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International Review on Computers and Software (I.RE.CO.S.), Vol. 9, N.

2
ISSN 1828-6003
February 2014

Randomized Text Encryption: a New Dimension in Cryptography


Jamshed Memon1, Mohd Zaidi Abd Rozan1, Mueen Uddin2, Adamu Abubakar3,
Haruna Chiroma3, Dzurllkanian Daud4
Abstract Cryptography refers to protecting transmitted information from unauthorized
interception or tampering, while cryptanalysis is art of breaking such secret ciphers and reading
information, or perhaps replacing it with different information. The research highlights a new
encryption technique called randomized text encryption. The algorithm proposed increases the
complexity of cryptanalyst to decrypt the ciphertext and restricts them to break the security of
encoded file. The proposed technique uses random numbers added to plaintext along with
encryption key. After applying encryption technique, each time same plaintext will be converted to
different ciphertext provided that encryption key is same or different. Two different characters are
generated against single character of plaintext that doubles the size of encrypted text. Decryption
process doesnt require random numbers but only needs encryption key to decipher the encrypted
text. Consequently, the proposed technique is safe to different cryptanalytic attacks like Frequency
analysis, Brute-Force, Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis. Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy
Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cryptography, Private Key Encryption, Randomized Text, Ciphertext, Plaintext

I.

Specific encryption issues include the original


contents and other secret documents made through
computer related files and mathematically related
message characters [1].
Other techniques to secure contents of information
include modern coding technologies, which has
background of confusion and diffusion theory is
increasingly being used in public networks like the
Internet and e-businesses and various other techniques
types like authentication, data integrity, and nonrepudiation are being developed and used [2].
Moving vast amounts of data quickly and securely
across prodigious distances is one of our most pressing
needs now days. On the Internet data can be anything;
this can b e credit card numb ers, b ank acco unt
information, health/social security information, or
personal communication with someone else. Data
protection has become an indispensable necessity
nowadays [6]. The idea of cryptography is to hide
information from peeping eyes. It is used to secure the
privacy and authentication of data by altering its
information contents to prevent unauthorized use.
Cryptography is divided into two related areas namely
cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is the
study of securing (Encrypting) information, while
cryptanalysis is the study of breaking (Decrypting) that
security to get the information.
An encryption system takes the original message and a
key, which is arranged between sender and receiver in
advance, and creates an encoded version of the message
called the cipher text. While decrypting it is assumed that
the person trying to decode the message knows what the

Introduction

The glory of communication seems new but


surrounded by dierent evolutional eras, transformations
and trends evolved for the optimization and enhancement
of communication styles. Enormous approaches were
adopted and became obsolete from time to time, as new
technological revolutions had set the communication
parameters up-to-date. The whole phenomenon of
information exchange signifies the importance of reliable
and unfailing transportation of data and information from
source to destination.
In this concern of intact data transportation,
cryptographic techniques are used for secure
communications to provide ecient transmission and
reception of intact and undamaged data. Due to the
known weaknesses of information systems, information
has been destroyed and individual information records
have been released in illegal marketing, which also
includes similar harmful effects.
Due to cases such as these, the protection of
information has become an increasingly important issue.
The researchers are working to draft different
solutions for making all types of information including
text, audios, videos, images and other means more secure
especially when information is being transferred over
network.
Encryption is used to make all types of documents
more secure and functionally different from the original
document, so that it becomes really impossible for the
intruders to get the original information and use it for
illegal purposes [1]-[27].

