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Internal

WCDMA Radio Interface


Physical Layer
ISSUE 1.0

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The physical layer offers data transport services


to higher layers.
The access to these services is through the use
of transport channels via the MAC sub-layer.
The physical layer is expected to perform the
following functions in order to provide the data
transport service, for example Modulation and
spreading/demodulation and despreading, Inner loop power control etc.

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References
TS 25.104 UTRA (BS) FDD Radio Transmission and
Reception
TS 25.201 Physical layer-general description
TS 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of
transport channels onto physical channels (FDD)
TS 25.212 Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)
TS 25.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD)
TS 25.214 Physical layer procedures (FDD)
TS 25.308 UTRA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA); Overall description; Stage 2
TR 25.877 High Speed Downlink Packet Acces (HSDPA) Iub/Iur Protocol Aspects
TR 25.858 Physical layer aspects of UTRA High Speed
Downlink Packet Access

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Upon completion of this course, you will be


able to:
Outline radio interface protocol
Architecture
Describe key technology of UMTS
physical layer
Describe UMTS physical layer procedures

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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview


Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology
Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure
Chapter 4 Physical Layer Procedures

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UTRAN Protocol Structure


Core Network
Iu

Iu
RNS

RNS
Iur

RNC
Iub
NodeB

Iub

Iub
NodeB

NodeB

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RNC

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Iub
NodeB

Radio Interface Protocol Structure


GC

Nt

DC

Duplication avoidance
Nt

GC

DC

C-plane signaling

U-plane information
control

L3
Radio
Bearers

control
control

control

control

RRC

UuS boundary

PDCP

RLC

RLC

RLC

PDCP

RLC
RLC

RLC

L2/PDCP

RLC

BMC

L2/BMC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical
Channels

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MAC

L2/MAC

PHY

Transport
Channels
L1

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Radio Interface Protocol Structure


GC

Nt

DC

Duplication avoidance
Nt

GC

DC

C-plane signaling

U-plane information
control

L3
Radio
Bearers

control
control

control

control

RRC

UuS boundary

PDCP

RLC

RLC

RLC

PDCP

RLC
RLC

RLC

L2/PDCP

RLC

BMC

L2/BMC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical
Channels

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MAC

L2/MAC

PHY

Transport
Channels
L1

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Radio Interface Protocol Structure


GC

Nt

DC

Duplication avoidance
Nt

GC

DC

C-plane signaling

U-plane information
control

L3
Radio
Bearers

control
control

control

control

RRC

UuS boundary

PDCP

RLC

RLC

RLC

PDCP

RLC
RLC

RLC

L2/PDCP

RLC

BMC

L2/BMC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical
Channels

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MAC

L2/MAC

PHY

Transport
Channels
L1

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Radio Interface Protocol Structure


GC

Nt

DC

Duplication avoidance
Nt

GC

DC

C-plane signaling

U-plane information
control

L3
Radio
Bearers

control
control

control

control

RRC

UuS boundary

PDCP

RLC

RLC

RLC

PDCP

RLC
RLC

RLC

L2/PDCP

RLC

BMC

L2/BMC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical
Channels

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MAC

L2/MAC

PHY

Transport
Channels
L1

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Spreading Technology
Spreading consists of 2 steps
Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips. Thus
increasing the bandwidth of the signal, The number of chips per data
symbol is called the Spreading FactorSF.The operation is done by
multiplying with OVSF code.
Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal .

Chips after
spreading

Data bit

OVSF
code

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Scrambling
code

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Channelization Code
OVSF code is used as channelization code
The channelization codes are uniquely described as Cch,SF,k, where SF is the
spreading factor of the code and k is the code number, 0

C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
C ch,2,0 = (1,1)
C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
C ch,1,0 = (1)
C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
C ch,2,1 = (1,-1)
C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

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SF = 4
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SF-1.

Scrambling Code
Scrambling code: GOLD sequence.
Scrambling code period: 10ms ,or 38400 chips.
The code used for scrambling of the uplink DPCCH/DPDCH may be of
either long or short type, There are 224 long and 224 short uplink
scrambling codes. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by higher
layers.
For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling
codes can be generated. scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used.

