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Report No 6.50/238
September 1996

E&P Forum
Land Transport Safety Guidelines
Report No. 6.50/238
September 1996
E&P Forum, 2528 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB
Telephone: 44-(0)171-437 6291 Fax: 44-(0)171-434 3721


This report has been prepared for the E&P Forum by their Safety, Health and
Personnel Competence Committee through their Road Safety Task Force.
Mr S. Barber
Mr M. Carouso
Mr N. Cave
Mr M. Covil
Mr R. Finch
Mr J. Godsman
Mr M. Grpinet
Mr J. Hahusseau
Mr D. Krahn
Mr E. Lebesque
Mr T. Livre
Mr G. Spring
Mr R. C Thonger
Mrs I. Thomas

The E&P Forum

AIOC, Azerbaijan, Chairman

Western Geophysical
Geophysical Safety Resources
Dowell Schlumberger
Sedco Forex
Exploration Logistics
Geophysical Safety Resources
E&P Forum

The Oil Industry International Exploration & Production Forum is an international association of oil companies and petroleum industry organisations formed in 1974. It was established to represent its members interests at the International Maritime Organisation and other specialist agencies of the United Nations, and to governmental and other international
bodies concerned with regulating the exploration and production of oil
and gas. While maintaining this activity, the Forum now concerns itself
with all aspects of exploration and production operations, with particular
emphasis on safety of personnel and protection of the environment, and
seeks to establish industry positions with regard to such matters.
At present the Forum has 60 members worldwide, the majority being oil
and gas companies operating in 60 different countries, but with a number
of national oil industry associations/institutes.



Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, neither E&P Forum nor any of its
members will assume liability for any use made thereof.

Design and layout: Words and Publications, Oxford





Implementation and Monitoring

Active Monitoring


Reactive Monitoring


Corrective Action


Audit and Review


Management Review



Leadership and Commitment


Policy and Strategic Objectives

1. Land Transport Management System Checklist 11


2. Driver Management


3. Driver Training


Policy Statement
Strategic Objectives

Organisation, Resources and Documentation


4. Communication and Motivation Methods to

Improve Land Transport Safety




5. Risk Evaluation and Management of

Land Transport


6. Drivers Handbook


7. Vehicle Operations


8. Care and Maintenance of Vehicles


9. Journey Management Planning


Evaluation and Risk Management of

Land Transport
Recording of Hazards
Risk Reduction Measures



Management of Change

10. Emergency Response Plans and Procedures


Contingency and Emergency Planning

11. Post-Incident Procedures



The number of serious incidents and fatalities involving motor vehicles
employed in land transport remains stubbornly high, against a general
background of falling lost time injuries. These guidelines are intended to
provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim of minimising vehicle incidents and their associated costs.
Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving personnel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share
a joint commitment to managing land transport risks in their operation and
to preventing incidents and fatalities, as stated in their HSE policies.
Companies should have in place a management system for land transport
operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a
clear management strategy to minimise and control those risks to a level
as low as reasonably practicable. Land transport safety management is a
challenge for which there are no easy solutions but which needs to be
actively managed in the same way as other business activities. It requires
commitment from the top, and the attention of competent line managers
to achieve improved performance.
An assessment should be performed of transportation and logistics
issues and the associated risks. Where land transport is provided by a
contractor then the assessment should be conducted before the start of
operations and ideally as part of the pre-contract negotiations. The
assessment should ensure that the responsibilities of the operator, contractor and sub-contractor involved in the operation are clearly defined
and that the management systems of all companies involved in an operation are integrated to minimise the land transportation risks. The aim
should be to ensure that all vehicle movements are managed through
vehicle selection, provision of vehicles and transport services, equipment
outfit and vehicle allocation, and controlled by clearly identified personnel
with defined responsibilities working to agreed standards.


An effective land transport management system should yield benefits
which go well beyond the humane considerations and reduction in the
direct costs that are usually incurred when a land transport related incident
These benefits include, but are not limited to:
reduction in loss of life and human suffering;
improvement in health and reduction in related illness;
reduction in the risks associated with transport operations;
reduction in the costs related to incidents;
control and minimisation of damage when an incident occurs;
clear responsibility for transportation and logistics issues;
compliance with legal requirements for the operations;
clear, concise and consistent vehicle operating standards;
appropriate maintenance schedules and standards;
lower maintenance costs with fewer breakdowns;
improved operational procedures, and more efficient transport use;
employee motivation through training and recognition of their skills;
reduction in air pollution through better selection and maintenance
of vehicles; and
enhancement of companys image within the local communities and
With an effective system in place all the above-mentioned points can be
positively addressed.



