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Types of translation transformations (option of unprotected

category: Foreign Language
This work is a kind of summing up my training inInstitute.
subject of the theory of translation is one of the most important disciplines inthe work of an interpreter. In daily work
encountersmatter of choice how to provide adequate translation of the communication;stylistic coloring, emotional
features of the text. Forquality performance of their work, translator needed as deepknowledge in the field
of translation theory, and excellent practical skills.
Therefore, in this study was conducted in-depth analysistheoretical issues related to the general theory
oftranslation and its privatecategories, classifications of translation transformations, proposedvarious authors.
Also carry out practical researchWork on the study of each type of transformation on the example oftranslation of
the book
J. Salinger "The Catcher in the Rye" (JD Salinger "The Catcher in the
Rye "), made by R. Wright-Kovaleva.
First chapter of this thesis examines the general theoreticalissues of translation and related issues. Also present the
definition andClassification translational transformations.
The second chapter describes this kind of transformations as lexical.
The third chapter presents a detailed study of grammatical andlexical and grammatical transformations.
Each chapter is equipped with plenty of examples and has findingsas all the work as a whole.
Since the transformation in the translation is an integral part of theinterpreter, the study of this question has many
positiveaspects for me as a future interpreter. I hope that the skillsreceived in writing this work will help me in
futuretranslation activities.
translation has a long history. The roots, he goes back to that distanttime when the Proto began to disintegrate into
separate languages, and originatedneed of those who knew several languages and able to actthe role of
intermediaries in the communication between representatives of different linguistic communities.
Nevertheless, for several reasons, particularly because of its interdisciplinarynature, shape translate into an
independent science only in the early twentiethcentury. With increased international contacts and exchange of
informationtranslation studies has developed rapidly and currently enjoysstatus of an independent scientific
discipline with its theoretical basis,conceptual and terminological apparatus.
When translating from the n language is the set of translationtransformation, the cause of which, most often lies in
the inherent EnglishLanguage vision for peace and the related phenomenon of language selectivity.
Describing the objective situation, the English language may choose other thann, the starting point in the description.
For him, in particular, is characterizedpredominant use of verbal forms. n language, on the contrary,characteristic of
the increased use of materialized action andsigns, which manifests itself in more frequent than in English,
reason translation transformations can also serve as the internal languagefactors such as reciprocity and
communicative structure of sentences.
In this paper describes the main types of translation transformationsie model of how to do the translation,
consider the situationapplication of a particular type of translation, are examples.
Chapter 1. General theoretical issues of translation.
1. Theory of translation.
Among the many challenges that examines contemporaryLinguistics, an important place to the study of linguistic
aspectsinterlanguage speech activity, which is called "transfer" or
"translational activity".
Translation - is undoubtedly a very ancient form of human activity. Asonly in the history of mankind formed a group of
people whose languagesdiffered from each other, appeared and "bilingual" who helped communication between
"multilingual" groups. With the advent of writing to such oraltranslators - "Tolmach" joined and interpreters

written,translate various texts of the official, religious and businessnature. From the outset, translate fulfill an
important social function,making it possible to cross-language communication between people. Distribution of
writtenTranslation opened people access to cultural achievements of otherPeople made possible the interaction and
mutual enrichment of literature andcultures. Knowledge of foreign languages can read in the original book onthese
languages, but to explore even one foreign language can noteach.
early theorists of translation have been the translators themselves, eagergeneralize their own experience, and
sometimes the experience of their fellowprofession. Clearly, setting out his "translation credo"were the most
outstanding interpreters of all time and, although expressedtheir views did not meet modern requirements of scientific
andevidence and not evolved into a consistent theoreticalconcept, yet a number of such considerations, and today
isundoubted interest.
At one time a prominent Soviet linguist AA Reformatsky gavenegative answer to the question about the possibility of
creating a "science of translation"arguing that because the practice of translation that uses datavarious branches of
the science of language, it can not have their own theory.
However, since the theory of translation was firmly established as a scientificdiscipline. Contributing conscious
public needscientific generalization of translation activity, the development of linguistics, the theorycommunication
and other branches of knowledge, provide the scientific basis forstudy of translation, and, finally, the emergence of
serious translationStudies have convincingly proved the possibility and prospects of establishingresearch area to
identify the nature of translation as a processinterlingual and intercultural communication.
should not forget that the translation is a deliberateactivities that meet certain requirements and standards
andfocused on achieving a certain result. These standards reflectholistic orientation of an interpreter, without which it
is impossiblesatisfactorily explain the logic of translation solutions [1].
exhaustive, comprehensive analysis of the transfer is only possible on the basis ofas part of its procedure and its
results, or, in other words,through a combination of dynamic and static approaches. Hencethat the
traditional translation analysis, based on comparisonoriginal and translated texts, has the same right to exist asand
analysis, tracing the process of translation in its dynamics.
studying translation as a special kind of verbal communication, the theory of translation is notlimited to analysis of
its linguistic mechanism. After translation - it is notonly the interaction of languages, but also the interaction of
cultures. Translatedreflected the situation generated by the original text and the situationtranslation. Is unlikely to
adequately describe the translation process, without consideringthat he had not carried out an idealized construct, a
manvalue and psychological orientation which inevitably affectsfinal result.
Currently, there are three models of the theory of translation: denotative,transformational, and semantic [2]. Let me
dwell a bit oneach of these models more.
2. Denotative theory of translation.
Denotative (situational) theory of translation - is the mostcommon model of translation. It comes from the fact that
the contentall linguistic signs reflects some objects, phenomena, relationshipsreality. These elements of
reality,reflected in the signs of language, usually referred to as denotations. Created withusing language code
messages (speech segments) also contain information aboutsome situations, ie about some denotata set in a
certainto each other.
denotative theory of translation defines translation as a process description withusing
languagetranslation denotata described in the original language. Perceivingoriginal text, the translator identifies the
components of the text units withknown him signs of the source language, and through these recent finds outwhich
describes the situation in reality the original. After clarificationdenotations of the original translator describes the same
situation in the target language.
In some cases, the same process is much more succinct way. Translatorit is known that certain elements of the IYA
and PCOS have the samereferents, and it directly replaces the original unit of the relevant unitstranslation, without
resorting to the translation process to extralinguistic reality.
It is important to emphasize that the transfer is only possible because between the unitstwo languages have been
tentatively identified situational identity throughTreatment to reality.
However, the denotative theory has many weaknesses. It does not take into accountSome facts and passes a very
important aspecttranslation process. This theory does not reveal the basic mechanismtransition from the original
text to text translation. It "works" in thosewhen the situation is more or less uniquely defines the
necessarytranslation. However, in most cases, the same situation maybe described by a combination of linguistic
signs of PCOS. In these casesappeal to reality does not give sufficient reasons for selectingtranslation. Denotative

