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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 65 (2012) 626 631

International Congress on Interdisciplinary Business and Social Science 2012

(ICIBSoS 2012)

3R s Critical Success Factor in Solid Waste Management

System for Higher Educational Institutions
Jibril Dan azimi Jibrila*, Ibrahim Bin Sipanb, Maimunah Sapric, Suleiman
Aliyu Shikad, Mona Isae & Shahabudin Abdullah f
a,b,c,d ,e & f

Centre for Real Estate Studies,Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia


Thousands of solid waste tonnage are generated daily in Higher Educational Institutions (HEI's). The
significance of integrated solid waste management systems in recent years increased due to the growing
number of populations within HEI's and problems of waste management issues affecting the daily lives of
people and the impact on the environment. Several promising approaches have been developed in the past
few years, one of them is the 3R's system in Integrated Solid Waste Management Hierarchy. 3r's (Reduce,
Reuse, and Recycle) system were proposed with priority on source minimization, intermediate treatment
then final disposal and enlighten the waste generators to practice 3r s as a substantial measure to reduce,
reuse and recycle the generated solid waste there all day. This paper critically analyses the 3R s strategic
approach for the awareness amongst the waste generators within HEI's to minimizes the solid waste
generated within HEI's and reduce the running cost of the system, for effective and efficient waste
management in HEI's.
under responsibility of JIBES
by Elsevier
Open access
under CC
BY-NC-ND license.
The Authors.
by Elsevier
Selection andJakarta
peer-review under responsibility of JIBES University, Jakarta
Keywords: 3R s; Higher Educational Institutions; Integrated solid Waste management; Source minimization; Waste generation

1. Introduction
The reduction or minimization of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is defined as any technique, process
or activity, which prevents, eliminates or reduces waste at the source (Crittenden et-al, 1995). The waste
minimization program would help the municipalities to obtain savings, as well as taxpayer indirectly or

Coresponding author. Tel/Fax: +60178268490
E-mail address: jdj4me@gmail.com

1877-0428 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of JIBES University, Jakarta


Jibril Dan azimi Jibril et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 65 (2012) 626 631

the public schools directly in cases where they are the ones paying for the waste elimination service. In
both cases, the money saved can be reinvested in improving the schools or supporting other actions of
social interest (Maldonado, 2006). Most human activities create waste, and it is the way this waste is
handled, stored, collected and disposed of, that can pose risks to the environment and to public health
(Zhu et al., 2008). Rapid urbanization and other human activities HEIs results to facing considerable
difficulties in providing adequate services, extra curriculum activities and solid waste Management
services. Therefore, the practice of 3R s in integrated solid waste management will be used to improve the
efficiency and cost savings in HEI s waste management system.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Solid Waste Management
Solid waste management (SWM) comprises of many drivers that can be used to reduce the volumes of
solid waste within the campus, which includes; reusing and recycling materials, composting, and source
reduction. Waste generated in households, commercial establishments, institutions, and businesses.
Municipal Solid Waste includes used paper, discarded cans and bottles, food scraps, yard trimmings, and
other items. (Haghi, 2010). Basel convention in 1989 defined waste as any substance or object, which is
supposed to be disposed or intended to be disposed by the provisions of the law. Waste creation of
mankind is inevitable as far as the manipulation of the chemical environment continues (Prasanna, 2001).
Base on waste history, Environmentalists became worried about the heap quantity and toxic level that
wastes produced. Pichtel, (2005) is of the view that, human has always created the problem of waste since
the prehistoric times. By the time immemorial waste has less negative effects on the environment due to
the less population rather than a benefit to help improve the soil (Pittchel 2005, Wilson, 1977).
3. Negative impacts of Solid Waste.
3.1. Environmental and health impacts of municipal solid waste
Ayomoh et-al, (2008). Pinpoint that, the 21st century has experienced heightened economic activities
due to the industrial civilization that has characterized countries worldwide. Ziadat and Mott (2005), note
that the progression of modern civilization and associated continuous increase in population worldwide
contribute significantly to the increase in the quantity and variety of waste generated. The ever-increasing
consumption of resources results in huge amounts of solid wastes from industrial and domestic activities,
which pose significant threats to human health (Frosch, 1996). Sangodoyin and Ipadeola (2000),
continuing advancement in science and technology is also, contributing significantly to the increasing
volume and toxicity of waste generated (Sangodoyin and Ipadeola, 2000). For example, advancements in
aviation technology have led to an increasing number of people patronizing airports and airline services.
Consequently, the aviation industry worldwide has a reputation for being a major polluter with airports
perceived to have negative environmental effects in terms of waste production (Pitt et al., 2002).
3.2. Problems of Uncoordinated Disposal of Solid Waste
According to UNDP, (2007) lamented that, if solid wastes are not managed properly, many risks and
hazards for human welfare can result, although the relative importance of each depends on local
conditions. Uncollected wastes block drains, course floods, create insanitary conditions, and are an
aesthetic nuisance; discarded cans and other by-products encourage the breeding of flies, mosquitoes and
other vectors that spread disease.