The objective of this document is to provide guidance on how to implement a Land Transport Safety Management System (LTS-MS) for vehicle
operations which is consistent with the E&P Forum Guidelines for the
Development and Application of Health, Safety and Environmental
Management Systems (E&P Forum Report No.6.36/210). Key elements
of the HSE-MS are shown in the table below.

Key Elements


Leadership and

Top down commitment and company culture,

essential to the success of the system

Policy and

Corporate intentions, principles of action and

aspirations with respect to HSE

resources and

Organisation of people, resources and

documentation for sound HSE performance

and risk

Identification and evaluation of HSE risks for

activities, products and services, and
development of risk reduction measures


Planning the conduct of work activities, including

planning for changes and emergency response

and monitoring

Performance and monitoring of activities, and how

corrective action is to be taken when necessary

Auditing and

Periodic assessments of system performance,

effectiveness and fundamental suitability

The LTS-MS should include:

all company and third parties vehicles brought onto company
premises or used for company business activities;
travel on tarmac roads, graded roads and on other surfaces
encountered off road; and
transporting personnel or freight, or mobile plant (drilling trucks,
vibrator trucks etc).


These guidelines have been developed to:

reduce the number of incidents and fatalities involving land transport;
be relevant to the transportation activities of the E&P industry
be sufficiently generic to be adaptable to different companies and their
recognise, and be applicable to, the role of operators, contractors and
provide guidance on the development of a shared management
system to control risks; and
help management to develop consistent policies and operational
The main text of this document is targeted at senior/middle managers.
The appendices give more detailed and specific guidance for land transport line managers and operators.


The following sections of these guidelines will assist the nominated
responsible managers in developing suitable land transport management
systems for their operations. The main objective is to ensure that their
activities are planned, carried out, controlled and directed so that risks
from transportation are minimised.
Land transport management will respond to the same fundamental principles seen in all other forms of management control.
The LTS-MS should conform to the national or international legal framework and take account of corporate transport policies within which companies conduct their business. An example Land Transport Management
System Checklist is given in Appendix 1.

Leadership and Commitment

The senior management of the company should demonstrate their commitment to managing land transport operations in a safe, healthy and environmentally responsible manner.
Leadership and commitment is demonstrated when management at all levels:
set a good example in terms of their own attitude and driving
allocate the necessary resources to land transportation and related
logistic issues;
put land transport safety matters high on the agenda of meetings,
including board meetings;
communicate clearly that land transport safety standards are an
important company requirement;
provide appropriate training and assessment for all drivers involved in
land transport operations;
encourage safety promotions and employees suggestions for
measures to improve safety performance, and commend safe practice;
set plans and targets, and measure vehicle safety performance of all
employees; and
insist that transport contractor operations meet required standards.
There should be a clear definition of delegated responsibility to nominated individual managers down through the management structure of the company.

Policy and Strategic Objectives

Policy Statement
The senior management should make clear in a policy statement their
commitment and expectations of good HSE management. All vehicle owners and operators should formulate local land transportation HSE policies
compatible with the corporate HSE policy to improve the safety of land
transport operations.
To operate in a safe, efficient and effective manner to reduce incidents,
eliminate fatalities and to operate in an environmentally sensitive and
responsible way, the policy statement should include some or all of the
following features. It should:
be publicly available in appropriate local languages and in a bold, easy
to read format;


demonstrate the organisations commitment to continuously strive for

improvement in land transport safety performance by mimimising risk;

give a clear, concise and motivating message that land transport safety

is as important as other business objectives and that transport

incidents are avoidable;
promote openness and the participation of all individuals in improving
safety performance;
highlight the importance and relevance of an effective organisation to
manage transport operations and indicate that line managers are
responsible for land transport safety at all organisational levels;
make a commitment to meet all legislative requirements and apply
responsible standards and procedures where national regulations do
not exist;
challenge the requirement for land transport and consider alternatives,
with the aim of minimising exposure to the driving environment; and
undertake all transport operations with proper regard for the
environment and to strive to reduce the consumption of fuel,
emissions and discharges.