theory can not explain the possibilityseveral variants of the translation of the same segment of the original andcan
give a theoretical basis to justify the choice between thesevariants.
not disclose denotative theory and systematic relationship betweencontent of the original and translation. It does not
take into account the identityinformative load themselves units of both texts. Accessingactually makes it possible to
determine only. As stated intranslated text, but not as described.
denotative theory does not solve the problem of equivalence in translation.
Identity denotata original and the translation does not yet provide (or rather, notalways provide) the necessary
degree of equivalence of the two texts.
There still remains much of the information associated with the choice of languagefunds as in the original and
in translation. Denotative community - itsign of a paraphrase, not translation.
3. Transformation theory of translation.
In denotative theory of translation focuses on the identitytwo situations described by the IYA and PYA. In
establishing the connection betweenthese situations units of the original and the translation is given only the
roleintermediate mediators. On the other hand, the actual process of translationmay be submitted and otherwise:
the translator receives the originalproduces some operations related to the original, and as a resultcreates a
text translation. Actions can be an interpreter in this caseregarded as the work of some system, the "input" which
comesoriginal, and the "exit" given translation. In other words, the basistranslation activities will be a kind of
transformation ortransformation of the original text in translation.
From this idea of translation work and proceedsTransformation theory of translation. The emergence of this theory
is connected withideas of language teaching, known as the "transformationalgrammar. "Transformational Grammar is
considering rules generationsyntactic structures, which are characterized by commonality of tokens andbasic logicalsyntactic relations, such as: "The boy threw a stone",
"The stone was thrown into a boy," "Abandoned boy's Stone," Throwingstone boy. "Similar structures can be obtained
from one another onrelevant transformational rules. Differing form componentstheir units, they have a considerable,
though not absolute, common
(otherwise the "invariance") of the content.
Transformational Grammar is not just relate to one another structure,related rules of transformation. She believes
some of these structuressource ( "nuclear"), and the remaining structure ( "Transform") prints ofsmall number of
nuclear structures or, conversely, reduces to the nuclearstructures. For example, if the nuclear adopted predicative
"figure - action" - "Malchik1 chitaet2", then it is easily deduced from othertransforms that preserve this fundamental
attitude: "Chtenie2 malchika1",
"Chitayuschiy2 malchik1", "Prochitannoe2 malchikom1" etc.
In the general theory of translation can be divided into two directions, in different waysusing the ideas of
transformational grammar. The first directionexamines the process of creating a text translation as a
transformationunits and structures IYA in the unit and the structure of PCOS. Expectedintralingual transformation
and translation from one language to another - the phenomenonsame order and that thetranslation is a series of
second direction of development of transformational theory of translation, notconsidering how the transformation of
the transition itself from the IYA to PO Box, describes a seriesphases of the translationprocess in terms of
This theory first postulated the possibility of reducing totalvariety of linguistic forms and IYA PYA to some relatively
small (inAnyway, foreseeable) the number of structures. It is assumed that betweensimilar structures IYA and fifth
there is complete equivalence. In anytwo languages is a set of units with similar content. Itthese units are "nuclear",
and to them according to certain rules mayreduced all the other units of language. As between the nuclear units
IYA and PYA there is complete equivalence, the translation at the level of these structureswill be reduced to a simple
substitution, the replacement of the nuclear structure IYAequivalent of nuclear structure PYA.
Using the transformational model for the study of translationactivity seems to be very useful. Considering formalunits
of the original and translation as related transforms,Transformational theory thus gives a prominent place
comparativestudy of multilingual forms, among which may be established relationshiptranslation equivalence. This
approach provides a theoretical basisto describe the system oftranslation of specific relations between the two
languages thatis one of the main tasks of translation. Very fruitfuland a description in terms of transformation of the
process of translation. Onby comparing the initial and final forms of translation transformationsit is possible to

