teachers and students, not domination by the teachers. Moreover,
teachers should provide the gradual reduce scaffolding to the students during joint
constructing the texts.
4) Independent Constructions of the Text
Independent construction of the text involves students to work independently
with the text. Their performances are used to be the achievement assessment to
the teacher. Some activities can be applied in independent construction of the text
in writing such as the writing tasks which demand the students to draft also
present their whole texts.

5) Linking to Related Texts


Linking to Related texts required students to investigate on how or what they
have learnt during class then they link to the other texts in the same or similar
contexts also imagine future or past cycles material that they get during cycles of
teaching and learning. Teachers can apply some activities related such as
comparing the use of text type across the different field, researching other text
types used in the same field, role playing what happens if the same text type is
used by people in different roles and relationship and so on.
2. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning
Richards and Badgers (2001:192) propose some goals in using CLL. They are
(1) providing opportunities for naturalistic second language acquisition through
using interactive pair and group activities, (2) providing teachers with a
methodology to support them in achieving the goals of teaching applied in a
variety of curriculum settings, (3) facilitating learners to focus on some particular
lexical items, language structures, and communicative functions through using
interactive task, (4) providing learners opportunities in developing successful
learning and communication strategies, (5) improving learners motivation then
reducing learners stress after that creating a positive classrooms atmosphere.
In addition, there are three types of cooperative learning proposed by Johnson
et.al (1994) in Richards and Badgers (2001:196). They are (1) formal cooperative
groups, which are established for specific task and involve students working
together to achieve shared learning goals, (2) informal cooperative groups, which
are used to focus on students attention or to facilitate learning during direct
teaching, (3) cooperative base groups which used to allow members to give each
other support, help, encouragement, and assistance they need to succeed
academically. The other kinds of cooperative learning tasks are also proposed by
(Coelho (1992b) and Olsen and Kagan (1992) in Richards and Badgers
(2001:196) such as team practice from common input, jigsaw, cooperative
projects, three step interview, roundtable, think pair response, solve pair resolve,
and numbered headed.

Furthermore, Richards and Badgers (2001:199) states that the learners have the
main role as a member of group that should be cooperatively work with other
members. Their other role is as directors of their own learning. Therefore, the
learners are required to be active and participate during CLL applied in class. In
addition, the teachers roles have been also proposed. Teachers should become
creative designer activities; they have to make a highly structured and well
organized learning environment in the classroom, to set goals, to establish the
physical arrangement of the classroom, to assign students groups and roles, and to
select material. The facilitator of learning role becomes the important roles for the
teachers too. They should move around the class helping students and groups as
needs.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
A. Research Settings
The research was conducted in SMP N 1 Kandeman. The school is located in
Batang, Central Java. The research study was carried out in class VIII I in the first
semester in the academic year of 2015/2016. It was conducted in Saturday, 14th
November. The class consisted of 36 students. The English subject was held twice
a week at Friday and Saturday.
The classroom of grade VIII I was quite large. The white board was placed in
front of the class. If the teacher wanted to use LCD, they should move to language
laboratory or borrowing portable LCD. As usual, the students had to sit in pairs
according to the gender. The seats were arranged neatly facing the front in
directing the white board and the teachers desk. Sometimes, students felt little bit
uncomfortable regarding the air circulation and the lighting.
B. Research Design
This study is categorized as qualitative. Therefore, qualitative research design
identifies the data in form of sentence. In qualitative research, the researcher
aimed to gather an in depth understanding of the teacher teaching practice to the
eight grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman related to what teaching reading
principles, approaches, techniques and, methods employed.
Then, the effectiveness of using these terms in class and problems occur
during teaching learning reading process. The qualitative method also investigated
the problems, reasons and evaluations regarding to the problems that may occur
during the teacher teaching practice.
C. Research Data Collection
1.