The Land Transport Safety Policy Statement should be:

handed to each employee by their line manager and the implications of

the policy fully explained in practical terms;

displayed on notice boards, transport staff offices, drivers meeting

rooms and other prominent locations;

given to contractors as part of any tender documentation;
included in drivers handbook; and
discussed and explained on training courses.

The LTS-MS policy statement needs to be regularly reviewed by management with emphasis on its intent, scope and adequacy.

Strategic Objectives
The Land Transport HSE policy statement provides the starting point for
establishing strategic land transport objectives.
Such objectives should aim to:
reduce the number of incidents and fatalities;
minimise the number of journeys and personnel exposure;
minimise the total number of kilometres driven;
establish driver selection, testing and training programmes;
establish and support safe land transport working procedures and
practices and to strive for an incident-free activity;
ensure that the company will employ only transport assets, facilities
and equipment which conform to acceptable standards and that they
are maintained in a safe and secure condition; and
specify the need to develop an emergency response capability in
cooperation with authorities and emergency services.

An overall management structure for land transportation and its relation to
the implementation of the transport policy within the organisation should
be in place and made widely available. It should clearly identify those people who have an active responsibility for land transport management, and
should state what those responsibilities are. All employees who make use
of, or are affected by land transportation (i.e. everybody) should continually be made aware of their individual responsibilities.

Organisation, Resources and Documentation


The structure should describe the relationship between:

different operations;
operating units and supporting services;
operators, contractors and sub-contractors; and
partners in joint ventures.
Land transport safety is a line management responsibility with safety
advisers/trainers etc. assisting line management in the development,
implementation and maintenance of the programme. The following are
general but fundamental points concerning LTS-MS organisation.
Management representatives should be assigned responsibility,
authority and accountability for coordinating implementation and
maintenance of the LTS-MS.
All employees involved in land transport should be made aware of their
individual LTS-MS role, accountabilities and responsibilities.
The company should ensure that personnel performing specific
assigned LTS-MS activities and tasks are competent.
The company should ensure and increase competence through the
identification of training needs and the provision of appropriate training
for its personnel, both drivers and supervisors.
The company should ensure that its contractors operate a land
transport management system. Contractors should be visited and
supported at regular intervals during the contract period to assist them
with the integration of their LTS-MS. Joint reviews at regular intervals
should occur to ensure LTS-MS objectives are achieved.
The company should maintain procedures to ensure that its employees
and those of its contractors, partners and others involved with land
transport at all levels are aware of the requirements of the LTS-MS
programme. The focus of communication should be on bridging local
language and cultural understanding.

Management should ensure that adequate resources are made available in
a timely manner to fulfil the strategic objectives set out in the companys
Land Transport Management plan.
Documentation should be maintained to provide records of the critical
aspects of the land transportation management system. Policies and
responsibilities need to be established for the availability, maintenance and
modification of such documents.

Evaluation and Risk Management

of Land Transport

A thorough and comprehensive hazard identification and risk assessment

of land transport operations should be performed at the earliest opportunity, and at suitable intervals thereafter, by experienced and suitably qualified personnel. Examples of hazards associated with land transport (and
mitigation methods which could be adopted) are given in Appendix 5.
This exercise should cover an assessment of all hazards that could occur
within the land transport of personnel, goods or materials in every aspect
of the planned operation.
The company should maintain procedures to identify potential hazards and
their consequences systematically throughout the total life cycle where
land transport is involved, e.g.:
planning and sourcing of vehicles;
routine and non-routine operations;


incidents and potential emergency situations;

disposal of vehicles; and
evaluation of local transport regulations.

Recording of Hazards
The hazards information gained from the risk evaluation should be documented and incorporated into the LTS-MS, which should demonstrate that:
all foreseeable hazards associated with land transport have been
the likelihood and consequences of an incident have been assessed;
controls to mitigate significant risks are in place; and
emergency response measures to mitigate incidents are in place.
Risk Reduction Measures
The company should maintain procedures to select, evaluate and implement measures to reduce risks. Emphasis should be placed on preventative measures such as enhancing driver performance, security of vehicles
and cargo, and proactive environment protection wherever practicable.
Mitigation measures should include steps to prevent escalation of any
incidents that do occur through effective emergency response.
Effective risk reduction measures and follow-up require visible commitment of management and on-site transport supervisors, as well as the
understanding and ownership of the measures by drivers.

All aspects of land transportation operations, vehicle selection and use should
be planned in line with the policy and strategic objectives of the company.


