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Toward The Social Protection

Strategy for the Poor and


Vulnerable in Cambodia
Council for Agricultural and Rural Development
Presentation

at
Regional Conference on Enhancing Social
Protection in the Asia and pacific Region
By

Ngy Chanphal, MBA


Secretary of State of MOI and 2nd Vice-Chair of CARD
21-22 April 2010, Manila
ADB Headquarter
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or
policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not
guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.
Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
Presentation
1. Country Background - Vulnerability
2. Social Protection Consultation Process
3. Cambodia Social Protection Strategy:
• Vision
• Goals
• Objectives
4. Implementing the Strategy
5. Lessons Learned
Cambodia: Geodemography
Sources: National Institute of Statistics/ MOP - June 2008

{ Population (2008 census) 13,388,910


z Males 6,495,512
z Females 6,893,398
{ Percentage of Urban Population 19.5%
{ Sex Ratio (males per 100 Females) 94.2
{ Average Size of Household 4.7
{ Annual Pop. Growth Rate 1.54%
{ Population est. at 2.07% Growth rate 2015 16,935,564
{ Total Land Area 181,035 Sq. Km
{ Provinces 24
z Districts 185
{ Communes 1,621
z Villages 14,073
{ Density of Population 75 per Sq.Km
Macro-Economic Indicators, 1994, 1999,
2001-2008
Source: MEF, NBC and IMF (NSDP-Update 2009-2013 (first Draft))

1994 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Real GDP (% 9.1 11.9 8.1 6.6 8.5 10.3 13.3 10.8 10.2 6.7
Growth
{ Agriculture 9.7 2.2 3.6 -2.5 10.5 -0.9 15.7 5.5 5.0 5.7

{ Industry 14.2 21.2 11.2 17.1 12.0 16.6 12.7 18.3 8.4 4.0

{ Services 0.6 14.6 11.1 7.7 5.9 13.2 13.1 10.1 10.1 9.0

GDP per 248 281 312 331 356 402 468 534 623 739
capita (US$)
Annual Growth rate - GDP (%)
14
13.3
12.6
12
10.8
10 10.3 10.2
9.2
8.4 8.6
8 7.7
6.5 6.2
6 6
5.3 5.7 5
4 4

2
1
0
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008e
2009p
2010p
Structural Change of the Cambodian
Economy
(percentage change at current prices)
100%
7.5%
Taxes less
subsidies
80%
39% 38.8%
Services
60%

13%
22.4%
40% Industry

45%
20%
32.4% Agriculture

0%
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

1998
1999
2000
2001

2002
2003
2004

2005
2006
2007

2008
Economic Model – Stage Theories
Gompertz or S Curve used to illustrate Rostow’s stages of growth
(Charles P. Kindleberger, Economic Development (2nd Edition), Economic Handbook Series, McGraw-Hill Book, NY 1965)

Income path after


new stimulus
Income

Income Path

Stimulus
Global Economic Crisis from
2008 – present (2010)

Take-Off Phase
2004-2008

Rehabilitation
Phase 1993-1998

Reconstruction
Phase 1999-2003 Time
Traditional Drive to High-Mass
Precondition Take-Off Maturity Consumption
Society
Overall Vulnerability to Climate Change
Adaptive Capacity to climate Change
Summary of the
Consultation Process
• Process of mapping and scoping existing SSNs
• Meetings IWG on Social Safety Nets (TWG-FSN)
• National Forum on FS&N under the Theme of
Social Safety Nets in Cambodia
• Technical Consultations:
• CCT with a focus on addressing malnutrition
• Public Works program
• Education and Child Labor
• Consultations on Draft Strategy
• Approval of the Strategy
• Disseminations
PROCESS FOR DEVELOPING THE
SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGY
Safety Nets in Cambodia: Technical consultations:
Concept Note and Inventory
‐ Note on cash transfers with a focus on addressing 
nutrition 
‐ Note on Issues and Approach for Public Works 
program
‐ Note on Issues of Education and Child Labour
within Social Protection (tbc)
‐ Note on Health Equity Funds (tbc)

Note on the Social Protection Strategy

Existing and new


Royal Government of support from
Cambodia’s Social Protection
Strategy for the Poor and ADB, AusAID, FAO,
Vulnerable GTZ, ILO, UNICEF,
WB, WFP, WHO, and
others…
More in-depth nalyses, Detailed program
scenarios, costings etc design preparation

Government Program A (supported by Donor x and y) Government Program B, C etc (supported by Donor u, v etc)
Background of Strategy Note
1. Introduction
2. Profile of Poverty and vulnerability in
Cambodia
3. Safety nets in Cambodia
4. Policy challenges
5. Conclusions: Towards a social
protection strategy for the poor and
vulnerable
Trends in overall social
spending (% GDP)

Source: MEF and World Development Indicators.