Type of the data


This research design used qualitative data. The data were in the form of field

notes, questionnaire result and interview transcripts of teaching and learning


process that showed teacher teaching practice in class. In addition, there were
some photographs taken to support the data.

2.

Techniques in Collecting Data


There were some techniques used in data collection. To gain qualitative, three

techniques of collecting data were done. To collect the qualitative data, interview,
observation, and distributing questionnaire were conducted. Furthermore, those
techniques are explained as the following:
1) Interview
An interview with the English teacher was conducted in order to know the
effectiveness of teaching reading principles, approaches, techniques and, methods
employed by them to the class. In addition, the problem occurred during her
teaching.
2) Classroom Observation
The classroom observation was conducted in order to see the real situation of
teaching and learning in the classroom. The teacher and the students behaviors
during the class became the main concern to be observed.
3) Distributing Questionnaire
Third technique is distributing questionnaire. The questionnaires were
distributed to get the view of students regarding their teacher teaching practice
and motivation in joining the class,
3.

Instruments
The research instruments are explained as the following:

1) Observation Checklists
During the observation process, an observation checklist was needed to record
the observation data. To use this observation checklist, the observers could give a
tick mark () on the aspects that are being observed.
2) Interview Guideline
The English teacher was interviewed by using interview guideline. This
interview guideline was useful to guide me in asking important questions related
to the information needed for the study.
3) Questionnaire
The questionnaire questions would present opinions related to teacher teaching
practice and difficulties from the research members especially the students.

4.

Data Analysis
In order to analyze the qualitative data, several steps were conducted. They

are mentioned as follow:


1. Observing the teacher teaching practice in the class.
2. Recording the observation in the form of checklists.
3. Distributing questionnaire after the class.
4. Interviewing the teacher after the class.
5. Identifying and selecting the data which are relevant with research
questions.
6. Analyzing and evaluating the selected data.
7. Extracting the data to create interpretation

CHAPTER IV
Research Findings and Discussions
1. Descriptions of the Teaching Learning English in The Eight Grade
Students at SMP 1 Kandeman.
In order to obtain the descriptions of teaching learning English in the eight
grade students at SMP N 1 Kandeman, the class observations were conducted.
The English teacher of VIII I and students were observed during teaching learning
English process. The observation was conducted on Saturday, 14th November
2015. The situation of the English teaching and learning process in VIII I was
shown in the following descriptions.
The class was begun with daily routine and pattern like greeting, praying, and
checking attendance list. Then, the teacher gave brainstorming before teaching the
new material. The brainstorming was about the kinds of letter that students had
learnt in Bahasa Subject. Then, students mentioned the kinds of these letters;
formal and informal. After that, teacher explained the goal of teaching today that
is reading personal letter. She said that personal letter was categorized into
informal letter that students mentioned previously. Furthermore, she related the
topic today to the globalization era that impacted people nowadays choosing to
send E-mail or SMS rather than to write the letter and to the previous material that
was recount text. But, she did not try to recall the previous students knowledge
about the characteristics of recount text before moving to the today topic material.
She wrote the reading text material that was a sample letter into the white
board. Then, students should rewrite one sentence to another sentence. Some
students that did not see clearly preferred waiting their friends book to rewrite.
Other looked lazy to rewrite a sample letter given by teacher in the white board.
After the students rewrote, teacher asked them one by one to read aloud sentences
written in the white board. When some students mispronounced and got
difficulties in misspelling, she helped them.
Then, in order to elicit the students in understanding the personal letter, she
asked them to understand the words choice used in the sample letter. Then,
teacher underlined some words. The students were asked to find the meaning of