Manuscript received and revised January 2014, accepted February 2014

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

365

Jamshed Memon et al.

general procedure is and is looking at the cipher text. The


only thing other person does not have is the key.
One of the major purposes of data encryption is to
encode data to be sent in such a way, that it becomes
difcult for an unauthorized party to decode the
information without having a proper key. A number of
methods have been proposed for data security, since
encryption has the potential to offer high-speed parallel
encryption of data [7]. In data security, public-key
encryption (asymmetric key system) has an important
role, because there is no need for the key to be sent to the
receiver [8]. In these techniques, the public key is
available to public and the receiver has its own key or
secret key. The security of a public-key encryption
scheme against adaptive chosen cipher text attack
(CCA2) has been demonstrated by Rackoff and Simon
[8]. Different other public-key encryption techniques
have been proposed to securely encrypt contents of data
to be transfer over communication mediums [9], [10].
Naor and Yung [3] introduced and proposed
ciphertext security as secure means for transferring
important information across networks. Rackoff and
Simon [4] provided a stronger notion called
indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext
attack (IND-CCA2), which is equivalent to the notion of
non-malleability [5]. Adaptive chosen ciphertext security
has since become a standard notion for the security of
public key encryption. A significant number of efforts
have been devoted by researchers to the construction of
public key encryption that is secure against adaptive
chosen ciphertext attack. Some of the research outcomes
of these efforts were based on non-interactive zero
knowledge proofs [5], which were not quite practical in
real world applications. Even though the security of the
encryption technique can be increased by increasing the
number of keys but the security of the encryption
technique is still limited by the issue of key management
and transmission. All encryption algorithms are based on
two general principles: (a) Substitution, in which each
element of the plain text (bit, group of bits or letters) is
mapped into another element of cipher text
corresponding to the plain text and (b) Transposition, in
which elements in the plain text are rearranged into
different order to hide the original message of text. Once
the message is received, text is converted back to plain
text using reverse order already known to receiving
person/party. The fundamental requirement is that no
information be lost or simply to say that all operations
are completely reversible. The text encryption technique
presented in this paper is called randomized text
encryption technique. The complexity required to decrypt
restricts the ability of cryptanalyst. But like other
encryption techniques, this technique also doesnt
guarantee to be an unbreakable. The proposed technique
not only use random numbers to encrypt plaintext into
different cipher text but it also use random block size
equal to the length of key, which makes it difficult for
cipher text to be decrypted without key as brute force
need to be applied of not only all possibilities but also of

all possible lengths. The proposed randomized text


encryption technique uses any character from Unicode
that comprises of 65535 different symbols for encryption
purpose, making it difficult and time consuming job to
apply brute force to decrypt encrypted text.

II.

Problem Background

Data security concerns have recently become very


important and it can be expected that security will join
performance and power as a key distinguishing factor in
computer systems. This expectation has prompted several
major industrial efforts to provide trusted computer
platforms which would prevent unauthorized access and
modification of sensitive or copyrighted information
stored in the system [24].
Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data
security. The process of Encryption hides the contents of
a message in a way that the original information is
recovered only through a decryption process. The
purpose of Encryption is to prevent unauthorized parties
from viewing or modifying the data. Encryption occurs
when data is passed through some substitute technique,
shifting technique, table references or mathematical
operations. All those processes generate a different form
of that data. The unencrypted data is referred to as the
plaintext and the encrypted data as the ciphertext, which
is representation of the original data in a different form
[11]. Lately, information security has become very
important, especially in communications, computer
systems, electronic commerce, data storage and others.
Data confidentiality is obtained by utilizing
cryptography, to ensure the highest degree of protection
to users. Cryptography is one of the trusted practical
methods for performing information security.
The majority of modern cryptography algorithms
involve calculations, which have to be carried out on a
computer. Imagine a cryptographic system without any
cryptographic computations on the part of the decoders,
such that the decryption can be accomplished by the
human visual system. Such system can be used where
computers or other decryption devices are scarce and
unavailable. As for the encryption, such system also does
not need complex computation and as such could be done
by the simplest modern computers. In the last two
decades, numbers of researchers have focused on
developing cryptosystems, which require comparatively
less complex computation.
With the fast development of Internet, data
transmission though Internet is becoming more and more
important. Encryption of information from source to
destination plays an important role as it hides or encrypts
the original message so that no one else can get access to
information or understand what is being sent to receiving
person.
Most the information sent via Internet is subject to
eavesdropping as Internet is public entity and
information flow across the Internet is prone to data
manipulation and theft [23]. A lot of hackers