The plan should especially address the introduction of any new or unusual
techniques, types of transport and type of environment as well as training
A journey management system should be operated to ensure each journey is necessary, properly organised and supported (See Appendix 9,
Journey Management Planning).

Management of Change
Any changes in the personnel, vehicles, processes and procedures of land
transport in the company have the potential for adverse effects on health,
safety and the environment. All changes should be considered in this light.
Changes which may be critical to the LTS-MS should be reviewed prior to
Contingency and Emergency Planning
The company should maintain procedures to identify foreseeable emergencies, and develop response plans for such situations (See Appendix 10,
Emergency Response Plans and Procedures).

There should be written procedures for all safety critical land transport
activities. A monitoring system must be in place to ensure that the management system is effective, and that procedures are followed.

Implementation and Monitoring

The land transport activity should be conducted in accordance with the

plans and procedures which have been developed at the transport planning stage and be consistent with the companys Land Transport Safety
Policy and related strategic objectives.


Procedures should be in place for both active and reactive monitoring.

Active Monitoring
Active monitoring provides information on the extent to which LTS-MS
requirements are being complied with, and objectives and performance
criteria are being met.
Reactive Monitoring
Reactive monitoring provides information from the investigation of vehicle
incidents (including near misses, ill-health of drivers, vehicle/asset/environmental damage and safety statistics) that have occurred and provides
insight into the means to prevent similar incidents in the future.
The company should maintain a system of records in order to demonstrate the extent of compliance with its LTS-MS policy and to document
the extent to which planned objectives and performance criteria have
been met, e.g.:
reports of inspections, audits, reviews and follow-up actions;
investigation of incidents and follow-up actions;
maintenance reports;
training records; and
security incidents.
Corrective Action
The company should define who is responsible for initiating corrective
action in the event of non-compliance with specific requirements of the
LTS-MS. Situations of non-compliance may be identified by the monitoring
programme, via communications from employees, contractors, customers,
regulatory authorities, the general public or from incident investigations.

Audit and Review

A system of planned and systematic audits of land transport operations

together with management reviews of performance should be established and maintained as a normal part of the land transport operations.
The audit plan should identify specific areas to be audited, the frequency
of those audits and the responsibilities for auditing specific
activities/areas. Audit frequency should be determined by the degree of
risk and the results of previous audits and inspections.
Audit protocols should be established which ensure that adequate
resources, personnel requirements and methodologies are in place for
the audit, together with procedures for reporting audit findings and tracking the implementation status of audit recommendations.

Management Review
Senior management should carry out a review of the land transport management system at appropriate intervals to ensure its continuing suitability and effectiveness for the ongoing operations.
The review should include audit findings and the status of audit recommendations as well as reports from incident investigations. The review should
consider the continuing suitability of land transport policy and procedures
and should consider any changes in recognising hazards and assessing
risks and changes to the system or procedures since the last review.
The management review should be recorded.



The purpose of this Appendix is to provide management with a simple
checklist of the key features of a LTS-MS.
Is there a documented LTS-MS in place?
Are strategic objectives clearly defined and published?

Land Transport Management

System Checklist

Responsibility and Accountability

Are responsibilities for land transport management defined for:
operating (dedicated) vehicles;
supplying and/or maintaining vehicles;
driver training and qualifications;
monitoring drivers safety performance;
monitoring contractor safety performance; and
line supervisors monitoring the driving performance of subordinates?
Methods of Transportation
Has the need to use land transport been carefully considered against
other alternatives?
Vehicle SelectionFitness for Purpose
Does the vehicle selection process involve end user departments as
well as the supplier department?
Are design and performance features verified against critical
specifications and regulatory requirements?
Are specifications for support vehicles in non-transport contracts
defined and verified by a similar process?
Vehicle Allocation
Is allocation of vehicles based on transport need, minimising
unnecessary exposure to traffic hazards?
Is the use of personally allocated vehicles for social and domestic
purposes addressed in a policy statement?
Are vehicle allocations formally reviewed periodically?
Land Transport Contracts
Does the contractor company have a land transport management
Is pre-contract assessment made of all contractors equipment,
personnel and safety management?
Are detailed standards for driver qualifications and experience, driver
training, vehicle operating procedures and maintenance requirements
included in tender documentation?
Are control and review mechanisms included in contracts?
Do vehicle operating procedures define maximum driving hours, rest
stops and work cycles?
Is sub-contracting controlled within the main contract?
Vehicle Support in Contracts
Are vehicles supporting contractor activities required to meet the same
standards as those in main transport contracts?
Is the suitability of vehicles, drivers and management mechanisms
verified during pre-contract and pre-selection?
Driver Authorisation, Testing and Training
Is authorisation to drive on company business given in writing to
employees and visitors?