identify the different types of transformation in the translation,that equips the interpreter knowledge so-called
"translation techniques,which are widely used in practice.
Nevertheless, for several reasons, transformational theory of translationis suitable to describe only certain aspects
of translationactivities, mainly related to the grammatical relationsstructures IYA and PYA. To describe
the translation work required more
"strong" general theory of translation.
4. Semantic theory of translation.
One of the main objectives of the general theory of translation is the realization ofessentially equivalent to the
relations between the content of the original and translation.
It is natural to assume that the theoretical model of translationactivities should primarily be based on a study of the
semantictext and translation. Arguing in theory, one could argue thatequivalence of the content of the two texts
(including the two textsdifferent languages) implies identity or sufficiently close similarityall or some of the semantic
elements that make up the content of thesetexts. The translation process in this case would be to allocatesemantic
elements in the original and the choice of units PYA, the maximumthe degree of expressing the same elements of
meaning in translation.
Any semantic model of translation, ie theory of translation.
Stipulated for comparing elements of the content of the original and translationinevitably involves an analysis of the
structure of the content, the ability to allocatehim some basic units or components. This creates significantdifficulties
in developing such theories, because until recently,linguistics not?? ylo completely satisfactory methods for the
analysis plan content. In connection with this early work on linguistictranslation studies were limited to very basic
articulation of content original, which must be brought intranslation. The text of the original allocated "semantic
content" and "expressive-stylistic features. The first (referred to as "object-logical content") united all the factual
information and the second - the emotional-evaluative elements and characteristics of units of text in terms of their
belonging to certain functional style of language or genre of speech. All the same, and such segmentation is allowed
to point to the need to include in the translation equivalence of expressive-stylistic consistency of the original
and translation. Nonequivalence identical messages transmitted through linguistic signs belonging to different
segments of the stylistic language indisputable.
Further development of linguistic studies of the content has the possibility of a more detailed description of the
elements of meaning in the original and translation. Content (value) of any unit of language is seen as set (beam)
more elementary meanings, semantic factors or Sem.
Select individual Sem in the content of a linguistic unit is made by determine the differential characteristic for which
the content of this opposed to close to the unit value of another unit of language.
Semantic Translation Theory establishes translation equivalence on Sem common stock in the content of the
original and translation. This commonality does not exist between the set of things, reserved for some units different
languages (such commonality is fundamentally impossible because of language selectivity), but only between the
individual elements of meaning. Task interpreter is to play in the translation of precisely those basic meanings, which
are communicatively relevant to the original. Loss all other things, contained in the value of transferred units, is
considered in translation of unimportant.
5. Translation transformation and their classification.
Main purpose of the transfer - the achievement of adequacy. Adequate, or as it also called equivalenttranslation - is
a translation, which performed at the level necessary and sufficient for transfer invariable plane of content, subject to
appropriate plan expression, ie rules of the translation language.
By definition AV Fedorova, adequacy - a "comprehensive transfer semantic content of the original and fully functional
and stylistic correspondence to him "[3].
main task of an interpreter in achieving adequacy - ably produce various translation transformation in order to
text translation as close as possible to transmit all information contained in the original text, while respecting the
rules of the translation language.
"Transformation - the basis of most methods of translation. It consists in Change of formal (lexical or
grammatical transformations) or semantic (semantic transformation) components of the source text while preserving
the information for the transfer "[4]. YI Retsker defines transformation as "the techniques of logical thinking, with we
disclose the value of foreign words in context and find him n match, does not coincide with the dictionary "(Retsker
1974, p.38)
Currently, there are many classifications of translation transformations (the PT), proposed by various authors.

Consider some of them.