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Primary Scrambling Code


Primary
scrambling code 0
Secondary
scrambling code 1

Set 1

Secondary
scrambling code 15

Set 511

Scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels

Set 0

Primary
scrambling code
511
16

8192 scrambling
codes

512 sets

Secondary
scrambling code
511
16
15

A primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes are


included in a set.
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Primary Scrambling Code Group


Primary
scrambling code 0
Primary
scrambling code 1

Group 1

Primary scrambling
code 15

Group 63

Primary
scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels

Group 0

Primary
scrambling code
8*63

Primary
scrambling code
63*8
7
512 primary
scrambling codes

64 primary scrambling
code groups

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Each group consists of 8


primary scrambling codes

Page 14

Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview


Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology
Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure
Chapter 4 Physical Layer Procedures

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Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology


Section 1 Physical Channel Structure and Functions
Section 2 Channel Mapping

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WCDMA radio interface has three kinds of channels


In terms of protocol layer, the WCDMA radio interface has three
channels: Physical channel, transport channel and logical channel.
Logical channel: Carrying user services directly. According to the types
of the carried services, it is divided into two types: Control channel and
service channel.
Transport channel: It is the interface of radio interface layer 2 and
physical layer, and is the service provided for MAC layer by the
physical layer. According to whether the information transported is
dedicated information for a user or common information for all users, it
is divided into dedicated channel and common channel.
Physical channel: It is the ultimate embodiment of all kinds of
information when they are transmitted on radio interfaces. Each kind of
channel which uses dedicated carrier frequency, code (spreading code
and scramble) and carrier phase (I or Q) can be regarded as a
dedicated channel.
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Logical Channel
Dedicated traffic channel

(DTCH)

Common traffic channel

(CTCH)

Broadcast control channel

(BCCH)

Paging control channel

(PCCH)

Dedicate control channel

(DCCH)

Common control channel

(CCCH)

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Traffic channel

Control channel

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Transport Channel
Dedicated Channel

(DCH)

-DCH is an uplink or downlink channel

Broadcast channel

(BCH)

Forward access channel

(FACH)

Paging channel

(PCH)

Random access channel

(RACH)

Dedicated transport
channel

Common transport
channel

High-speed downlink shared channel


(HS-DSCH)

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Physical Channel
A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, code
(scrambling code, spreading code) and relative phase.
In UMTS system, the different code (scrambling code or spreading
code) can distinguish the channels.
Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots, and each radio
frame consists of 15 time slots.
Two types of physical channel:UL and DL
Physical Channel

Frequency, Code, Phase

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Downlink Physical Channel


Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel

(Downlink DPCH)
Downlink Common Physical Channel

Common Control Physical Channel


(CCPCH)
Synchronization Channel

(SCH)

Paging Indicator Channel

(PICH)

Acquisition Indicator Channel

(AICH)

Downlink
Physical Channel

Common Pilot Channel


(CPICH)
High-Speed Packet Downlink Shared
Channel (HS-PDSCH)
High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HSSCCH)
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Uplink Physical Channel


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel
Uplink Dedicated Physical Data
Channel (Uplink DPDCH)
Uplink Dedicated Physical Control
Channel (Uplink DPCCH)
High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel
(HS-DPCCH)

Uplink Physical
Channel

Uplink Common Physical Channel


Physical Random Access Channel
(PRACH)

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Function of physical channel


Cell broadcast channels
P-CPICH-Primary
P-CPICH-Primary Common
Common Pilot
Pilot Channel
Channel
S-CPICH-Secondary
S-CPICH-Secondary Common
Common Pilot
Pilot Channel
Channel
P-CCPCH-Primary
P-CCPCH-Primary Common
Common Control
Control Physical
Physical Channel
Channel
SCHSynchronisation
Channel
SCH- Synchronisation Channel

Paging channels
S-CCPCH-Secondary
S-CCPCH-Secondary Common
Common Control
Control Physical
Physical Channel
Channel
PICH-Paging
PICH-Paging Indicator
Indicator Channel
Channel