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

366

Jamshed Memon et al.

continuously monitor the Internet traffic to look for


useful information like email passwords, credit card
information etc. Though many websites now ensure
secure transmission of information between two parties
but even encrypted information is prone to decipher as
once hacker get encrypted information, it can be
decrypted by using cryptanalysis which is the study of
breaking cipher text to extract information. Most of the
encryption techniques like AES, DES use block cipher
that encrypt plaintext block by block which make it
easier for cryptanalysts to use brute force attack as block
size is already known to them so probability that a key
will match is possible more quickly.

III.

the adaptive DDH assumption only and preserves the


computational efficiency of ZhengSeberryuh. However,
it is fair to say that modified ZhengSeberry scheme and
DHIES are comparable, each having its own pros and
cons in practice. With DHIES, all three assumptions on
symmetric encryption, MAC and ODH are responsible
for the security of DHIES and it is relatively easy to
select practical candidates to instantiate functions
underlying the assumptions. With modified Zheng
Seberry scheme, the adaptive DDH assumption that is
solely responsible for the security of the scheme is
slightly stronger than the ODH assumption required by
DHIES.

Related Work

IV. Our Contribution

Recently, security has become a hot research topic for


transferring information. Several encryption techniques
and algorithms have been proposed in the literature.
Cryptography is an important and powerful tool for
security services, namely authentication, confidentiality,
integrity, and non-repudiation.
Cryptography has two dominant approaches, namely
symmetric-key (secret-key) and asymmetric-key (publickey). There are a variety of symmetric or asymmetric
algorithms available, such as DES, AES, IDEA, RSA,
and EIGamal [20], [21], [25].
Hybrid encryption, which is also known as the KEM
DEM approach [12], applies a public key cryptosystem
to encapsulate the key of a symmetric cryptosystem
(KEM) and the symmetric cryptosystem is subsequently
used to conceal data (DEM). Cramer and Shoup first
generalized the notion in their work [13], [14]. Kurosawa
and Desmedt [15] later presented a more efficient hybrid
encryption scheme by using a KEM that is not
necessarily adaptive chosen ciphertext secure. More
recently, Kiltz [16] improved on the KurosawaDesmedt
technique and proposed a new approach to designing
adaptive chosen ciphertext secure hybrid encryption
schemes without a random oracle. Compared with Kiltz
concrete scheme that relies on the DDH assumption and
AE-OT1 secure symmetric encryption, modified Zheng
Seberryuh scheme is conceptually much simpler and
relies only on the adaptive DDH assumption. More
important, this newly modified scheme requires
significantly less computation time than Kiltz. Hofheinz
and Kiltz [17] recently proposed a new public key
encryption scheme based on factoring. Their scheme
requires only roughly two exponentiations in encryption
and roughly one exponentiation in decryption. (Here,
roughly two or one exponentiation means two or one
full exponentiation and additional exponentiations with
small exponents.). While for the encryption schemes
based on discrete logarithm, DHIES [18] is one of the
most efficient schemes without random oracle.
Compared with DHIES, which relies on the oracle
DiffieHellman (ODH) assumption together with the
security of symmetric encryption and a message
authentication code (MAC), modified scheme relies on