LK Latyshev (Latyshev 1981 p.131-137) gives a classification of the nature Fri deviations from the interlanguage of
correspondences in which all are divided Fri at:
1) Morphological - replacement of a categorical form of one or more;
2) Syntax - changed the syntactic functions of words and phrases;
3) The style - stylistic change in color of the segment of text;
4) Semantic - a change not only the content of expressions, but the content itself, namely, those signs by which
describe the situation;
5) Mixed - lexical-semantic and syntactic and morphological.
The classification HORSES Barkhudarova Fri differ on formal grounds: permutations, additions, substitutions,
deletions (Barkhudarov 1975 P.190-231). When this LS Barkhudarov emphasizes that such a division is in largely
approximate and conditional. Permutations are called changes in location (order of) the language elements in the
text translation compared with the text of the original. Under the substitutions are meant as changes in
the translation of words, parts of speech, parts of the sentence, types syntactic context, and lexical substitution
(instantiation, generalization, antonymic transfer, compensation). Appendices imply the use of additional words in
the translation, without correspondences in the original. By omission meant the omission of one or other words in
the translation.
YI Retsker (Retsker 1974 p.38) writes that "although not always possible classify each example the transfer because
of interlocking categories, generally can be identified 7 types of lexical transformations:
- differentiation of values;
- specification of values;
- Generalization of values;
- meaning development;
- antonymic translation;
- holistic transformation;
- compensation for losses in the translation process.
LS Barkhudarov (1973), LK Latyshev (1988), TR Levitskaya, AM
Fiterman (1973), VN Komissarov (1994), YI Retsker (1974) divided Fri on the lexical, grammatical, stylistic.
Transformations can combined with each other, taking the nature of complex transformations. For example, ZD Lviv
(1985) finds that among the different types of transformations are no blank wall, the same transformation can
sometimes be a contentious case, they can be attributed to different types.
In this paper we performed an analysis of lexical and grammatical transformations on the example oftranslation of
selected chapters from the book by J. Salinger
"The Catcher in the Rye" (JD Salinger "The Catcher in the Rye"), made
R. Wright-Kovaleva.
Chapter 2. Lexical transformation
Lexical transformations are applied in translation in the case of source code is found non-standard language units
at the word level, example, a proper name, inherent in the original language and culture absent in transforming the
language, the term in a professional area; words denoting the objects, phenomena and concepts of the original
culture or the traditional naming elements of the third culture, but absent or have other structural and functional
orderliness in transforming the culture. Such a word is very important place in the translation process, since, being
relatively independent of context, they nevertheless give the translation, the different direction, depending on the
choice of an interpreter.
to the lexical transfer methods accepted include the following: transcription and transliteration, tracing, lexicalsemantic change, instantiation, generalization, or modulation of semantic development.
2.1. Transcription and transliteration
Translation transcription - a formal pofonemnoe reconstruction original lexical unit with the phonemes of
thetranslation language phonetic imitation of the headword. Another method of translation is transliteration - formal
Literal recreate the original lexical units with the alphabet of the translation language, character imitation of the form
headword. Thus the original word in the translation presented in a form adapted to the pronunciation characteristics
transforming the language, for example, Shakespeare - Shakespeare: n form of name should be partially read the
rules of English spelling of sounds (the sounds w, k, n are the direct analogs of the original), and partially transforms

them into roughly similar - in those cases where the n language there phonetically analogs (English diphthongs
become monophthong e, and -- the initial element of the diphthong).
In other words, transcription or transliteration (full or partial), the direct use of the word for realities, or its roots in the
writing of the letters of their language or in combination with suffixes of their language.
transliteration with translation into n language is used frequently in those When it comes to names of institutions,
positions, specific for a given country, ie the scope of the socio-political life, the names objects and concepts of
material life, the forms of treatment to the interlocutor and etc.
transliterated way to transfer is widely distributed and leaves significant footprint in the n literary translation, and in
the original works (artistic, journalistic, scientific). Evidence are such that, for example, words related to the British
public life as a "peer", "mayor", "landlord", "Esquire," or the Spanish, as
"Hidalgo", "Torero", "corrida" and others; words associated with the life of the French cities, such as "cab",
"concierge", British treatment "Miss",
"Sir" and many others like them.
There is no word which could not be translated into another language, least descriptively, ie common combination of
words of the language.
But the transliteration is needed precisely when it is important to observe lexical brevity of notation, corresponding to
its familiarity in the language the original, and at the same time emphasize the specificity of known things, or concept,
if there is no exact match in the target language. Evaluating feasibility of using transliteration, you must accurately
take into account How important is the transfer of this specificity. If the latter is not required, the use of transliteration
becomes abuse foreign borrowing, leading to obscuring meaning, and to obstruction native language.
should be highlighted as a translation problem of the so-called reality naming of national and cultural objects,
characteristic for the original Culture and relatively little or no known transforming culture. In conditions of large-scale
cross-cultural communication are naming are a very large group, and the most common way of transfer to another
language is a translation or transcription standard transliteration.
feasibility and legality of transliteration in certain cases proved by the fact that often the authors who write about the
life of other peoples resorted to this language means, as a way to include and emphasize realities of life specific to
this nation. In the n language included, For example, the word "village", "village", "hut" and many others and this is
transliteration become traditional. It stressed the specificity of things denoted by the word, it differs from what would
be approximately denotes the corresponding n word (cf. the "village" and "village", with one hand, and "village", on
the other, "hut" or "hut" and "hut"). Sample words borrowed by the transliteration of the original literature, is motivation
for using such words in the translation.
Often foreign words are transferred to the target language is to highlight shades of specificity that is inherent in their
expressed realities - with possibility of lexical translation, more or less accurate.
transliteriruemoe When the word is used rarely, or, especially, for the first time transferred to the n translated text, it is
necessary commentary on explanation, and the appropriate context.
However, in the n translations of Western literature in recent years increasingly been enhanced tendency to avoid
such words, which would require explanatory notes, are not expected original - ie is transliterated signs of foreign
realities, but which have become commonplace. In contrast, in modern translation Oriental languages transliteration
is used quite often, when it talking about things or events that are specific to the material or social life, ie have no
correspondences with us.
transliteration and transcription are used for the translation of proper names, names of peoples and tribes,
geographical names, names of business institutions, companies, firms, periodicals, names of sports teams, stable
groups rock musicians, cultural facilities, etc. Large some of these names are relatively easy to
transcription, translation or, rarely, transliteration:
Hollywood [JDS 5] [5] - Hollywood [Per. 241] [6]
Pencey [J.D.S. 5] - Pensi [Per. 241]
Saxon Hall [J.D.S. 6] - Saxon Hall [Trans. 242]
Robert Tichener [J.D.S. 9] - Robert Titchner [Trans. 243]
Paul Campbell [J.D.S. 9] - Paul Campbell [Trans. 243]
Elkton Hill [J.D.S. 20] - Elkton Hill [Per. 250]
Edgar Marsala [J.D.S. 24] - Eddie Marsalla [Trans. 252]
Bank of London - Bank of London
Minnesota - Minnesota