Random access channels


Node B

PRACH-Physical
PRACH-Physical Random
Random Access
Access Channel
Channel

UE

AICH-Acquisition
AICH-Acquisition Indicator
Indicator Channel
Channel

Dedicated channels
DPDCH-Dedicated
DPDCH-Dedicated Physical
Physical Data
Data Channel
Channel
DPCCH-Dedicated
DPCCH-Dedicated Physical
Physical Control
Control Channel
Channel

High speed downlink share channels


HS-SCCH-High
HS-SCCH-High Speed
Speed Share
Share Control
Control Channel
Channel
HS-PDSCH-High
HS-PDSCH-High Speed
Speed Physical
Physical Downlink
Downlink Share
Share Channel
Channel
HS-DPCCH-High
HS-DPCCH-High Speed
Speed Dedicated
Dedicated Physical
Physical Control
Control Channel
Channel

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Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH)


Used for cell search
Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH.
SCH is transmitted at the first 256 chips
of every time slot.
PSC is transmitted repeatedly in each
time slot.
Slot #0

Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH

SSC specifies the scrambling code


groups of the cell.
SSC is chosen from a set of 16
different codes of length 256, there
are altogether 64 primary scrambling
code groups.

Slot #1

ac p

ac p

ac si,0

ac si,1

Slot #14

ac p
acsi,14

256 chips
2560 chips
One 10 ms SCH radio frame

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Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH)


Scrambling
Code Group
Group 0
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4

Group 61
Group 62
Group 63

#0

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

slot number
#6 #7 #8

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
2
2
2

2
5
1
3
16

8
16
15
1
6

9
7
5
8
6

10
3
5
6
11

15
14
12
5
15

8
16
16
2
5

10
3
6
5
12

16
10
11
8
1

2
5
2
4
15

7
12
16
4
12

15
14
11
6
16

7
12
15
3
11

16
10
12
7
2

9
9
9

10
11
12

13
12
10

10
15
15

11
12
13

15
9
14

15
13
9

9
13
14

16
11
15

12
14
11

14
10
11

13
16
13

16
15
12

14
14
16

11
16
10

Slot # ?

Slot #?

Slot #?

P-SCH

acp

acp

acp

S-SCH

16

11

#9

#10 #11 #12 #13 #14

..

Group 2
Slot 7, 8, 9

256 chips
2560 chips

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Common Pilot Channel(CPICH)


Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Carries pre-defined sequence.
Fixed rate 30Kbps SF=256
Primary CPICH
Uses the fixed channel code -- Cch,256,0
Scrambled by the primary scrambling code
Only one CPICH per cell
Broadcast over the entire cell
The P-CPICH is a phase reference for SCH, Primary CCPCH, AICH, PICH.
By default, it is also a phase reference for downlink DPCH.
Pre-defined symbol sequence
Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits

Slot #0

Slot # i

Slot #1

Slot #14

1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms

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Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH)


Fixed rate, fixed OVSF code30kbpsCch,256,1
Carry BCH transport channel
The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot.
Only data part
STTD transmit diversity may be used
256 chips
PCCPCH Data

SCH

18 bits
T

Slot #0

Slot #1

slot

= 2560 chips,20 bits

Slot #i

Slot #14

1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

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Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)


PICH is a fixed-rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry the Paging Indicators (PI).
Frame structure of PICH: one frame of length 10ms consists of 300 bits of which 288 bits
are used to carry paging indicators and the remaining 12 bits are not defined.
N paging indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} in each PICH frame, N=18, 36, 72, or 144.
If a paging indicator in a certain frame is set to 1, it indicates that UEs associated with
this paging indicator should read the corresponding frame of the associated S-CCPCH.

288 bits for paging indication


b0 b1

12 bits (undefined)
b 287 b 288

One radio frame (10 ms)

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b 299

Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH)


Carry FACH and PCH.

SF =256 - 4.

Two kinds of SCCPCH: with or without


TFCI. UTRAN decides if a TFCI should
be transmitted, UE must support TFCI.

FACH and PCH can be mapped to the


same or separate SCCPCHs. If

Possible rates are the same as that of


downlink DPCH

can be mapped to the same fame.