Security is becoming one of the most imperative


challenges for transferring information securely and
recently has been the topic of utmost importance for
research and industry. A lot of research has been going
on to develop strategies and techniques to securely
transfer data while protecting privacy at the level of
individual records [22]. We proposed a new algorithm to
preprocess text in order to improve the compression ratio
of textual documents, in particular online documents
such as web pages on the World Wide Web. The process
of randomized text encryption is explained below in flow
chart in Fig. 1 to show how an input text file is encrypted
and output file is generated thats to be transferred over
Internet or some other medium. The flow chart explains
the process of encryption. Applying encryption function
using random number technique and encryption key will
encrypt input file. The process of encryption will be
applied to each character of input file separately and
appended into an array and then will be stored into an
output file. The encrypted output file is a secure file and
can be sent over Internet or via any communication
medium.
IV.1. Randomized Text Encryption Algorithm
The proposed text encryption algorithm uses
characters as variable and all other symbols like
alphabets, numbers and other symbols in ASCII code are
interpreted as a character and their corresponding ASCII
codes were used for arithmetic operations e.g. ASCII
code for A is 65, B is 66 and C is 67. Algorithm takes
file as an input and extracts all data from it and stores it
into an array named Plaintext. Size of array is N where N
will be equal to size of file. Length of ciphertext array
will be double than that of plain text as each plaintext
symbol is converted into two cipher text symbols. A char
variable has been defined which stores random character
generated each time during the loop, pseudo random
function has been used to minimize the repetition of
random characters. Loop will run from 1 i.e. first
character in array till N, which is the end of array; each
time one character from array is encrypted and stored
into array of ciphertext until the end of array is achieved.

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

367

Jamshed Memon et al.

where C1 and C2 are cipher text characters, which are


going to generate from Key K, Plain text P and
random number R, for example:
Plain text = 5
Key = 7
Random Number = 3
After putting these values into proposed encryption
algorithm

Input File

Applying Encryption
Technique

Random Function

C1 = K + 2(P) + R
C1 = 7 + 2(5) + 3 = 20

No

And
C2 = 2(K) + P + R
C1 = 2(7) + 5 + 3 = 22
End of File

Use Appropriate
Key Index

Resulting cipher text is C1 = 20 and C2 = 22.


IV.3. Randomized Text Decryption Algorithm

Yes

The second part of paper focuses on the decryption


process, in which encrypted file will be decrypted by
applying proposed decrypted algorithm to get the original
file. The process of decryption is explained in flow chart
in Fig. 2.
The encrypted file goes through the decryption
process where decryption function uses decryption keys
to decrypt the file. Each character of input file goes
through the decryption process separately and appended
into an array. Once it is End of input file array and then
will be stored into an output file, which can be read by
receiving person.

Output File
Fig. 1. Randomized Text Encryption Flow Chart

After the end of loops ciphertext is stored into another


file and can be used for communication purposes. The
proposed algorithm is depicted in Table I.
TABLE I
RANDOMIZED TEXT ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
Integer num
Integer n
Char Plaintext[n]
Char Ciphertext [n*2]
Char rand
Integer m = Key Size
Encrypt (Key[m])
Loop I = 1 to n
m=I%m1
If n = 0
n=m1
Rand=random ()
Ciphertext [num] = key[m] + (2 * plaintext [I]) + rand
Ciphertext [num+1] = (2 * key[m]) + plaintext [I] + rand
Num+=2
End of Loop
Append Ciphertext[] into CipheredFile

Input File

Apply Decryption
Technique

Generate Key
Index

Decipher Text

No

End of File

IV.2. Working of Proposed Encryption Algorithm


Yes

For any encryption Plain Text P and Key K is


needed to generate a Cipher Text C. But for our
proposed technique Plain text P, Key K and Random
Number R, are needed to generate Cipher Text1 C1
and Cipher Text2 C2.
Encryption Calculation for C1 and C2
C1 = K + 2 (P) + R
C2 = 2(K) + P + R

Output
File

Fig. 2. Randomized Text Decryption Flow Chart

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

368

Jamshed Memon et al.