Wall Street Journal - Wall Street Journal

Detroit Red Wings - Detroit Red Wings
Beatles - The Beatles, etc. [Kazakova, p.. 67] [7].
Transcription are also names of fantastic creatures, referred to in folklore and literature:
Baba-Yaga - Baba-Yaga
Hobbit - The Hobbit goblin - goblin, etc. [Kazakova, page 75]
to foreign proper name - be it names or the names real or imaginary persons, geographic names, etc. - More
importance is the question of the sound design of the translation, and -- respectively - on their writing. The greater
the differences in phonetic Strohe two languages in the system and their phonemes - the greater is the question.
If there is a common system of the alphabet in both languages (as, for example, in Western Romance, Germanic and
Finno-Ugric languages) from sound in the form of names in translation and original texts general refuse, limited only
exact reproduction of their writing - transliteration. In n literature - as transferable and original - there is (to the extent
possible) the tradition of transmission sound image of foreign-language proper names. Of course, with significant
phonetic differences between the two languages (as, for example, between English and n) to play their phonetic side
may be only partial and conditional, and usually represents a well-known trade-off between the transfer of sound and
When it comes to common names (cities, rivers, famous historical figures), or commonly used names, translator
guided by tradition - regardless of ability to get closer to authentic sound. Sometimes the traditional n spelling is
sufficiently close to the exact phonetic form of foreign language name, for example:
"Schiller", "Byron", "Dante", "Brandenburg" and the like
Anthony Wayne Avenue [JDS 9] - street Anthony Wayne [Trans. 243]
existing practice transfer rule application to the names translation transcription or transliteration is often insufficient,
if the proper name is compounded by the symbolic function, there is the name of a unique object, or not used as
name, and as, for example, nicknames, that is a peculiar name common noun, because it reflects the individual
characteristics and properties referred object. In such cases, in addition to or instead of transcription using a
combination of semantic translation from tracing. In some cases, the tradition will require different messages for
different transmission of the same name, the same language: thus, the British "George" normally transcribed in the
form of "George", but when it is - the name of the King it is transliterated in the form of "George".
Some problems may arise when translating the names of educational institutions in different educational traditions in
different countries.
Thus, in the American system of school education the word is widely used to variety of educational institutions, a
completely different level and type.
Translated from n, also may have some difficulties: for example, the word Institute in is used to indicate a higher
educational institution, and as for research or administrative administrative agencies, while in English-speaking
countries the word institute is used only in the second meaning, and therefore not always adequately as a match
since distorts the basic concept.
Whooton School [JDS 20] - Huttnonskaya School [Per. 250]
Finally, a special type of linguistic units, usually undergoes transcription,
- This term. The source of transcription, as a rule, are Greek, Latin or English units in the head?? dependences on
what roots lie the basis of the original term. n terms are marked national color, also often subject to transcription
when transferred to English: black earth - chernozem
Duma - Duma, etc. [Kazakova, page 75]
2.2. Tracing
Along with the translation transliteration for linguistic units without direct correspondence in transforming the
language is sometimes used tracing - does not play sound, and combinatorial composition words or phrases, when
the constituent parts of words (morphemes) or phrases
(tokens) are translated into the corresponding elements of the translation language.
Tracing as a translation method was the basis for a large number all kinds of borrowing in cross-cultural
communication in those cases when transliteration was any reason is unacceptable. However, tracing how
Fri rarer than transcription or transliteration.
Unlike transcription, tracing is not always easy mechanical operation of transferring the original form to the
transferring language; often have to resort to some transformations. First That includes modifying a case forms, the
number of words in the phrase, affixes, word order, morphological and syntactic status of words and etc.

In my work study by J. Salinger tracing is not met, therefore, these examples are taken from other sources.
large number of phrases in the political, scientific and cultural areas of practice are tracings: the head of the
government - head of the government
Supreme Court - Supreme Court mixed laws - laws of mixed non-confidence vote - a vote of no confidence, etc.
[Kazakova, p. 89]
tracing usually are terms widely-used words and phrases:
names of historical and cultural
Winter Palace - Winter Palace
White House - the White House.
names of political parties and movements of the Democratic Party - the Democratic Party < br> Our Home - - Our
Home Is ,
historical events of the invasion of Batu Khan - the invasion of Batu Khan, etc. [Kazakova, p. 90]
2.3. Lexicosemantic replacement
Lexicosemantic replacement - a way of translation of lexical items foreign language through the use of units of the
target language, which does not coincide with the initial value, but can be deduced logically.
Logico-semantic basis of the transformation is clearly defined in the VG
Hook: "As for the types of semantic changes in the translation, then as denoted by the object remains the same,
change the name explains the relationship of concepts, which in the minds of the speaker may correlated with the
same segment of reality. Thus, through renaming (semantic transformations), as well as the basis changes in
values, such as, for example, expansion, contraction, various types of transport, are formal-logical patterns of
thinking, relations between concepts. "widespread method of generalization and specificity in the translation from