Are employees required to drive on company business verified as

meeting company standard?

Is authorisation to drive company vehicles for leisure purposes established?
Is a system in place to verify that operators and contractors

employees meet agreed standards and/or:

is company verification extended to contractors employees;
does the company have a policy on driving training, which defines
for each job the type of training and refresher frequency; and
is the training programme properly resourced (no significant backlog)?

Vehicle Operating Standards

Are clear operating standards available to all drivers, covering:
seat belts;
other protection for driver and passengers, e.g. roll cages;
speed limits; and
tyre pressures and condition?
Do procedures include:
journey management;
defect reporting;
accident reporting; and
maintenance schedules?

Vehicle Maintenance Standards

Do vehicle maintenance standards include:
pre-use inspections;
routine maintenance frequency (time-/kilometre-based);
scope of standard maintenance checks;
criteria for verification of maintenance standards; and
roadworthiness tests following damage repairs?
Monitoring and Review Mechanisms
Are the following mechanisms for monitoring and review in place:
driver authorisation and training status;
vehicle type and equipment standards;
vehicle allocation;
audit of driver training;
progress against safety plans (e.g. number and type of inspections,
audits and training programmes);
a system to challenge the need for transport and monitor the effects
of change;
reporting of vehicle defects, unsafe loads and dangerous road conditions;
a system for obtaining and acting upon information from weather forecasts;
records of driver attendance levels at safety meetings;
analysis of results, status and follow-up action of audit programmes,
inspections and safety audits;
feed-back from supervisors and drivers;
driver performance assessments of competence (considered most
staff performance appraisal and absenteeism records;
shift cycles, duty hours and rest periods;
vehicle maintenance programmes;
monitoring fuel consumption of vehicles;
incident investigation and review;
reporting of unsafe loads and vehicle defects;
maintaining company HSE statistical data; and
monitoring number of accidents, average costs of accidents and total
cost of accidents?



Driver management is a key part of the land transport management system. This appendix provides guidance to managers and supervisors to
assist them in the management of all drivers, both professional and nonprofessional.

Driver Management

Driver Management Procedures

The company should develop procedures for the effective day-to-day management of drivers. Procedures should be stated clearly, and include:
selection and recruitment;
competence assessment and training requirements;
control of driving and duty hours;
daily care of vehicles and equipment;
application of a substance abuse policy;
disciplinary matters for non-compliance with safety instructions; and
Driver Selection
Driver selection procedures should cover:
age and experience;
language (understanding written and verbal instructions);
driving record and appropriate licences;
driving skills and knowledge of defensive driving;
attitude to substance abuse;
level of general education;
previous training and qualifications;
understanding of the highway code and awareness of key land
transport safety issues; and
cargo and product knowledge.
Age and Experience
Young or inexperienced drivers are generally more likely to be involved in
serious incidents than older drivers. Companies may have a policy in
respect of driver minimum and maximum age and a specified period of
previous driving experience of similar types and size of vehicles.
A medical examination by an authorised doctor is recommend as a part of
the selection process. Further information on this subject can be obtained
from external medical guidelines (e.g. E&P Forum Health Assessment of
Fitness in the E&P Industry, Report No 6.46/228) or equivalent national
General Education
Drivers need to be literate and numerate in order to follow written work
instructions, read maps and safety bulletins etc. It is recognised, however,
that this requirement cannot always be met. In such circumstances, particular care will be required during the selection process with respect to
the other qualities required and in the subsequent training programmes
and modes of communication.
Drivers Safety Clothing
There is a degree of protection which should be worn by drivers, especially when carrying out loading and off-loading operations. This can be



supplemented by additional protection for abnormal circumstances as and

when required e.g. when handling hazardous cargo.

Drivers Hours
An important factor in vehicle incidents is driver fatigue. Work schedules
should be arranged so that drivers do not exceed specified daily and
weekly periods of duty, which include both driving and other work related



The extent and nature of training should be sufficient to ensure compliance with the companys LTS-MS policy and objectives. Such training
should meet or exceed that required by legislation and regulations.
Appropriate records should be maintained. Refresher training should be
scheduled as necessary.