The decryption process is reverse of encryption


process. Size of plain text array is half of ciphertext array
as ciphertext will be double the size of plain text during
encryption process. Decryption algorithm takes
encrypted file as an input and extracts all data from file
and stores it into an array named ciphertext. The size of
array will be N where N is equal to the size of encrypted
file. Contrary to encryption process random character is
not needed during decryption process. Loop will run
from 1 i.e. first character in array till N, which is end of
array; each time two characters from array will be taken
and will go through decryption process and converted
back into single plain text character, the whole process
will be repeated until the end of array. After end of loops,
plain text will be stored into file, which is readable and
original message can be read.

Let suppose:
Plain text = 5
Key = 7
Random Number = 3
Put these values into formula:
C1 = K + 2(P) + R
C1 = 7 + 2(5) + 3 = 20
and:
C2 = 2(K) + P + R
C1 = 2(7) + 5 + 3 = 22
Resulting cipher text is C1 = 20 and C2 = 22.
Now put these values into decryption formula it will
generatesame plain text, which was encrypted.

TABLE II
RANDOMIZED DECRYPTION ALGORITHM
Integer num
Integer n
Char Ciphertext [n]
Char Plaintext [n/2]
Integer m = Key Size
Decrypt (Key[m])
Loop i = 1 to n
m=i%m1
if n = 0
n=m-1
Plaintext [i] = (Ciphertext [num] -key[m])
(Ciphertext [num+1] - (2* key[m]))
num+=2
End of Loop
Append Plaintext[] into PlainFile

Decryption Formula:
P= (C1 K) (C2 2K)
where:
C1 = 20, C2 = 22 and K = 7
P = (20 7) (22 2(7)) = 5
So five (5) is the plain encrypted text, which was
decrypted back after applying decryption technique.

V.
IV.4. Working of Proposed Decryption Algorithm

Experiments

Two different files containing messages ATTACK AT


DAWN and 0123456789 respectively were encrypted
and decrypted twice by using the same key to prove that
encryption technique work on both characters and
numbers. It was also proved that different ciphertext is
generated even after we use same key twice on same
plain text by applying the proposed encryption technique.

C1 = K + 2 (P) + R
C2 = 2(K) + P + R
As after applying encryption algorithm we will get C1
and C2, in the same way decryption will be calculated
from encryption:
2(P) + R = C1 K

V.1.

To decrypt the file we need to have just Key K, which


is unknown so, K will be moved to other side and will be
subtracted from C1:

Experiment 1: Encryption of Plain Text File

Initially the encryption was applied on a plain text file


containing only text. The results generated are:
Plain Text: ATTACK AT DAWN
Key: asdf
Cipher Text: Ff!@ l|Ej+If6gB5B-8X9^dn#H
Each character has been converted into two cipher text
characters. Table III and Table IV show the conversion
of each character into two ciphertext characters. The
tables also show encryption key and random number
used for encrypting each character in the text file.
In order to prove that proposed algorithm generates
different ciphertext each time, same file was encrypted
again using the same key. Table IV shows that how each
character was encrypted using the same key. Comparing
Tables III and IV, it was analyzed that plain text and key
are same but ciphertext is different in both tables.

P + R = C2 2K
2(K) will be moved to other side and will be
subtracted from C2, now we will have:
Equation 1:
2(P) + R = C1 K
Equation 2:
P -+ R = C2 + 2K
By changing the sign of equation 2, R i.e. Random
number will be canceled due to opposite sign, one K and
one P will also be canceled and we will get resulting
formula given below.
P= (C1 K) (C2 2K)

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

369

Jamshed Memon et al.

It is because of different random number generated


each time that create different ciphertext even if we use
same key.
This process improves the security of plain text file
being encrypted.

Plain Text

Key

A
T
T
A
C
K
SPACE
A
T
SPACE
D
A
W
N

a
s
d
f
a
s
d
f
a
s
d
f
a
s

Plain Text

Key

A
T
T
A
C
K
SPACE
A
T
SPACE
D
A
W
N

a
s
d
f
a
s
d
f
a
s
d
F
A
S

V.2.