Data

TFCI
N TFCI bits

Pilot
N Pilot bits

N Data bits
T slot = 2560 chips,

Slot #0

mapped to the same S-CCPCH, they

Slot #1

20*2 k bits (k=0..6)

Slot #i

Slot #14

1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

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Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)


The random-access transmission data consists of two parts:
One or several preambleseach preamble is of length 4096chips and consists
of 256 repetitions of a signature whose length is 16 chips16 available
signatures totally
10 or 20ms message part
Which signature is available and the length of message part are determined by
higher layer

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

4096 chips

Preamble

Message part
10 ms (one radio frame)

Preamble

Preamble

4096 chips

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Message part
20 ms (two radio frames)

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PRACH Access Timeslot Structure


radio frame: 10 ms

radio frame: 10 ms

5120 chips
#1
Access slot #0
Access slot #1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

Random Access Transmission


Random Access Transmission

Access slot #7

Random Access Transmission

Access slot #8

Random Access Transmission

Access slot #14

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PRACH Message Structure


Data
N data bits

Data

Pilot
N Pilot bits

Control

TFCI
N TFCI bits

T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k=0..3)

Slot # 0

Slot # 1

Slot # i

Slot # 14

Message part radio frame TRACH = 10 ms

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Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)


Frame structure of AICHtwo frames, 20 ms consists of a repeated
sequence of 15 consecutive AS, each of length 20 symbols(5120 chips).
Each time slot consists of two partsan Acquisition-Indicator(AI) and a
part of duration 1024chips with no transmission.
Acquisition-Indicator AI have 16 kinds of Signature.
CPICH is the phase reference of AICH.
AI part
a0 a1 a2

AS #14

AS #0

AS #1

Unused part
a30 a31 a32 a33

a38 a39

AS #i

AS #14

20 ms

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AS #0

Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH)


DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame
DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer
DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1
Each frame is 10ms and consists of 15 time slots, each time slot
consists of 2560 chips
The spreading factor of DPDCH is from 4 to 256
The spreading factor of DPDCH and DPCCH can be different in the
same Layer 1 connection
Each DPCCH time slot consists of Pilot, TFCIFBITPC

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Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH

Data
N databits

DPDCH

DPCCH

Pilot
Npilot bits

TFCI
NTFCI bits

FBI
NFBI bits

TPC
NTPC bits

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10 k *2 bits (k=0..6)

Slot #0 Slot #1

Slot #i

Slot #14

1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

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Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH)


DCH consists of dedicated data and control information.
Control information includesPilotTPCTFCI(optional).
The spreading factor of DCH can be from 512 to 4,and can be
changed during connection
DPDCH and DPCCH is time multiplexed.

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Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH

DPCCH

DPDCH
Data1
Ndata1 bits

TPC
NTPC bits

TFCI
NTFCI bits

DPDCH

DPCCH

Data2
Ndata2 bits

Pilot
Npilot bits

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k=0..7)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i

Slot #14

One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

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High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH)


Bear service data and layer2 overhead bits mapped from the transport
channel
SF=16, can be configured several channels to increase data service

Data
N Data 1 bits
T slot = 2560 chips, M*10*2 k bits (k=4)

Slot #0

Slot#1

Slot #2

1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms

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High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)


Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE ,such as modulation
scheme (1 bit) ,channelization code set (7 bit), transport Block size
(6bit),HARQ process number (3bit), redundancy version (3bit), new
data indicator (1bit), Ue identity (16bit)
HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps, SF=128) downlink physical channel
used to carry downlink signalling related to HS-DSCH transmission

Data
N Data 1bits
T slot = 2560 chips, 40 bits

Slot #0

Slot#1

Slot #2

1 subframe: T f = 2 ms

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High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH )

HS-DPCCH carries information to acknowledge downlink transport


blocks and feedback information to the system for scheduling and link
adaptation of transport block
CQI and ACK/NACK
Physical Channel ,Uplink, SF=256,power control
T

s lo t

2T

= 2 5 6 0 c h ip s

s lo t

H A R Q -A C K

= 5 1 2 0 ch ip s
CQI

O n e H S -D P C C H s u b fra m e (2 m s )

S u b fra m e # i

S u b fra m e # 0

O n e ra d io fra m e T

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S u b fra m e # 4

= 10 ms

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Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology