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3.3. Solid waste management in HEI s

Universities are considered to be similar to small towns because of their large size, population, and the
various complex activities taking place on campuses (Alshuwaikhat and Abubakar, 2008). HEI s faced
with increase in population, build up areas and other infrastructures the quantity of waste also has
increased, in which if not well managed and disposed, it may pose to:
Vulnerability of risks to human health and that of other living organisms.
Environmental effects (CO3 and CH4 methane gas emission) and
Higher running cost implication. (Jibril et-al, 2012)
Recycling at Colorado State began a few decades ago, but has made tremendous progress since
receiving a grant in 1990. The waste collection and disposal processes were overhauled to allow for
efficient collection and recycling bins can now be found nearly everywhere on campus. (Colorado State
University, 2012). Reuse and Recycle containers are usually found in almost all buildings on campus, thus
determined by the demands of the building users, these containers include that of newspaper/Magazines,
paperboard/cardboard office papers and phone book, cans, bottles and plastic containers to mention but a
few. 3R s awareness will be a good incentive to cater for this waste. Phillips et-al (1999) Highlight that, a
central focus of a waste strategy guided by the need for sustainable development is not just how to dispose
of the waste that is produced or even how to recycle it but also how best to reduce the amount that is
created in the first place.
4. 3R s Strategic Approaches on Solid Waste Management (SWM)
In a nutshell, 3R s practices comprises different measures and skillful techniques to minimize the volume
of discarded waste materials that was generated to dispose out. Waste management hierarchy is the
internationally accepted guidelines for waste management practice, given emphases to reduce waste at
source, where waste can; it has been prevented, reuse should be explored, Recycle option will be
encouraged if the waste cannot be reused. Throughout the practice it will yield the positive outcomes to
Higher Educational Institutions.
4.1. Public Awareness/Education
At the institutional level, Integrated Waste Management Scoreboard points should be awarded for
based on the establishment of programs that raise awareness of staff regarding solid waste management
issues and practices. These programs may include orientation of new staff, training, internal promotion,
participation in industry programs and awards events, and reporting of achievements. UNEP, (2005)
4.2. Waste Management Hierarchy as a Key Element of Integrated Solid Waste Management
The waste management hierarchy is a widespread element of national and regional policy and is often
considered the most fundamental basis of modern Municipal Solid Waste Management practice. The
hierarchy ranks waste management operations according to their environmental or energy benefits. In
virtually all countries, the hierarchy is similar to that shown in fig. 1 below, with the first entries having
higher priority than those below them. (UNEP, 2005)

Jibril Dan azimi Jibril et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 65 (2012) 626 631

The hierarchy is a useful policy tool for conserving resources, for dealing with landfill shortages, for
minimizing air and water pollution, and for protecting public health and safety. In many developing
countries, some aspects of this hierarchy are already in place, since traditional practices revolving around
waste prevention reuse, and recycling are prevalent. (UNPE, 2005). According to the U.S. EPA, in 2006,
Americans generated about 251 million tons of trash. That s about 4.6 pounds per person, every day. Of
this 251 million, 82 million tons of it were recycled. This recycling saved the energy equivalent of more
than 10 billion gallons of gasoline.


Solid waste management hierarchies (UNEP, 2005 & EPA, 2006)

Table 1 A hierarchy of waste minimization approaches (May & Flannery 1995)

Waste prevention and

Good housekeeping: improve maintenance procedures, monitor leaking valves and fittings, maintain
proper material handling and transfer segregate waste streams, and tighten inventory controls.
Material or product substitution: replace hazardous materials and products with less toxic or less
hazardous ones. Use water-based paints and cleaners instead of oil-based equivalents.
Process modification: alter manufacturing processes themselves. Use environmental re-engineering to
change thinking about the environmental impact of such processes.

Recycle and Reuse

Collect and treat waste streams such as used oils and solvents. Use on-site or off-site recycling
Design products for disassembly and reuse.

Waste Treatment

Prevent hazardous waste from entering the environment. Treat waste with biological, chemical, or
physical processes to break down waste components into harmless compounds.
Develop waste treatment services and offer services to customers and other businesses.

Waste Disposal

Ensure that landfills used for waste disposal are designed to protect the environment, particularly
underground water supplies.

However, Institutions can provide an ideal showcase for waste reduction/avoidance initiatives. These
may include purchasing programs that require recycled content and other similar programs. As a result,
scoreboard points should be awarded for each activity based on the comprehensive nature of the waste
reduction/avoidance programs that are established at the institutional level (UNEP, 2005)



Jibril Dan azimi Jibril et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 65 (2012) 626 631

EPA, (2012) highlight that source reduction can:

Save natural resources;
Conserve energy;
Reduce pollution;
Reduce the toxicity of our waste; and
Save money for consumers and businesses alike.
It s ever increasing problem faced by urban areas in our so-called advanced societies lies in the
disposal of the residuals from production and consumption processes. It s also becoming difficult and
costly to dispose of such wastes without causing damage to the environment (Conn, 1977). Institutions
are generally not directly involved in operating landfill disposal facilities. If this is the case, IWM
Scoreboard points should be awarded for based on the presence of the total waste stream that is currently
being managed in modern disposal facilities (rather than open dumpsites). UNEP, (2005)
5. Conclusions
Most of the Institutions and communities do not use 3R s system in managing their waste generated, as
such it leads to the potential risk to human and other living organisms as well as increasing the level of
threats to global warming. Higher education Institutions due to the fact that they ought to consider the
national and international targets set to reduce CO3 and CH4 gas emissions, are likely to face increased
regulatory and political pressures within these areas. EPA (2012) buttresses that; every ton of mixed
paper recycled can save the energy equivalent of 185 gallons of gas. Therefore, Strategic implementation
of reduction, reuse and recycle of solid waste becomes every one's responsibilities, which means for a
3R s to be fully implemented in HEI s to cut cost and improvement in performance, participant s throw
away culture of by-product should be changed through awareness and practice. This could achieve by reengineering current practice of solid waste management in HEI s from the conventional to integrated
approaches, for a better cleaner environment and efficient cost effectiveness of the whole system. The
training program should be implemented in HEI s for both staff and students to create their own schoolbased integrated solid waste management program.
The authors will like to acknowledge their appreciation to the International Doctoral Fellowship (IDF)
and Research University Fund (GUP) initiated by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), supported by
the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (MOHE) for contributing to this research work.
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