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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

As an introduction this chapter presents the background of the study,


statement of the study, objective of the study, significance of the study,
hypothesis, scope and limitation of study, and definition of key terms.

1.1

Background of the Study

Language is the important part in communication. Language is being the


way to transfer an idea, thinking, opinion and feeling. In the world, there are so
many languages and English is an important language in this globalization era
where people from many countries use English as a language to communicate
with each others in daily activities.
English becomes an international language and it influences our daily life;
many sectors need English as the prerequisites. For example, English is widely
used in mass media and oral communication as means of exchanging information
including science, education and technology reasons. In Indonesia, English is the
first foreign language. It is taught from elementary school as an alternative subject
until high school as one of the compulsory subjects. It means that English has an
important position so the Indonesian students need to learn English as well as
possible.
In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking,
reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so they

can use English actively and also passively. Setiyadi (2006: 21) states that
Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It likes the other skills, is more
complicated that it seems at first and involves more than pronouncing words.But
in reality, there are so many students are not able to speak English well.
Commonly, they only have capability in grammar, reading or writing. It is because
English is not spoken in society, so the accuracy and fluency to speak English is
difficult for the students. However, students speaking ability is very low, evident
the result of the data from tenth A Grade of MA Nurul Ulum Munjungan in
speaking ability shown that there are 25 students from 36 that got level elementary
in toefl practice, it means that their score in <150 points.
The effect above is caused by some factors. The first is because the
students of the class are talk active, second, the teacher is not giving enough time
for student to think they only drilling students with theoretical of the materials,
and then teacher used traditional methode in teaching learning process, they teach
based on the text book only without any interaction and use modern technique.
So, the teacher as a model and the student is as a listener. By this technique it is
surely make the student lazy to be more lazier. Even less to speaking.
Improving students 'ability in mastering the English teachers have to think
how to make students' mastery of the English for their own purposes. There are so
many approaches, methods and techniques that can be used by teachers. The
researcher as a collaborator help the teacher by offers strategies for teaching
speaking. One of the techniques used by teachers to improve students' skills in
English is a game. Through the game there are so many advantages for students
and teachers in learning. Students may be more motivated and challenged. Games

provide language practice in the various skills of speaking, listening, writing and
reading. This game also encourages students to interact and communicate.
This study examined students master speaking through games because the
game has been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning speaking
in a variety of ways. Kim, (1995:35) Say that there are many advantages of using
games in the classroom: Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the
language class. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking,
writing, listening and reading. They encourage students to interact and
communicate. They create a meaningful context for language use.
One of the goals of teaching speaking is to improve the students were able
to speak English in their environment, so the teacher can use a guessing game as a
technique to make students more active. Guessing Game is an interesting strategy
in teaching English speaking, an English teacher is able to develop students
speaking. Guessing Game is a game of learning where teachers divide students
into pairs in which the students are to guess some kind of information, such as a
word, a phrase, a title, or the location of an object without actually divulging it in
text or spoken word.
Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested in conducting a
research in the form of Classroom Action Research entitled Improving the Tenth
A Grade Students Ability in Speaking through Guessing Game at MA Nurul
Ulum Munjungan in the 2015/2016 Academic Year.

1.2

Statement of the Problem

Referring to the background of the study previously presented, the


researcher formulates the statement of the problem as follows How can the use of
Guessing Game improve the tenth A Grade students ability in speaking at MA
Nurul Ulum Munjungan in the 2015/2016 Academic Year?

1.3

Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to improve the tenth A grade students ability
in speaking through Guessing Game at MA Nurul Ulum Munjungan in the
2015/2016 Academic Year.
1.4

Significance of the Study

The advantages that can be acquired from this research are:


-

For the students

This research can encourage them to learn English especially in learning


speaking so that they can enhance their speaking ability and find the interesting
teaching and learning process. It can be new experience for them in learning
English so that their speaking achievement can be better.
-

For the teachers

Through the implementation of this classroom action research, teachers


know the vocabulary learning techniques are varied, so that the problems that
were found during the learning process can be overcome.
-

For other researcher

It can be used to be reference in conducting further research to develop


another technique to motivate the students to speak English.

1.5

Hypothesis

If the Guessing Game is applied well, it will improve speaking ability of


the students at MA Nurul Ulum Munjungan in academic year 2015/2016.

1.6

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The researcher limits the problem only on improving students speaking ability by
using Guessing Game.