Section 1 Physical Channel Structure and Functions
Section 2 Channel Mapping

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Mapping Between Channels


Logical channels

Transport channels

Physical channels

BCH

P-CCPCH

FACH

S-CCPCH

PCCH

PCH

S-CCPCH

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

FACH

S-CCPCH

FACH

S-CCPCH

DCH

DPDCH

HS-DSCH

HS-PDSCH

BCCH

CTCH
DCCH, DTCH

RACH, FACH

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PRACH, S-CCPCH

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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview


Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology
Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure
Chapter 4 Physical Layer Procedures

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Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure


Section 1 Coding and Multiplexing Technology
Section 2 Spreading Technology
Section 3 Modulation Technology

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CRC of TB
Error detection is provided on transport blocks through a Cyclic
Redundancy Check (CRC)
CRC size is informed by higher layer signal
08121624(optional)
If no TB are input, no CRC bits should be attached. If TB are
input with TB SIZE=0,CRC bits shall be also added ,but all
CRC are zero

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TB Concatenation and Code Block Segmentation


All transport blocks in a TTI are serially concatenated .
The maximum size of the code blocks depends on whether
convolutional coding or turbo coding is used for the TrCH .
Convolutional code: if TBS SIZE>504,segmented to multiple code
block of the same size.
Turbo code:if TBS SIZE>5114, segmented to multiple code block
of the same size.
No coding:no segmentation
If codes cannot be segmented evenly, fill in 0 bits at the
beginning of the first code block.
If the code block length of Turbo code<40, fill in 0 bits at the
beginning to keep the code length constantly as 40

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Channel coding
The following channel coding schemes can be applied to TrCHs:
Convolutional coding, coding rates 1/3 and 1/2 are defined
Turbo coding, The coding rate of Turbo coder is 1/3
No coding
Usage of coding
BCH, PCH and RACH1/2 Convolutional coding
DCH and FACH1/2 or 1/3 Convolutional coding ,1/3 Turbo
coding, no coding

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Rate Matching
Rate matching means that bits on a transport channel are repeated or
punctured.
The number of bits on a transport channel can vary between different
transmission time intervals(TTI). In the downlink the transmission is
interrupted if the number of bits is lower than maximum. When the
number of bits between different transmission time intervals in uplink
is changed, bits are repeated or punctured to ensure that the total bit
rate after TrCH multiplexing is identical to the total channel bit rate of
the allocated dedicated physical channels.

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Interleaving
Function: reduce the influence of fast fading.
Two kinds of interleaving: 1st interleaving and 2nd interleaving
The length of 1st interleaving is TTI of TrCH, 1st interleaving is
a inter-frame interleaving
The length of 2nd interleaving is a physical frame, 2nd
interleaving is a intra-frame interleaving.

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Radio Frame Segmentation


When the transmission time interval (TTI) is longer than 10 ms, the
input bit sequence is segmented and mapped onto consecutive Fi
radio frames.
Following radio frame size equalisation in the UL the input bit
sequence length is guaranteed to be an integer multiple of Fi.
Following rate matching in the DL the input bit sequence length is
guaranteed to be an integer multiple of Fi.
Fi: Number of radio frames in the transmission time interval of TrCHi.

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Multiplexing of TrCH
Every 10 ms, one radio frame from each TrCH is delivered to the
TrCH multiplexing. These radio frames are serially multiplexed into
a coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH)
The format of CCTrCH is indicated by TFCI
TrCH can have different TTI before multiplexing
2 types of CCTrCH:Common and dedicated
Common CCTrCH should be multiplexed by common TrCH;
Dedicated CCTrCH should be multiplexed by dedicated TrCH
There is only one CCTrCH in uplink and one or several CCTrCH in
downlink for one user

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Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)


Indication Bits
In the downlink, DTX is used to fill up the radio frame with bits.
DTX indication bits only indicate when the transmission should be
turned off, they are not transmitted.
1st insertion of DTX indication bits
This step of inserting DTX indication bits is used only if the
positions of the TrCHs in the radio frame are fixed
2nd insertion of DTX indication bits
The DTX indication bits inserted in this step shall be placed at
the end of the radio frame.