underlined words using dictionary. Only some of them brought dictionary. Later,
the teacher gave opportunity to them in writing their answer in the white board.
But, only some students stepped forward to write the answer. Next, teacher gave
feedback related to the students answer in the white board.
After all words underlined checked by her, she asked the students to
understand the letter by translating sentence to sentence. Then, she explained the
parts of letter and connected to other subject that was Bahasa subject. Next, she
divided the class into some groups and gave instructions to answer some questions
provided by her in the distributed paper. Some of the students feel confused how
the arrangement of the groups and the instruction. Therefore, the English teacher
tried to explain the arrangement and instruction again. The students started to
work in group in finishing their work. But, the discussion seemed unwell run.
Only some active students tried to finish the given task. The other just waited
other group answer to be cheated or talking out of the given questions. Hence,
teacher monitored one group to other group to make them participating in group
working. When some of students found difficulties in answering the questions,
teacher helped and encouraged those to answer even gave feedback related to
what students had answered before collecting time. The English subject time was
up. The students collect their works to the teacher. The teacher checked all their
works and gave the whole feedback related on what students had answered.
Before closing the class, the teacher checked the students understanding related to
todays material.
2. Analysis of the Teaching Learning English in The Eight Grade Students at
SMP 1 Kandeman.
According to the descriptions presented before, it can be observed that the
teacher had used some principles of teaching reading. In meaning focused input,
the teacher asked the students to read for understanding information given in the
personal letter as their todays topic. Then, in language focused learning, teacher
had connected their reading material to their background knowledge about the
recount text and the personal letter in Bahasa Subject. She also asked them to
guess meaning of the words from the context. In addition, in the fluency

development, the students had asked only to read aloud. Related to that, it can be
determined that the principles of teaching reading had been used by the teacher
however she did not use these principles fully effective and efficient in her
reading class.
Later, some roles had been conducted by the teacher. As the organizer, she had
told the students what their reading purpose also give them clear instruction about
the way of achieving this purpose and the time of conducting the reading activity.
As the observer, she had given the time for the students to read the text after
rewriting the text presented in the whiteboard. Then, as the observer, she had
checked the students answer and asked them to provide the relevant information
including on the text. The last, as the prompter, she had stimulated the students to
notice language features on the given reading text material.
After that, when the teacher taught personal letter as a type of recount text, the
genre based approach were used by her. At the first (BKOF), teacher had done
apperception about personal letter. Then, she presented the material (MOT) and
asked the students to rewrite and read the text. After finishing reading, she asked
the students to comprehend the given text by guessing some difficult words. Later,
she introduced the generic structure of given text. The last activity in class is the
group activity that required them to answer some questions related to the text
orally (JCOT). In doing JCOT, a teacher role in CLLL had been conducted by her
such as moving around the class to help students and groups as needs even giving
feedback. But the students were observed unenthusiastic in doing the group work.
In addition, the last step (ICOT) was not conducted by teacher in this meeting
since the time was spent more by students in rewriting session.
There were also found some problems that could be identified during the
process of teaching and learning reading process. They are explained and
evaluated as follow:
a. The students are mostly passive in teaching and learning reading process.
Based on the observation, the students had the low motivation to join the
teaching learning reading process. When the teacher tried to explain the material
text, they just sat and listen. Even, only some of them gave little attention to their

teachers explanations. In addition, they preferred to keep on silent as the teacher


gave opportunity to ask question or to answer question.
Furthermore, the teachers interview and students questionnaire revealed that
students thought that English subject was difficult to learn and had made them
unenthusiastic to engage in the teaching learning reading and other skills process.
For about 72%, students thought that learning English was difficult and bore.
Moreover, 92% students also thought that they got difficulties in reading.
When interviewing the teacher, she revealed that mostly the VIII I class got
difficulties in vocabulary mastery that became their lack during teaching learning
process. The result of questionnaire showed that 89 % got difficulties in
vocabulary. Thus, 86 % students used supporting facilities such as dictionary to
find the vocabulary.
The junior high school students can be classified as teenagers. The search of
identity becomes the important points to give them challenge. As the result,
teenagers are considered having big capacity to learn, creative, and a passionate
commitment of things, interested in. These characteristics affect the teaching
learning process in class that the teacher should consider in accommodating the
teenagers need based on their characteristics.
Therefore, the teacher should set the encouraging conditions for the learners to
read (4th Principle of teaching reading: Fluency Development). It can be
conducted by first by reading for enjoyment activity to increase their motivation
first. They can read any kinds of reading materials that become their favorite
genre and doing the following activities such as summarizing and making review
about what they had read. After that, students can ask to do efferent reading by
introducing some reading strategies (3rd Principle of Teaching Reading: Language
Focused Learning) including scanning and skimming primarily for helping them
in finding the information on the given text. Later, the extensive and intensive
reading can also be applied. Extensive reading will require the students to be
interested in on what they reading and only focuses on the meaning of the text
rather than on learning language features of text. Then, the intensive reading
requires the learners focusing on language features on the text. Furthermore,