TABLE III
TEXT ENCRYPTION 1
Random
Cipher
Text 1
Number
C
F
!
`
l
]
E
D
+
]
f
N

Z
B
,
5

L
8
Q
9
U
d
#
TABLE IV
TEXT ENCRYPTION 2
Random
Cipher
Text 1
Number
=
SPACE
P
k
"
O
7
W
>
\
e
@

K
3
W
`
.

P
<
SPACE
&
5
D
S

TABLE V
TEXT DECRYPTION FROM TABLE III
Cipher Cipher
Key
Plain Text
Text 1 Text2
F
f
a
A
!
@
s
T
L
|
d
T
E
J
f
A
+
I
a
C
F

s
K

6
d
SPACE
B
G
f
A
5
B
a
T

s
SPACE
8
X
d
D
9
^
f
A
D
N
a
W
#
H
s
N

Cipher
Text 2
f
@
|
j
I

6
g
B
X
^
N
H

TABLE VI
TEXT DECRYPTION FROM TABLE IV
Cipher Cipher
Key
Plain Text
Text 1 Text2
SPACE
@
a
A
K

s
T
"
2
d
T
7
\
f
A
>
\
a
C
E
s
K

(
d
SPACE
3
X
f
A
`
M
a
T

4
s
SPACE
<
\
d
D
SPACE
%
f
A
5
?
a
W
S
X
s
N

Cipher
Text 2
@

2
\
\
(
X
m
4
\
%
?
x

V.3.

Experiment 2: Encryption of Plaintext File 2

Another experiment was carried out, this time on


numbers from 0 to 9. All numbers were encrypted twice
using same key to show that we get different results.

Experiment 1: Decryption of Plain Text File

Encryption of Plaintext file


Plain Text: 0123456789
Key:isra
Cipher Text:'A'-!V>.j"L<mD~

Decryption process uses same key to generate the


plaintext, encrypted during first phase of encryption
process.
The results generated after performing decryption
clearly show that how two different ciphertext tables
with different ciphertext generate the same plaintext file
using same key. Table V shows how ciphertext from
Table III was converted back to plaintext.

Plain Text
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Cipher Text: Ff!@ l|Ej+If6gB5B-8X9^dn#H


Plain Text: ATTACK AT DAWN
Key:asdf
while Table VI shows how cipher text from Table IV
was converted back to plain text.

TABLE VII
NUMERICAL ENCRYPTION 1
Random
Cipher Cipher
Key
Number Text 1 Text 2
I
i

'
S
*

A
R

'
A
8

I
P
!
V
S
#
>
R
P
.
j
A
S
"
L
I
c
<
m
S
_
D
~

Key was applied on two plaintext characters using the


same key, but both ciphertext generated were different
from each other (see Table VIII).
Plain Text:0123456789

Cipher Text:
SPACE@K27\>\E(3X`M4<\SPACE%5?SX
Key: asdf
Plain Text: ATTACK AT DAWAN

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

370

Jamshed Memon et al.

the original plaintext file, but it shows tremendous


security when applied against these attacks.
The description about the security achieved by
proposed encryption against different attacks is explained
below.

Key: isra
Cipher Text: 5.p!a+1o%a'Q!R*

Plain
0
1
Text
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

V.4.

TABLE VIII
NUMERICAL ENCRYPTION 2
Cipher
Number Text 1
i
3

Random
Key
s
Y
.
r
K
!
a

i
%

S
T
1
R
G
%
A
X
'
I
H
!
S

Cipher
Text 2
5
p
a

+
o
a
Q
R
*

VI.1. Frequency Analysis


Frequency analysis essentially looks at the ciphertext
and attempts to detect plain text from it on the basis of
how frequently a character or number appeared in
ciphertext and replaces the ciphertext character which
has highest probability of occurrence in a message, for
example if D appears more times in ciphertext than any
other character, than it will be replaced with E as
according to frequency table character E have the
highest probability of occurrence in English text.
This way cryptanalyst will replace ciphertext with
characters in frequency table to decipher the original
message. When Frequency analysis was performed on
our proposed Randomized Text Encryption technique, it
was not possible to apply this attack on our technique
because it generates different ciphertext for each
character thats why there are very less chances that two
same characters get same ciphertext characters.