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Physical Channel Segmentation and Mapping


When multiple physical channels are used, one CCTrCH radio frame
can be divided into multiple physical frames multicode transmission
Each physical channel of multicode transmission must have the
same SF
DPCCH and DPDCH of uplink physical channel is code multiplexed.
DPCCH and DPDCH of downlink physical channel is time
multiplexed
Uplink physical channel must be fully filled except when cpmpressed
mode is used
In downlink, the PhCHs do not need to be completely filled with bits
that are transmitted over the air. Values correspond to DTX
indicators, which are mapped to the DPCCH/DPDCH fields but are
not transmitted over the air.
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Transport channel multiplexing structure for downlink

data

dataCRC dataCRC
CRCdata
CBL
CBL
d CRC
a t a
data

TrCH-i+1

102040 or 80ms

data

data

TrCH-i

0816 or 24bits

dataCRC
CRC
CBL
data

Size Z

CedBL Rate
CedBL
Coded
matched
data
data CedBL

512Ktail Conventional code


5120Ktail Turbo code

Channel Coding

or

Rate matched data

DTX

or

Data
Databefore
after 11stst interleaved
interleaving
Number of Rado frame
Radio frame

Radio frame

124 or 8

Radio frame

TrCH-1
TrCH-1TrCH-2
TrCH-2
DTX
CCTrCHTrCH-ITrCH-I

Ph-1
data1 TPC TFCI data2
Spreading
Scrambling

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pilot

Ph-P

Ph-2
data1 TPC TFCI data2

10ms

pilot

Spreading
Scrambling

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10ms

data1 TPC TFCI data2


Spreading
Scrambling

Page 54

pilot

Example of Coding and Multiplexing


Parameters for
12.2kb/s AMR speech
The number of TrChs

Transport block size


CRC

81, 103, and 60 bits


12 bits (attached only to TrCh#1)

Coding

CC, coding rate = 1/3 for TrCh#1, 2 coding rate =


1/2 for TrCh#3

TTI

20 ms

Parameters for
3.4kb/s control channel
Transport block size

148 bits

Transport block set size

148 bits

CRC
Coding

16 bits
CC, coding rate = 1/3

TTI

40 ms

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Example of Coding and Multiplexing


T ra n sp o rt b lo c k TrC h # 1
C R C atta ch m en t

TrC h # 2

81

TrC h # 3

103

60

CRC

Tail b it attac h m en t

81

12

103
Ta il

C o n v o lu tio n a l
c o d in g R = 1 /3 , 1 /2

93

Ta il
103

R a te m atch in g

303

333

1 st in terle av in g

3 0 3 + N RM 1

3 3 3 + N RM 2

R a d io fram e
se g m en tatio n

3 0 3 + N RM 1

#1a

#1b

N R F1

N R F1

60
Ta il
60

136

1 3 6 + N RM 3

3 3 3 + N RM 2

#2a
N RF2

1 3 6 + N RM3

#2b
N RF2

#3a

#3b

N R F3

N RF3

N R F 1 = (3 0 3 + N R M 1 )/2
N R F 2 = (3 3 3 + N R M 2 )/2
N R F 3 = (1 3 6 + N R M 3 )/2

To T rC h M u ltip le x in g

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Example of Coding and Multiplexing(3.4kbps)


T ra n s p o rt b lo c k
148

C R C a tta c h m e n t

C R C
148

T rB k c o n c a tin a tio n

1 6 b its

B T rB k s ( B = 0 ,1 )

164*B

T a il b it a tta c h m e n t

T a il
164*B

C o n v o lu tio n a l
c o d in g R = 1 /3

8*B

516*B

R a te m a tc h in g
In s e rtio n o f
in d ic a tio n *

st

D T X

(5 1 6 + N

in te rle a v in g

R a d io fra m e
s e g m e n ta tio n
#1
[ (1 2 9 + N

R M

)* B + N

R M

)* B

(5 1 6 + N

R M

)* B + N

D I

(5 1 6 + N

R M

)* B + N

D I

#2
D I]

[ (1 2 9 + N

R M

)* B + N

#3
D I]

[ (1 2 9 + N

R M

#4

)* B + N

D I]

[ (1 2 9 + N

R M

)* B + N

D I]

T o T r C h M u ltip le x in g
* I n s e rtio n o f D T X in d ic a tio n is u s e d o n ly if th e p o s itio n o f th e T r C H s in th e ra d io fr a m e is f ix e d .