giving rewards in the form of giving prize or direct mark can also be conducted to
increase students motivation.
b. The Interaction occurred during teaching learning reading process.
The class observation and teachers interview reveled that she liked to give
opportunity for the students to be working in pair or group work. She said the use
of collaborative learning was effective to make her students actively in class. In
addition, mostly students liked to work in pair and group to finish the given task.
The questionnaire showed that 89% students prefer discussing to finish the
teachers given task. However, it was still found that when conducting
collaborative learning, there was a lack of communication among the students to
discuss and to finish the given task.
Thus, the teacher has the role as the creative designer, she should create
structured and well organized learning environment in the classroom, to set goals,
to establish the physical arrangement of the classroom, to assign students groups
and roles, and to select material. In order to make the learners to be active, some
techniques in CLL can be applied such as jigsaw and numbered headed together.
These techniques should be implemented in class to make the learners being
active and participate during CLL applied in class. They know that they have the
roles to finish the given task together.
c. The use of media in teaching learning reading did not encourage or
motivate the students adequately.
Based on the class observation, the teacher only used white board to present
personal letter material. Then, the students were asked to rewrite every sentence
on the reading text material written in the whiteboard to their book. The rewriting
session took lots of teaching time. In addition, some student felt lazy to rewrite
due to the unclear written and light. The teacher asked them to rewrite every
sentence since she wanted to make the student better understanding on the
elements of constructing personal letter. Based on the teachers interview, she
sometimes used power point slide, pictures and other media to help her in
teaching. However, when conducting teaching reading about personal letter, she

did not use those media and only using white board. The media did not design
well to motivate the students in reading.
Hence, one of the important components to support teaching and learning
reading process is the learning media. The students will be more motivated if
some interactive media are employed to teach reading by teacher. In addition to
that, teacher can design the media for teaching reading well.
d. The sequenced following reading activities did not fully completed the
goals of teaching learning reading process
When conducting teaching reading, the sequenced following reading activities
were just presenting reading text material, discussing the meaning and language
features, and then doing working group discussion to answer the given questions
related to the text. It seemed that teaching learning reading process had stopped in
Joint Construction of the Text. The individual practice of reading activities did not
conduct (Independent construction of the text). In addition, she did not link the
reading activity to other skills (3rd Principle of Teaching Reading: MeaningFocused Output).
Therefore, the sequenced following reading activities should be designed
completely. Completed Sequenced Genre Based Approach should be conducted
since this approach aims to develop the students communicative competence. It
should have joint group construction step that is represented by group discussion
session and independent construction of the text which is presented by individual
performance reading practice. Moreover, teacher should also link the reading
activity to other skills (listening, speaking, and writing) such as after conducting
reading personal letter, teacher can ask the students to try writing simple personal
letter using postcards.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This paper aimed to describe and to analyze the teacher teaching practice to
the eight grade students at SMP 1 Kandeman related to what teaching reading
principles, approaches, techniques and, methods employed. In addition, the
effectiveness of using these terms in class and problems occurred during teaching
learning reading process are also been observed. According to some findings
found and analysis, the teacher teaching practice is needed to be increased to
make students achieving more successful learning. There were still found some
problems that could be identified during the process of teaching and learning
reading process. The problems are found in the students motivation, the
interaction among students, the use of media in teaching learning reading and the
sequenced following reading activities.
In order to solve these problems found, teacher is suggested to consider how to
implement teaching principles, approaches, techniques, and methods appropriately
to establish the successful learning reading for students. In addition, students are
suggested to be actively participated in doing the teaching learning process that
will help them practice and understand to develop their English reading skills.