Experiment 2: Decryption of Plaintext File

During decryption process encrypted files were


converted back into plaintext using same key even
though the cipher text in both files were different from
each other.
Decryption File 1
Cipher Text: 'A'-!V>.j"L<mD~
Key: isra
Plain Text: 0123456789

VI.2. Brute Force

TABLE IX
NUMERICAL DECRYPTION FROM TABLE VII
Cipher Text 1
Cipher Text 2
Key
Plain Text

'
i
0

A
s
1

'
r
2

a
3
!
V
I
4
>
s
5
.
J
r
6
"
L
a
7
<
M
i
8
D
~
a
9

Brute force attack is a brute-force search of the key


space and will try all possible keys, in an attempt to
recover the plaintext used to produce a particular
ciphertext. One definition of "breaking" a cipher is to
find a method of recovering the key or plaintext faster
than a brute force attack. If the keys were originally
chosen randomly, or they are searched randomly, the
plaintext will on average become available after half of
all the possible keys are tried.
An underlying assumption in a brute force attack is, of
course, that the cipher algorithm is known. In case of
Randomized Text Encryption a cryptanalyst have to
apply each and every combination of each size, as size of
key is not fixed to decrypt the ciphertext. In this case the
computation time of brute force attack will be very high.

Decryption File 2
Cipher Text: 5.p!a+1o%a'Q!R*
Key: isra
Plain Text: 0123456789
TABLE X
NUMERICAL DECRYPTION FROM TABLE VIII
Cipher Text 1
Cipher Text 2
Key
Plain Text

'
i
0

A
s
1

'
r
2

a
3
!
V
I
4
>
s
5
.
J
r
6
"
L
a
7
<
M
i
8
D
~
a
9

VI.

VI.3. Linear Cryptanalysis


Linear cryptanalysis tries to take advantage of high
probability occurrences of linear expressions involving
plaintext bits, "Ciphertext" bits (actually we shall use bits
from the 2nd last round output), and sub key bits. It is a
known plaintext attack: that is, it is premised on the
attacker having information on a set of plaintexts and the
corresponding ciphertexts.
However, the attacker has no way to select which
plaintexts (and corresponding ciphertexts) are available.
In many applications and scenarios it is reasonable to
assume that in consistency the attacker has knowledge of
a random set of plaintexts and the corresponding cipher
texts.

Strength of Proposed Technique

The proposed Randomized Text Encryption technique


was tested with popular decryption techniques to decrypt
Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

371

Jamshed Memon et al.

In case of Randomized Text Encryption a


cryptanalysis will not affect the security of randomized
text encryption no matter cryptanalyst have previously
ciphered a plaintext as ciphertext is extremely random
each time and there is practically no chance that same
cipher text will be repeated.

References
[1]

[2]
[3]

IV.4. Differential Cryptanalysis

[4]

Differential cryptanalysis is usually a chosen plaintext


attack, meaning that the attacker must be able to obtain
encrypted ciphertexts for some set of plaintexts of his
choosing. There are, however, extensions that would
allow a known plaintext or even a Cipher text-only
attack. The basic method uses pairs of plaintext related
by a constant difference; difference can be defined in
several ways, but the Xclusive OR (XOR) operation is
usual. The attacker then computes the differences of the
corresponding ciphertexts, hoping to detect statistical
patterns in their distribution. In the basic attack, one
particular ciphertext difference is expected to be
especially frequent; in this way, the cipher can be
distinguished from random.
More sophisticated variations allow the key to be
recovered faster than exhaustive search. It is very
difficult to obtain secret key through differential
cryptanalysis because even no change in key produces
huge difference in ciphertext. Ciphertext is absolutely
random and if we assume that cryptanalyst has
previously ciphered plaintext and the key through which
it was ciphered it is even very difficult for a cryptanalyst
to know that whether new ciphertext is encrypted with
same key and it is same plaintext.