Grammar transformations in translation 22.10

Differences in the types of the two languages (analytical and synthetic) result in grammar
transformations. A grammar transformation means a change of the original syntactic structure in translation.
In very rare cases the translator manages to reserve the original syntactic structure by using analogous
grammar forms in the TL or a word-for-word translation. This can be called a zero transformation. The latter
concerns short simple sentences with equivalent grammar forms in the TL. She came into the room
. Omission of articles, linking verbs and other secondary elements of the Eng sentence in
translation does not involve the change of the sentence structure. But basically the translator has to resort to a
grammar transformation of a certain type or even their combination.
There are the following factors that can cause grammar transformation: 1. Absence of the
corresponding grammar unit in the target language. 2. Non-coincidence of stylistic function of analogous
grammar unit in the SL and TL. 3. Non-coincidence of semantic structure of lexical units in the SL and TL.
A transformation can be either complete or partial. A complete Tr takes place when there is a
substitution of principal parts of a sentence. Partial if secondary parts are replaced in the TL.
Grammar Tr can be conventionally subdivided into 4 types:
1.Transposition is a very frequent type of grammar transformation. It is high frequency can be easily
accounted for: we should bare in mind the differences in the word order of Eng and Rus sentences, or in other
words the differences of information structure (theme-rheme arrangement in the 2 Lang). The translator
resorts to transposition to preserve a functional sentence prospective. A
match fled in the darkness. And I trusted Harrys instincts.
2. Substitution is a very common type of transformation. Substitutions can affect nearly all types of linguistic
units. Substitution of word forms, parts of speech, sentence members, sentence types and types of syntactic
A. Substitution of word forms. This type of Tr incomposes () substitution of singular by plural and
, tense forms past by present, passive by active . They never Caught (active) whoever

did for him , , ().

B. Substitution of parts of speech. Replacement of Eng nouns by Rus verbs is especially typical. The Eng
Lang makes a great use of so called nominalization (verbal nouns are used to denote actions). It is our hope
that , . She gave him an Emerous Look .
C. substitution of sentence members. - (adv) the fog (subj) stopped
the traffic.
D. substitution of sentence types. 1. A simple sentence in the SL can be substituted by a compound or
complex sentence in ht TL or . He had to duck his head just to enter the cell
, . He stepped away as I stepped forward
. 2. Sentence partitioning (fragmentation ). They road back to Fairview
mostly in silence, Heldi driving until they were 15 miles of New York City and the traffic got heavy.
. , -
15 . 3. Sentence joining. He glanced at her for only a second. Then he
returned his eyes in the road .
4. Substitution of syntactic relations. Both L-s make use of syndatic () and asindatic structures, but
their frequency within the 2 Lang is different: Eng prefers syndatic structures, whereas Rus asindatic. All I
have in it is my 2 dresses and my shoes And my underwear And my socks And some other things
2 , , , .
3. Addition. Some implisive ( - ) elements of the original text must be rendered
in Tr by additional lexical or grammatical units. He Had Taken his hicary batton out of the custom-made
holster he carried it in Addition renders the
meaning of priority expressed by the Eng past perfect form, the latter being a grammar lacking category in
3. Omission this device is just the opposite to that of addition: it is aimed at eliminating redundancy
() of the units which are irrelevant in the context. The government resorted to force and
violence . He joked away with an expression of fear and dismay and The
infinitive 12.11
The Inf alongside with the participle and gerund belongs to the group of non finight () forms of the
verb. The finight forms generally express time absolutely, that is they refer an action to the present, past or
The verbals, the Inf among them, express time relatively, that is through the prism of the action of the
predicate verb in the Sent. The action expressed by the verbals may be symalteneous with that of the predicate
verb, priatuate or posterior. The Inf has the properties of the noun and the verb. The Eng Inf has a wider range
of tens forms than the Rus. It can be simple, cont, perf and perf cont.
Depending on its function and position in a sentence it has dif translation versions.
1.The Inf I the function of an attribute is translated into Rus mainly by means of an attributive
subordinate clause with modal verbal predicate expressing obligation or possibility or by verbal predicate in
the future tense form. The Rus Inf is int used in the similar function. (this is the rule to be remembered by
you , . This question will be discussed at the conference shortly to
open in Moscow ,
). The Inf in the atr function is often used after the words the last, the only and ordinal numerals. The
atr Inf is translated by the finute form of the verb in the same tense form as the predicate of the Sent. (He is
the only employee To Agree to the directors decision - ,
). The Atr Inf is also often used when prepositional verbs comprise its structure and this
preposition should be always retained in translation. (There was nobody to be angry with
). The Atr Inf in some cases can be translated by the participle, adjective and prepositional noun. (The
shape of things to come is shown by the data obtained by the experts
, ).
2. Inf in the function of an object is translated by the Inf or subordinate clause. (Scientists plan to study
the formation of fish shoals, summering flora and soals
, ).
3. The inf in the function of consequence and attended circumstances. The Inf preceded by such words
as: enough, so.. , to such as, only, has a modal meaning and is translated into Rus by the Inf or separate