REFERENCES
Badan Standar Pendidikan Nasional. 2006. Standar Komptensi dan Kompetensi
Dasar SMP.Jakarta : Depdikbud
Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principle An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy (2nd Edition). New York : Addison Wesley Longman Inc
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. 2004. Language Assessment : Principles and Classroom


Practice. Essex: Pearson Education Inc

Feez, S. & Joyce H. 1998. Text Based Syllabus Design . Sydney : Macquarie
University Press
Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching (Fourth
Edition). Edinburgh: Longman
Hayland, K. 2002. Teaching and Researching Writing. London : Longman
Legutke, M.K. 2010. Teaching Teenagers. In Burns, Ann and Richards, Jack, C
(Eds). The Cambridge Guide to Pedagogy and Practice in Second
Language Teaching. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
Mahood, Kristine.2006. A Passion: for Print: Promoting Reading and Books to
Teens. Wesport: Grenwood Publishing Group
Nations, I.S.P . 2009. Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. New York :
Routledge
Nunan, David.1999. Second Language Teaching. New York.: Cambridge
University Press
Richards, Jack .C & Rodgers, Theodore. S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching (Second Edition). Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press
Spratt,Mary, Alan,Puvreness, and Williams. 2005. TKT Course. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
Tompkins, Gail E and Kennet, Hoskisson. 1995. Language Art: Content and
Teaching Strategies (Third Edition).IOA: Prentice-Hall

APPENDIX 1
Vignette
Date: Saturday, 14th November 2014
Time: 09.00 a.m.
Place: VIII I Class
Respondent: I : Researcher ET: English Teacher
S: Student Ss : Students
ET came to her desk and greeted Ss. Then, she checked the students present.
ET asked me to introduce my name and sat at the back row. ET started the lesson
by doing apperception Hari ini kita belajar mengenai surat, nah di pelajaran
bahasa indonesia ada berapa jenis surat? Ss answered formal and informal letter.
Sekarang kita akan belajar jenis surat pribadi , itu jenis surat apa anak-anak? Ss
answered informal letter. She also linked the students background knowledge
about the last material about recount text. Jadi surat pribadi yang akan kita
pelajari hari ini adalah bentuk dari recount text dimana menceritakan mengenai
apa? Ss answered the experience. Furthermore, ET related the topic today to the
globalization era that impacted people nowadays choosing to send E-mail or SMS
rather than to write the letter and to the previous material that was recount text.
Then, she wrote the reading text material that was a sample letter into the white
board. Then, Ss should rewrite one sentence to another sentence. Some students
that did not see clearly preferred waiting their friends book to rewrite. Other
looked lazy to rewrite a sample letter given by teacher in the white board. After Ss
rewrote, teacher asked them one by one to read aloud sentences written in the
white board. Ayo siapa yang mau mencoba membaca kan text tersebut? But no
one wanted to try so that ET pointed one by one to read aloud the text. When
some Ss mispronounced and got difficulties in misspelling, she helped them.
Then, In order to elicit Ss in understanding the personal letter, ET asked them
to understand the words choice used in the sample letter. Then, ET underlined
some words. The students were asked to find the meaning of underlined words
using dictionary. Jadi untuk dapat mengerti isi surat ini, carilah arti dari katakata yang saya garis bawahi. Setelah mendapatkan arti kata-kata sulit tersbut
silahkan tuliskan jawabnu di depan. But, only some Ss stepped forward to write