[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]
[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

VII.

Conclusion

Randomized Text Encryption was applied on a


message ATTACK AT DAWN twice to prove that
different ciphertext is generated when same message is
encrypted using same key. A clear advantage of this
technique over other existing ones is that it generates
different ciphertext each time no matter we apply same
key, this is achieved by applying random numbers in
encryption along with symmetric key.
While in decryption one just need the symmetric key
to decrypt the cipher text. Another advantage of this
technique is that Key size is not fixed and so block size
of text to be encrypted is also not fixed. This makes
ciphertext more secure to brute-force kind of attacks
because cryptanalyst have to apply all keys with all
possible combinations of all sizes.
If we look at the running time of the algorithm it is
linear i.e. O (n) (Big O of n). It is computed through
analysis of algorithm. Algorithm is linear because there
is only one loop in the algorithm costs O (n) and all other
statements are without loops costs O (1). As length of
random numbers is finite in computer thats why
algorithm is linear and costs O (n), this is comparatively
much better than many algorithms.

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

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Dr. Adamu Abubakar is a Postdoctoral Fellow


in Information System department at
International Islamic University Malaysia. He
received his PhD in Information Technology
from International Islamic University Malaysia.
His current research interest is on Remote
Timing Attacks.
Haruna Chiromis a PhD Student in Artificial
Intelligence department at University of
Malaya. He received his MSc in Bayero
University Kano Nigeria. His current research
interest is on Neural Networks.

Dzurllkanian Daud is currently Associate


professor in Faculty of Geo Information and
Real Estate. Mr. Daud did his bachelors in
property management from Herriot-Watt
University, United Kingdom and masters in
computer Science from UniversitiTeknologi
Malaysia. His Research interest includes
database management and modernization of real

Authors Information
1

Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing,


UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia.

estate.

2, 3

Kulliah of Information Communication Technology,International


Islamic University, Malaysia.
4

Faculty of Geo Information and Real Estate, UniversitiTeknologi


Malaysia.
Jamshed Memon is a PhD (Information
Systems) student at UniversitiTeknologi
Malaysia. Mr. Memon has received his BSc and
MSc in Computer Science from Isra University
Pakistan. His second masters isinComputer
Systems and Networking from University of
Greenwich, London in. Mr. Memon is author of
over 10 international research publications. His
research interests include Information Security and Green IT. He has
over 6 years of industry experience at various levels.
Abd Rozan Mohd Zaidi (Dr.) has received his
B.Sc. (Hons.) in Physics & Comp w. Ed., and
M.Sc. IT from UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia
(UTM), Malaysia. He has received a Doctorate
of Engineering (D.Eng) in Information Science
& Control Engineering from Nagaoka
University of Technology, Japan. His research
interests are IT Project Management, Profiling
and
Data
Mining
utilizing
Multivariate
Approach
and
Technopreneurship. He holds a Radio Amateur Licence, with callsign
9W2DZD.
Dr. Mueen Uddin is Senior Lecturer at Asia
Pacific University KL Malaysia. He has his
PhD from UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia UTM
in 2012. His research interests include Green IT,
Energy Efficient data centers, Green Metrics,
Global Warming Effects, Virtualization, Cloud
Computing. Dr. Mueen has BS & MS in
Computer Science from Isra University Pakistan
with specialization in Information Networks. Dr. Mueen has published
more than 25 international Journal Papers in indexed and reputed
journals.

Copyright 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Computers and Software, Vol. 9, N. 2

373