Vision
{ More Cambodians, especially the
poor and vulnerable, will benefit
from improved social safety nets
and social security, as an integral
part of a sustainable, affordable
and effective national social
protection system.
Goals
{ Poor and vulnerable Cambodians
are increasingly protected against
chronic poverty and hunger,
shocks, destitution and social
exclusion and benefit from
investments in their human capital
through access to food, income,
employment and complementary
social welfare services.
Objectives
The NSPS identifies five objectives and key
interventions to achieve those objectives based
on the vulnerability and gap analysis and the
consultation process in 2009 and 2010.
Some of these interventions are ongoing but their
coverage needs to be expanded or their
implementation streamlined to increase impact.
Other interventions, new to Cambodia, will be
piloted, evaluated and expanded based on
effectiveness and sustainability.
Objective-1
Priority areas and Objective Medium-term options
related CMDG for programmatic
instruments
Addressing the (1) The poor and { Targeted food
basic needs of the vulnerable receive distribution,
population in support to meet { Distribution of
situations of their basic needs in farming inputs
emergency and times of emergency { Other emergency
crisis and crisis support
(CMDG 1, 9)
Objective-2
Priority areas and Objective Medium-term options for
related CMDG programmatic
instruments

Reducing the (2) Poor and vulnerable { Cash and in-kind transfers for
children and women towards one
poverty and children and mothers
integrated program: cash transfers
benefit from social safety focusing on nutrition and maternal
vulnerability of nets to alleviate poverty health, cash transfers promoting
children and and enhance the education and reducing child labor
mothers and (scholarships)
development of human
{ Outreach services and second
enhancing their capital by improving
chance programs for out-of-school
human nutrition, maternal and youth; and supporting social
child health, promoting welfare services
development education and { School feeding, take-home

(CMDG: 1, 2,3, eliminating the worst rations etc.

4,5 ) forms of child labor.


Objective-3
Priority areas and Objective Medium-term options
related CMDG for programmatic
instruments
Addressing (3) The working age { Labor intensive
seasonal poor and vulnerable Public Works
benefit from work
unemployment and opportunities to secure
Programs
food insecurity for income and { Food for Work and
the poor and livelihoods, while Cash for Work
vulnerable contributing to the schemes
creation of sustainable
(CMDG 1 ) physical and social
infrastructure assets.
Objective-4
Priority areas and Objective Medium-term options
related CMDG for programmatic
instruments
Promoting (4) The poor and { Expansion of
affordable health vulnerable have Health Equity Funds
care for the poor effective access to (for the poor) and
and vulnerable affordable quality Community Based
(CMDGs 4,5,6) health care and Health Insurance (for
financial protection the near poor) as
in case of illness. envisioned in the
Master Plan on
Social Health
Protection
Objective-5
Priority areas and Objective Medium-term options
related CMDG for programmatic
instruments
Improving social (5) Special vulnerable • Social welfare services
protection for groups, including for special vulnerable
special vulnerable orphans, the elderly, groups
groups single women with • Social transfer and
(CMDG: 1,6,9 ) children, people living social pensions for the
with disabilities, people elderly and people
living with HIV and TB with disabilities
etc. receive income, in
kind and psycho-social
support and adequate
social care
TARGETING
Targeting Beneficiaries Intervention
mechanisms
Self targeting (seasonal) unemployed { Public Works
(+ Area targeting)
(+ Household
targeting - IDPoor)
Household targeting Small children in poor { CCT (nutrition)
– IDPoor families { CCT education/child
(+ Area targeting) labor
(+ Post identification)
Categorical targeting specific vulnerable groups
(+ Household
targeting - IDPoor)
Household targeting Poor families (Chronic and • Health Equity Fund
(IDPoor) Transient) (HEF)
Institutional
Arrangement
• Coordination
• To coordinate the development and
implementation of the NSPS-PV
• Implementation
• To implement the programs
• Monitoring and Evaluation
• To insure effective, cost-efficient and
transparent implementation
Implementing the SP
Strategy
• Immediate Term (2-3 years)
• Medium term (3-5 years)
• Long Term (beyond 5 years)
IMMEDIATE TERM (2-3
years) PRIORITY ACTIONS
9 Define roles and functions and set up an
appropriate structure for Government/
Development Partners and donors coordination
mechanism.
9 Cost medium and long term implementation of
NSPS and identify opportunities for joint
pooled financing and develop appropriate
joint/pooled financing arrangements for social
protection tasks
9 Conduct capacity need assessment and
develop human resource development plan
IMMEDIATE TERM (2-3
years) PRIORITY ACTIONS
9 Build up capacities for social protection
development, coordination and M+E at national
level (in CARD and line ministries) (trainer pool)
9 Build up capacities for social protection
coordination and monitoring at decentralized
level
9 Set up and maintain Monitoring and Information
Management system for social protection in
CARD
9 Expand coverage of IDPoor to all rural HHs and
provide updated Lists of Poor Households
every 2 years
Lessons Learned
The transparent and participatory process during
the preparation phase of the strategy has shown
to be very effective, giving Government
representatives at national and sub-national level,
development partners, and civil society
representatives, the opportunity to explore in
depth the priorities and options for the strategy.
However even a more challenging task will be to
ensure effective coordination and M & E during
the implementation, and to streamline and
harmonize existing programs and activities of the
NSPS.
Thank You
Council for Agricultural and Rural Development
(CARD)
Email:
card@online.com.kh

Technical Working Group on Food Security and


Nutrition - (TWGFSN)
Interim Working Group on Social Safety Nets
Website:
www.foodsecurity.gov.kh