the answer. Other helped their friends in their seat iku dudu kuwi artine. Nomer
kuwi artine Ss said to one of their friends who are stepped fore ward. Then
Good ET gave feedback related to the students correct answer in the white
board.
After all words underlined checked by her, she asked Ss to understand the letter
by translating sentence to sentence. Then, ET explained the parts of letter and
connected to other subject that was Bahasa subject. Jadi text ini terdiri dari kita
lihat dari atas ada penerima surat, tanggal pembuatan surat, pembuka, isi,
penutup dan pengirim . Next, ET divided the class into some groups and gave
instructions to answer some questions provided by her in the distributed paper.
Sekarang saya bentuk kelompok tugasnya adalah menjawab pertanyaan yang
saya tulis di papan tulis. Some Ss feel confused how the arrangement of the
groups and the instruction. Therefore, ET tried to explain the arrangement and
instruction again. Ss started to work in group in finishing their work. But, the
discussion seemed unwell run. Only some active Ss tried to finish the given task.
The other just waited other group answer to be cheat or talking out of the given
questions. Hence, ET monitored one group to other group to make them
participating in group working. Ayo tugas nya dikerjakan! ET warned the group.
Ada kesulitan tidak? asked ET to other group. The English subject time was
up. The students collect their works to the teacher. The teacher checked all their
works and gave the whole feedback related on what students had answered. Nah
ini ada satu grup yang masih menjawab kurang tepat harusnya apa untuk
jawaban nomer . ET asked Ss. Ss answered the correct answer. Before closing
the class, the teacher checked the students understanding related to todays
material. Jadi sudah paham ya untuk materi surat pribadi hari ini Ss answered
iyaa, bu Ss answered.

APPENDIX 2
Interview Transcript
Date : 14th November 2015
O: Observer
ET : English Teacher
O

= Maaf bu, setelah ini apakah ibu mengajar.

ET

= Iya mas tapi saya ada keperluan sebentar.

= Begini bu bolehkah saya meminta waktu ibu sebentar untuk berbincang


mengenai pembelajaran tadi .

ET
O

= Ya, bagaimana mas.


= Setelah saya amati di observasi pertama ini, saya ingin bertanya
kendala apa saja yang ibu hadapi ketika mengajar bahasa inggris di kelas
VIII I tersebut?

ET

= Kendala utama adalah tingkat pengusaaan vocabulary mas, kemudian


dari motivasi siswa juga untuk berpartisipasi dalam kelas rendah sehingga
beberapa dari mereka terkadang hanya pasif menunggu saya menjelaskan.

= Lalu saya lihat ibu memakai model pemebelajaran berkelompok ya bu


apakah dirasa sudah cukup efektif mengatasai masalah tersebut?

ET

= Efektif mas saya rasa karena itulah saya lebih suka mengarahkan siswa
untuk melaksanakan kegiatan berkelompok karena mereka akan lebih
banyak aktif.

= Namun, terkadang saya masih menemui beberapa dari mereka tidak


berpartisipasi dalam kelompok ya bu? Apa yang ibu lakukan ?

ET

= Saya berkeliling mas satu kelompok ke kelompok lain untuk memantau


juga memberi masukan atau mengarahkan terhadap apa yang harusnya
telah mereka kerjakan di group discussion activity.

= Mungkin itu saja dulu bu, terimakasih telah diperkenankan masuk kelas.
Permsi bu.

ET

= Sama-sama mas.