1.7

The Definition of Key Terms

To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpreting of any terms used in this


class action research, the researcher defines the key words as follow:
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves
producing, receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burn & Joyce,
1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs,
including the participant themselves, their collective experience, the physical
environment and the purposes for speaking. However, speaking is not always
unpredictable.
Guessing Game is an interesting strategy in teaching English speaking, an
English teacher is able to develop students speaking. Guessing Game is a game of
learning where teachers divide students into pairs in which the students are to
guess some kind of information, such as a word, a phrase, a title, or the location of
an object without actually divulging it in text or spoken word.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents review of related literature used in this study. The reviews of
related literature have a goal of providing previous studies and information
concerned with the research problems. It consists of: Definition of Speaking,
Elements of Speaking, Teaching Speaking, Classroom Speaking Activities, The
Principles of Teaching Speaking for Beginner Learners, Games for teaching
speaking, Guessing Game Technique, Process of the guessing game, Testing
Speaking, Previous Study.

2.1 Definition of Speaking


2.2 Elements of Speaking
2.3 Teaching Speaking
2.3.1

Classroom Speaking Activities

2.3.2

The Principles of Teaching Speaking for Beginner Learners

2.4 Games for teaching speaking


2.5 Guessing Game Technique
2.6 Process of the guessing game
2.7 Testing Speaking
2.8 Previous Study.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter the researcher presents of research design, setting and


subject of study, procedure of the study, preliminary study, research procedure,
data collection method, and data analysis. The design of cycle covers planning,
acting, observing, and reflecting implemented in the first or next cycle.
3.1 Research Design
The researcher used Classroom Action Research to conduct research.
Classroom action research designed to solve practical problems in the process of
teaching and learning, especially in teaching speaking. According to Arikunto
(2009:58) classroom action research is an action research which is carried out at
the classroom that aims to improve learning practical quality. Millis defines an
action research as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers or researchers,
principals, and school counselors in the teaching and learning environment to
gather information about (a) how their particular school operates, (b) how teachers
teach, and (c) how well their students learn.
In Classroom Action Research there are 3 words must be explain that:
Research is activity to observe an object with certain methodology to get data or
information which useful into develop quality about something which think
interesting by the researcher. Action is activity which intentional to conduct with
certain purposes. Class is a group of students receive lesson and teach by teacher
in same time and place. And classroom action research is an observation toward
activity which intentional to rise and happen in a classroom.

Based on the model of Classroom Action Research in this study,


preliminary study is first steps to know the teaching and learning problems in
speaking ability. The next step is planning, to solve the problems and preparing
the action. The next step is doing the action research based on the planning and
the preparation. In the implementation the researcher act as the practitioner and
the observer is the English teacher. The main of the collaborative teacher was
observing the activities done by researcher and the student participation in the
teaching activity. In observing, the researcher used observation sheets, test and the
field note.
3.2 Setting and subject of the study
The place of this research will be carried out at MA Nurul Ulum
Munjungan, Trenggalek subjects studied were in tenth A grade and consists of 36
students. This school had been selected as a research site because many students
who find difficulties to learn English especially in speaking.

3.3 Procedure of the study


The researcher used classroom action research model proposed by
Classroom Action Research Spiral Procedure (adapted from Kemmis and
McTaggart in Arikunto, 2010: 136) which consists of four steps, namely, planning,
acting, observing, and reflecting. Improvement of the problem in this study was
brought about by a series of cycles. The figure can be seen below :
Preliminary study

Reflecting:
Analysis
Analyzing the teaching and
learning process, the learning
result and the result of the
distributed instruments.
Conclusion
Determining whether the action
is successful or not.

Giving Pre- test


Observing the students
activity in speaking class
Interviewing the English
teacher

Planning:

Observing:

Observing the teaching


speaking through the
guessing game.
Observe the result of the test.

Preparing the strategy


Preparing research
instruments.
Making lesson plan for
one cycle.
Determining criteria of
success.

Acting/ implementing:

Introducing the guessing


game
Implementing the guessing
game

Figure 3.1: Classroom Action Research Spiral Procedure (adapted from


Kemmis and McTaggart in Arikunto, 2010: 136)

3.3.1 Preliminary study


Preliminary study is important to be done to define the real problems in
speaking skill. It was done before the researcher began the action research and
during the teachers teaching to see what problem really existed during teaching
and learning process. In preliminary study the researcher conducted the
preliminary test.
The researcher made the preliminary test, on 16th June 2015, to the student
to measure their speaking ability. By observing the students behavior, the research
found the attitude of the students toward the teaching learning of English,
especially for the speaking skill.
The result of the preliminary study showed that their speaking ability was
for the research expected. The researcher gave the students some speaking tasks
but only few of them could finish the task and find the right answer.
3.3.2 Planning
The procedures of the Classroom Action Research (CAR) were adapted
from Kemmiss and Mc Taggarts model. The adapted model of the Classroom
Action Research procedures could be seen in the figure. 3.1, the procedure of
taking the data used by the researcher in this study is presented in each phrase as
follows: Planning is a step to prepare the classroom instructional strategy to be
developed in the study to solve the instructional problems (Latief, 2011: 148).
Before doing this research, the researcher make a plan then prepared to do the
action. In the first step the writer or researcher prepared the teaching strategy and
the procedure that will be implemented in the research. Then, the researcher set