sentence introduced by the conjunctions , . He managed to obtain this concession from the management
only To Find that no one really needed it ,
4. In the functions of subject nominal part of the compound predicate, predicative and adv modifier of
purpose is usually translated either by the Inf or noun. (TO influence a person is To give him once one
thoughts ). It should be born
in mind that the Inf having dif tense forms is translated differently into the target language. Perf Inf is always
rendered by the predicate in the past tense form (She was sorry To have intruded on her ,
). Cont Inf is often translated by lexical means (The children may be playing in the garden
). Perf cont Inf is mainly translated using lexical addition . (He
must have been investigating this problem for quite a long time
Infinitive complexes
1.Complex subject (nominative with the Inf construction). An Eng sentence with complex subject is translated
into Rus by a complex sentence. Its principal clause is an indefinite personal sentence of the type ,
and subordinate clause is introduced by the conjunction , (All bodies are known
to possess weight , ). There is a variety of Inf forms within this
construction (simple and compound, active and passive). (The experiment is said To have been successfully
completed , ).
The predicate can be expressed by the following verbs in the pas form: to say, to report, to state, to believe, to
announce, to expect, to understand, to see, hear etc (Mush greater economic tasks were seen to lie ahead
. The vestle Shevchenko was reported to
have arrived in Odessa , . ,
, ). If in the original the predicate is in the negative form in translation the 19.11
If the predicate is a combination of a modal verb plus the inf, in translation it is rendered by an indefinite
personal sentence with a modal meaning (this question should be considered to be settled ,
The Inf may be also preceded by the verbs in active voice: seem , appear , happen,
chance , , prove, turn out . This house appears to have been built by
good architect , , . When translating from
RUs into Eng and using complex subject in translation the Tr-r should the negation from the subordinate
clause into the Eng main clause (with the Eng predicate). , He doesnt seem to
know the truth. I happened To be there at that time , .
Complex subject is also used when the predicate is expressed by the following word combinations with the
verb to be: to be likely , to be unlikely , be certain, sure ,
, to be found - . In this case simple infinitive often refers action to the future. The goods
are unlikely to be unloaded today , .
Complex object (objective with the Inf construction).
This complex also consists of 2 elements: nominal and predicate. Its nominal part is expressed either by a
noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and its predicate part is expressed by the simple
Inf. Complex object is used after a number of verbs expressing different notions wish (wish, would like,
want, like, hate), supposition (expect, think, know, believe, consider, declare), physical perception (see,
watch, observe, notice, hear, feel). The sentence with this construction is translated by a complex sentence.
The subordinate object clause is introduced by the conjunctions , , , (after the verbs like
and hate). (They saw the fascist plane fly over the house; They heard the bombs drop and felt the earth shake
, ,
, .
Some verbs require using only bear infinitive. They include the following: see, hear, watch, notice, observe,
feel and causative verbs: make, let, have. His scientific adviser made him alter his project
For - with the Inf construction.
This construction presents some difficulty for translation. It is introduced by the preposition for and consists
of the following elements: the nominative element is expressed by the noun in the common case or personal

pronoun in the objective case and the Inf. It has dif functions in a sentence and dif translation versions.
1.Complex subject. It was unusual for her to dwell on the details in her speech
2. Complex predicative. The most important thing is for him to conduct this experiment successfully -
3. Complex object. I am anxious for her to marry John , .
4. Complex attribute. There is a fax for him to send it off immediately
5. complex adverbal modifier. A) purpose. He stepped aside for me to pass .
. B) Complex adverbial modifier of result. His handwriting was too dif for me to make out
, . This construction has a very wide usage:
both in fiction and newspaper style.
Absolute nominative construction with the Inf.
This construction is always at the end of the sentence and is separated by a coma. It conveys attendant
circumstances with a modal meaning of obligation. It is translated by a sentence introduced by the
conjunction . The buyers requested the sellers to keep them informed of the position of the vestle,
the communications to be addressed to their agents
, . The gerund 26.11
Is a non finite form of the verb peculiar to the system of Eng verb and missing in the Rus Lang. Gerund
combines the features of both noun and verb. Like noun the gerund functions as a subject, object, nominal
part of the predicate and forms prepositional combinations used as attributes and adv mods. Like verb it has
dif forms: simple (active and passive) and perfect (active and passive).
The gerund is translated into the target Lang by the Inf, verbal noun, verbal adverb, preposition plus
noun and subordinate clause depending on its function in a sentence.
1. Gerund in the function of subject and nominal part of the predicate is rendered as a verbal noun or
infinitive. (making these calculations may be a very dif and time consuming procedure
. If the minister wants to avert a dock
strike he had better stop attacking the dockers ,
2. Gerund as an object (direct and prepositional) is translated by the Inf, verbal noun or subordinate clause
introduced by the conjunctions , . He avoided mentioning it for fear of being criticized
- .
3. The gerund in the function of an adv mod of any type is always preceded by a preposition: A) mod of time
it is used with prepositions on/upon, after, before, in. After prepositions before and in the gerund is translated
by a subordinate clause or verbal adverb, after on/upon and after by verbal adverb or preposition plus noun.
After making this statement the minister said he wasnt going to reconsider the decision
, , . In mooning about
molecules make repeated collisions with their neighbors ,
B) mod of manner and attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by prepositions by, without. After the
preposition by the gerund is translated by verbal adverb or by combination of prepositions ,
etc plus noun; after the preposition without by the negative form of the verbal adverb or
preposition plus noun. This can be achived by making the equipment more durable, mechanically and
. This cannot be accomplished without modifying the circuit diagram of the unit
C) mod of reason with prepositions owing to - , for fear of , are translated by
the finite form of the verb, niun or verbal adverb. He didnt dare to make public announcement about this plan
for fear of being criticized ,
4. Gerund in the function of an attribute usually follows the noun with prepositions of, for and is translated by
the Inf or verbal noun. The designer must evaluate all the means of obtaining the desired system performance
- . I that