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Page 57

Example of Coding and Multiplexing


12.2kbpsdata
#1a

#2a

#1b

12.2kbpsdata

#2b

#1c

#2c

#1a

#2a

#1b

3.4kbpsdata

#2b

#1c

#2c

#1

#2

#3

#4

TrCH
multiplexing
#1a

#1b

#1c

#1

#2a

#2b

#2c

#2

#1a

#1b

#1c

#3

#2a

#2b

#2c

#4

2nd interleaving
Physical channel
mapping

30kspsDPCH

510
1 2

slot

510
15 1 2

CFN=4N

slot

510
15 1 2

CFN=4N+1

slot

510
15 1 2

CFN=4N+2

slot

15

CFN=4N+3
Pilot symbol

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Page 58

TPC

Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure


Section 1 Coding and Multiplexing Technology
Section 2 Spreading Technology
Section 3 Modulation Technology

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Page 59

Uplink DPCCH/DPDCH Spreading


The DPCCH is always spread by code cc = Cch,256,0
When only 1 DPDCH exists,(Cd,1 = Cch,SF,k ) k=SF/4
The code used for scrambling of the uplink DPCCH/DPDCH may be of either long
or short type
D P D C H

D P D C H

d ,1

d ,3

c
D P D C H

d ,5

lo n g ,n

or S

s h o rt,n

I+ jQ
D P D C H

D P D C H

D P D C H

d ,2

d ,4

d ,6

Up to 6 DPDCH
for one user

j
c

D P C C H

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Uplink PRACH Spreading


Message part is shown in the following figurethe value of
gain factors is the same with DPDCH/DPCCH

cd

PRACH message
data part

PRACH message
control part

cc

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Sr-msg,n
I+jQ

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Page 61

Downlink Spreading
Downlink physical channel except SCH is first serial-to-parallel
converted , spread by the spreading code, and then scrambled by a
complex-valued scrambling code.
The beginning chip of the scrambling code is aligned with the frame
boundary of P-CCPCH.
Each channel have different gain factor
I

Data of
physical
channel
except
SCH

S dl,n

S
I+jQ

C ch,SF,m

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Page 62

Downlink Spreading
Different physical
hannel come from point S

G1

G2
P-SCH
GP
S-SCH
GS

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Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure


Section 1 Coding and Multiplexing Technology
Section 2 Spreading Technology
Section 3 Modulation Technology

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Page 64

Uplink Modulation
The chip rate is 3.84Mbps
In the uplink, the complex-valued chip sequence generated by the
spreading process is QPSK modulated

cos( t)
Complexvalued
sequence
after
spreading

Split
real &
imag
parts

Re{S}

Pulse
shaping

Im{S}

Pulse
shaping
-sin( t)

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Downlink Modulation
The chip rate is 3.84Mbps
In the downlink, the complex-valued chip sequence generated by the
spreading process is QPSK modulated

cos( t)

Complexvalued
sequence
after
spreading

Split
real &
imag
parts

Re{S}

Pulse
shaping

Im{S}

Pulse
shaping
-sin( t)

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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview


Chapter 2 Physical Layer Key Technology
Chapter 3 Physical Layer Processing Procedure
Chapter 4 Physical Layer Procedures

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Synchronization ProcedureCell Search


UE uses PSC to acquire slot
synchronization to a cell

Slot synchronization

UE uses SSC to find frame


synchronization and identify the
code group of the cell found in
the first step

Frame synchronization and


code-group identification

UE determines the primary


scrambling code through correlation
over the CPICH with all codes within
the identified group, and then detects
the P-CCPCH and reads BCH
information

Scrambling-code
identification

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Synchronization Procedure Channel Timing Relationship


Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH
Any CPICH
P -CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2) = 0

P -CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2) = 1

S-CCPCH,k

k:th S - CCPCH

PICH
PICH for k:th S
AICH access
slo ts

#0

#1

#2

#3

DPCH,n

#4

-CCPCH

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

n:th DPCH

10 ms

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Page 69

#11

#12

#13

#14

Random access procedure

START

Choose a RACH sub channel from


available ones

Get available signatures

Set Preamble Retrans Max

Set Preamble _Initial _ Power

No AI

Choose a access slot again

Send a preamble

Check the corresponding AI


Get positive AI

Choose a signature and


increase preamble transmit power
The counter of preamble retransmit
Subtract-1, Commanded preamble power
increased by Power Ramp Step