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the proposed solution and the criteria of success. Next, the researcher prepared
everything needed to conduct the research such as the instructional material,
strategy, media and the instrument used to collect and analyze the data. Based on
the result of preliminary study, the writer or the researcher tries to improving
students speaking ability by using guessing game.
a. Providing a suitable strategy
In the first meeting the students will know how to play, the definition and
rule of guessing game.
b. Designing a Lesson Plan
The Lesson Plan was arranged and developed based on the syllabus in the
first semester of tenth class. The lesson plan consisted of (a) Course Identity, (b)
Standard Competence, (c) Basic Competence, (d) Indicators, (e) Learning
Objective, (f)Learning Material, (g) Approach and Techniques, (h)Teachinglearning process and, (i) Assessment.
c. Preparing the Criteria of Success
The criteria of success was set to determine whether the learning activities
in the research were successful of not, the students are classified into success or
pass examination when their score at 65 as the lowest grade score on English
subject at MA Nurul Ulum Munjungan, Trenggalek.
Based on the curriculum of school, the students are considered having
mastered one subject if their mastering is 65% or it can be said that the indicator
of success is >65 in the students score. Among the whole member of the tenth A
students who are taken as the subject of the research, there are 36 students in

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class, divided 15 boys and 21 girls.


3.3.3 Acting
In the action phase, the researcher who acts as a teacher implements make
a guessing game in teaching speaking. The teaching learning process based on
the lesson plan. The class is decided into 18 teams. Each team consists of two
students. By using a guessing game hopefully can help the students solve their
speaking ability problems in order to improve their speaking skill.
3.3.4 Observing
Observing is the process of collecting data indicating the success of the
strategy in solving the classroom problems (Latief, 2011: 149). The researcher
observed the teaching learning process and assessment process of the activities
done by the student and the teacher in the class. The activity during the
implementation of the strategy was evaluated using the instruments that had been
developed previously. Next, in the end of the meeting , the researcher gave a
speaking test to know whether the students speaking ability achievement had
improved through when use guessing game or not.
The researcher collected data use qualitative and quantitative data from
every cycle were analyzed as reflection of the conducted cycle. The researcher
doing reflection of each cycle was intended to evaluate, and also to know whether
or not the conducted cycle was successful. The researcher following was the
description of the procedures of analyzing the gathered data used in the study.
a. Data and Data Source
The data consist of the data on the process of teaching speaking using
guessing game and those related to students improvement in speaking as

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indicated by the students mean scores obtained from the speaking post test given,
two types of data were employed. The first set data is qualitative data. It concern
with the teachers and the students activities done in class during the teaching
speaking by using guessing game. The second set of data as quantitative
data of the study was related to the result of the students speaking ability test
administered at the end of each cycle. They were used to evaluate the students
improvement in speaking ability.
b. Instruments and Technique of Data Collection
There were some ways done by the researcher in collecting data. The data
were from collection of the speaking test, observation sheet, and filed note
1. Speaking test
According to Ary (2010: 201) test is a set of stimuli presented to an individual in
order to chief responses on the basis which a numeral score can be assigned.
Based on a representative sample of the individuals behavior the score is an
indicator of the extent to which the examinee possesses the characteristic being
measured.
2. Observation sheet
Observation sheet is assists educators to gather information about how
their teaching is viewed by others in school. In the research, the researcher uses
the instruments to see and to note the real activities proceeded in the classroom.
The researcher use observation sheet concerned with two kinds of sheet, a
teachers observation sheet and a students observation sheet that use by the
researcher during the observation of the teaching and learning process in each
cycle done by the collaboration teacher.

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3. Field Note
Field notes is method of data collection by making written records on
whatever happens in the field. Field notes refer to transcribed notes account
derived from data collected during observation and interviews. The filed notes
were used to collect the data during the teaching and learning process in every
cycle which was not included in the observation sheets. This study, the activity of
taking notes was done by the collaborator teacher.
3.3.5 Reflecting
On the basis of the result of data analysis, the researchers evaluated the
model of paper work assessment procedure, the students paper work which
consists of sample of the work and students response to this implementation of
student paper work. In this sense, the researcher tried to critics the strength and
weakness of these procedure in implementing method.
This activity was done at the end of each cycle to evaluate whether or not
effect of the action met the criteria of success. So, the data taken from the result of
the students post test is analyzed past to know whether the criteria of success has
been achieved or not hence, the formula used in findings.
So,togetscoreeachstudenttheresearcherusesformula:

S%=
n1x100%
N

S%=Percentageofsuccess.
n1=Numberofstudentswhopassthetest.
N

=Totalofthestudents.

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