APPENDIX 3
SK KD SMP Kelas VIII, KTSP (Documents of Indonesian Ministry of
Education)
Standar Kompetensi
Reading (Membaca)

Kompetensi Dasar
5.1 Reading aloud the functional text and short

5. Understanding the

essay in the form of descriptive and short

meaning of simple

recount with correct intonation and stress

functional text and short

related to the surroundings environment.

essay in the form of

(Membaca nyaring bermakna teks tulis

descriptive tand recount

fungsional dan esei berbentuk descriptive

related to the

dan recount pendek dan sederhana dengan

surroundings

ucapan, tekanan dan intonasi yang berterima

environment.(Memahami

yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar)

makna teks tulis

5.2. Responding to the meaning in the simple

fungsional dan esei

written functional text accurately, fluently

pendek sederhana

and appropriately related to the

berbentuk descriptive dan

surroundings environment. (Merespon

recount yang berkaitan

makna dalam teks tulis fungsional pendek

dengan lingkungan

sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan

sekitar)

berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan


sekitar)
5.3. Responding the meaning and rhetoric stages
in short simple easy accurately, fluently and
appropriately related to the surroundings
environment in the form of descriptive and
recount. (Merespon makna dan langkah
retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara
akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan
dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks
berbentuk descriptive dan recount)

APPENDIX 4
QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS

APPENDIX 5
Questionnaire
Students Questionnaire
Give thick to the items based on your situations ! ( berikan tanda centang sesuai
keadaan pada diri kalian )
Nama/No:
No

Items (Item)

Choices (Pilihan )
Yes(Ya)

1.

Saya berpikir kegiatan belajar bahasa inggris


adalah suatu hal yang sulit dan
membosankan.

2.

Saya mengalami kesulitan saat belajar


bahasa inggris pada skills:
a) Listening
b) Speaking
c) Reading
d) Writing

3.

Saya suka bekerja sama dalam


menyelesaikan tugas.

4.

Saya merasa kebingungan saat memahami


kosa kata bahasa inggris yang akan
digunakan di kelas.

5.

Saya mengecek kamus untuk mencari kosa


kata kosa kata bahasa inggris tersebut.

No (Tidak)

APPENDIX 6
Interview Guideline
For The English Teacher
1. What are the difficulties of the seventh grade students at SMP 1
Kandeman got during the English class?
2. What approaches do you commonly use in learning English?
3. Are the approaches used effective?
4. What techniques do you commonly use to solve the students problem in
learning English?
5. Are the techniques used effective?

APPENDIX 7
Observation Checklists

No

Observation Items

Choices
Yes

No

Learning Process
1.

Pre Teaching
a. The teacher greets the students.

b. The teacher responds to the students greeting.

c. The teacher asks the students condition.

d. The teacher checks the students

Attendance.

e. The teacher leads prayer.


f. The teacher reviews about the last materials.

g. The teacher asks whether the students have any questions about the last
materials before.

2.

h. The teacher explains the goal of teaching.

i. The teacher gives apperception to the students.

While Teaching

1. The students feel enthusiastic during the learning process.


a. They give attention to the teachers explanation and instruction

b. They give comment or ask question about the explanation and

instruction.

c. They give attention to the materials provided, then examine them


seriously

d. They give comments or ask questions related to the material provided.


2.

2. The students feel enthusiastic while doing the task

a. They try to understands the instructions by using various learning aids


such as dictionary and text book or ask to their friends even the

3.

English Teacher
b. They move to form small group

c. They take note on whatever they think as important points

d. They complete their task by using various learning aids such as

dictionaries and text books.


e. They do some discussion with their friends and English teacher
4.

Post Teaching
a. The teacher does summarize the materials given.

b. The teacher gives reflection towards

The teaching and learning process done.


c. The teacher gives preview of the next materials.
5.

The Students Participations


a. The student participate to ask questions

b. The students participate to suggest idea

c. The students participate in group work


i.

They take creativity to do the task

ii. They help their friends to understands the instructions

iii.

They use group discussion actively

iv.

They give motivation each other

APPENDIX 8
PERMIT LETTER

APPENDIX 9
Photographs

Picture 1. Teacher presented the material in the white board.

Picture 2. Some students presented their answer about the meaning of


some underlined words helping by other students who only sit
on their seat.

Picture 3. Teacher encouraged other students to present their answer in


front of the class.

Picture 4. Teacher monitored and gave feedback related to the group


work