time he intends to see ways for improving cooperation with France

1. Simple forms of gerund in dif functions are translated into target Lang by preposition plus noun, Inf, verbal
adverb, verbal noun or subordinate clause. The manner of translation depends on the function of gerund and
lexical meaning and also compatibility () of words in Rus. Passive and perfect forms of gerund
are mainly translated by the subordinate clause/
2. Combination of there is no plus gerund in the function of a subject is usually translated into Rus by an
indefinite personal sentence (there is no denying that danger may be averted by this move
, .
3. Far from plus gerund is translated plus verbal adverb, plus finite form of the verb
, plus Inf. Far from averting the thread this surrender will only bring about still tafer
action later
4. After the verbs need, want, require, deserve and adjective worth active gerund is always used u=in Eng.
This contract needs signing.
Gerundial constructionssubordinate clause introduced by the words , , , , , ,
. The
subordinate clause choisen for translation depends on the function of gerund in the source Lang. The
gerundial complex can function as a complex subject, attribute, prepositional object, adv mod.
1.Subject. Johns doing it at once is absolutely inperative ,
2. Complex attribute. The process of one substance mixing with another is called diffusion
3. prepositional object. The designer insisted on the device being tested one more time
, .
4. Complex adv modifier. By our increasing the pressure we increase the force of friction
. Participial 10.12
The participial is nonfinite form of the verb which has the propertied of the verb, adjective and adverb.
Like verb the Part in a sentence has tense distinctions. Part I can be simple (active and passive) perfect (active
and passive). Part II has only 1 form and has a passive idea. Like adjective Part can perform the functions of
an attribute and nominal part of the predicate. E.g. a broken agreement . An
agreement was broken . Like adverb it can be an adv mod characterizing the action
expressed by a predicate. E.g. Compressing gas we turn it into liquid ,
Participial can function in a sentence as:
1) An attribute. Part I is translated by active part with suffixes , , , . A reading girl
A) post positive Part I passive can be translated by passive prepositive Part with suffixes , or by
finite form of the verb inside an attributive clause. E.g. The system must control the aircraft, irregardless of
the strength of the radio signals Being Received
. The accuracy of a particular calibration depends on the material Being
Tested , .
B) Participial II is translated either by passive Part with suffixes , or by finite form of the verb
inside the attributive clause. The data Obtained are being carefully analysed and studied
2) As an Adv Mod Part I and II are translated into Rus by verbal adv, preposition + noun or subord
clauses with conjunctions , , , , , . E.g.
Substituting the dencity (4) into (2) we arrive at the following expression 4,
2, . 2, 4
Part I perf is translated by verbal adverb of perspective aspect. Having established this data one can
compute the approximate result .
Part I passive is mainly translated by a subord clause or by the equivalent form (but the latter is

considered by some of the scholars to be obsalite (). Being inclosed in waterproof cases the
operators was able to withstand high humatity
, .
Part can be preceded by prepositions when while in the function of adv mod of time. In this function
Part is translated by subord clause, verbal adverb or preposition + noun. Any body when heated to a
sufficiently high temperature becomes a source of light , ( ,
) , .
Part I perfect passive is mainly translated by subord clause. Having been read by the scientists the
magazins were returned to the library , ,
Part II with different conjunctions can have dif meanings. In combination with conjunctions if unless
Part functions as an adv mod of condition. After the conjunction though as an adv mod of concession.
Participial complexes
1. Objective participial construction is a combination of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the
objective case and participial. When translating this complex into the target Lang we always change the
sentence structure. An Eng simple sentence becomes a complex sentence in the TL. The subordinate clause is
introduced by the conjunctions , , . He saw the police struggling with the crowd ,
. If we compare objective Part construction with obj Inf construction (complex
O) we may say that the former expresses process, duration and the latter expresses completion of the action. I
saw him start the engine / I saw him starting the engine , . The objective Part
construction with past part is also used after the verbs of sense perception and expressing volition ().
I saw the cases opened - , . The manager wants the cases counted and weighed
, . The objective Part construction after the verbs
to Have and Get forms the so called causative construction ( ). We must treat as a
2. The nominative absolute participial construction
NAPC is a combination of Part and noun in the common case. The noun isnt the subject of the main clause.
The NAPC is an equivalent of an adv clause of time, cause and attendant circumstances. NAPC is separated
by a coma. If this complex is at the beginning of a sentence it is translated into Rus in accordance with its
function in a sentence: by a subord clause of cause with conjunctions , ; by clause of time
, . Chromium having been added, strength and hugeness of the steal increase
, , . If this complex stands at the end of a
sentence it is rendered by a coordinate clause introduced by the conjunctions , . In the Paris
region the strike was virtually total, with 3 million workers observing it
, 3 .