Get negative AI

Increase message part power by p


-m based on preamble power

Send the corresponding message part

Y
Counter> 0 & Preamble powermaximum allowed power<6 dB
N
Set physical status to be Nack
on AICH received

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Set physical status to be RACH


message transmitted

Set physical status to be Nack


on AICH received

Report the physical status to MAC

END

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Page 70

Random Access ProcedureRACH


Physical random access procedure
1. Derive the available uplink access slots, in the next full access
slot set, for the set of available RACH sub-channels within the
given ASC. Randomly select one access slot among the ones
previously determined. If there is no access slot available in the
selected set, randomly select one uplink access slot corresponding
to the set of available RACH sub-channels within the given ASC
from the next access slot set. The random function shall be such
that each of the allowed selections is chosen with equal
probability
2. Randomly select a signature from the set of available signatures
within the given ASC.
3. Set the Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble_
Retrans_ Max
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Random Access ProcedureRACH


4. Set the parameter Commanded Preamble Power to
Preamble_Initial_Power
5. Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot, signature, and
preamble transmission power.
6. If no positive or negative acquisition indicator (AI +1 nor 1)
corresponding to the selected signature is detected in the downlink access
slot corresponding to the selected uplink access slot:
T A: Select the next available access slot in the set of available RACH
sub-channels within the given ASC;
T B: select a signature;
T C: Increase the Commanded Preamble Power;
T D: Decrease the Preamble Retransmission Counter by one. If the
Preamble Retransmission Counter > 0 then repeat from step 6.
Otherwise exit the physical random access procedure.

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Random Access ProcedureRACH


7. If a negative acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected
signature is detected in the downlink access slot corresponding to
the selected uplink access slot, exit the physical random access
procedure Signature
8. If a positive acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected
signature is detected , Transmit the random access message three
or four uplink access slots after the uplink access slot of the last
transmitted preamble
9. exit the physical random access procedure

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Page 73

Transmit diversity Mode


Application of Tx diversity modes on downlink physical channel

Physical channel type

Open loop mode

Closed loop mode

TSTD

STTD

Mode 1

Mode 2

applied

applied

S-CCPCH

applied

DPCH

applied

applied

applied

PICH

applied

HS-PDSCH

applied

applied

HS-SCCH

applied

AICH

applied

P-CCPCH
SCH

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Transmit Diversity-STTD
Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity(STTD
4 consecutive bits b0, b1, b2, b3 using STTD coding

b0 b1 b2 b3

Antenna 1

b0 b1 b2 b3

Channel bits

-b 2 b 3 b 0 -b 1 Antenna 2

STTD encoded channel bits


for antenna 1 and antenna 2.

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Transmit Diversity-TSTD
Time switching transmit diversity (TSTD) is used only on SCH channel.

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #14

Slot #2

ac p

(Tx OFF)

acp

ac p

i,0

(Tx OFF)

acsi,2

aci,14
s

Antenna 1

ac s

(Tx OFF)

acp

(Tx OFF)

(Tx OFF)

Antenna 2
(Tx OFF)

i,1

acs

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(Tx OFF)

(Tx OFF)

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Closed Loop Mode

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Transmit DiversityClosed Loop Mode


Closed loop mode transmit diversity
Used in DPCH and PDSCH
Channel coding, interleaving and spreading are done as in nondiversity mode. The spread complex valued signal is fed to both TX
antenna branches, and weighted with antenna specific weight
factors w1 and w2.
The weight factors are determined by the UE, and signalled to the
UTRAN access point (=cell transceiver) using the D-bits of the FBI
field of uplink DPCCH.
The calculation of weight factor is the key point of closed loop Tx
diversity.there are two modes with different calculation methods of
weight factor
T 1mode 1 uses phase adjustmentthe dedicated pilot
symbols of two antennas are different(orthogonal)
T 2mode 2 uses phase/amplitude adjustment the dedicated
pilot symbols of two antennas are the same.
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