Driver Training

Training Process
Any training undertaken must provide the desired outcomes and enhance
the performance of both the individual and the organisation. Positive attitudes required to achieve safe operating standards are a product of a successful safety management system which includes training as one of its
Identify training needs

In general, training may be required in the following situations:

where a newly recruited driver is involved;
where some aspect of drivers performance (knowledge, skill or
attitude) does not meet current requirements/standards;
where aspects of the drivers job is about to change (such as
promotion, new duties, new type of vehicle, procedures or
environment); and
where refresher training is deemed necessary.
Define Training Objectives

Once all needs are identified, objectives must be set. These must be clear,
achievable and measurable. Objectives may fall into two categories:
Individual goals: statements relating to the ability to carry out a
particular process or task, e.g. at the end of the course the trainee will
be able to ; and
Organisational goals: to fit corporate LTS-MS targets, such as a
reduction in vehicle incidents.
Implement Training

The training given must be interesting and stimulating and the content
should meet the defined needs.
Evaluate Training

The effectiveness of the training should be measured against the objectives set.
A practical demonstration of knowledge and ability is an effective way to
assure that the training objectives have been achieved.

Driver-Induction Training
A high percentage of vehicle incidents involve drivers in their first twelve
months with a company. Hence, following selection, the importance of
induction training, supervision by senior drivers, and continuous assessment needs to be stressed.
Newly appointed drivers should attend a driving induction course before
being allowed to drive on company business. The course should be specific to the job requirement and should include the following topics:
main features of the LTS-MS, highlighting key policies, rules and
local culture and attitude to driving;



vehicle and driver documentation requirements;

local traffic regulations, traffic signs and markings;
local incident black spots;
the risks of driving and the common causes of incidents;
transport incident prevention measures:
journey management (including maximum driving and duty hours,
formal rest periods);
defensive driving techniques;
the effects of medication and substance abuse;
vehicle design, specification and condition; and
the benefits of vehicle safety features (including use of seat belts);
responsibility for care, cleanliness, inspection and maintenance of
vehicles and associated equipment;
product or cargo knowledge (as appropriate);
when and where to use Personal Protective Equipment;
emergency procedures including product or cargo characteristics; and
essential elements of incident reporting.

At the end of induction training each driver should be given written reference material, which should preferably be in the form of a Drivers
Handbook, containing information and instructions which will help him to
undertake his duties safely and efficiently (see Appendix 6, Drivers

Further Driver Training

As soon as practicable, and preferably within three months of being
appointed as a driver working on company business, a further comprehensive driver training course should be attended.
Refresher Training
Following the initial induction and training course, refresher training should
be provided at regular intervals, the actual frequency depending on the circumstances prevailing within each company. This can take various forms
and could be modularised, but should cover the key training issues facing
the company in the context of the local driving standards and conditions.
One of the main challenges will be to retain the interest of the driver, so
simple repeats of the first course should be avoided. A workshop style format is an alternative approach, where drivers can become directly involved
in the safety improvement process.
Use of Senior Drivers for Training and Coaching
The use of senior drivers can be an effective method to assist in induction training of new drivers. Such positions can be used as career development opportunities for experienced drivers. Senior drivers need to
demonstrate above average driving skills and be capable of working
effectively in a coaching and monitoring role. As well as evaluating new
recruits and carrying out periodic reviews of existing fleet drivers and
their vehicles, they have a key role to play in the quality control aspects
of all driving activities.
Company Licence
Authorisation to drive on company business may be given in writing in the
form of a company licence and should be subject to having completed
the required training and/or competence assessment to an acceptable
standard. The driving permit should include:
drivers name;
drivers photograph;
employee identification code/number;



company name;
date of expiry of permit (usually two to three years linked to refresher

training and satisfactory medical);

type of vehicle that the driver is eligible to drive;
signature of driver; and
signature and date of issuing authority.



Communication and Motivation Methods to
Improve Land Transport Safety

HSE Committee/Land Transport Safety Committee

An HSE Committee under the chairmanship of a senior manager can be a
useful channel for communication. Companies operating a fleet of vehicles, particularly in challenging environments, may form a Land Transport
Safety Committee. The chairman should be a member of the related HSE
Committee and have line responsibility for land transport operations. The
HSE/LTS Committee should meet on a regular basis to review:
all elements of the LTS-MS;
the implementation of the LTS-MS plan;
land transport statistical performance data;
incident reports;
safety suggestions from the work force;
safety promotion;
issues relating to industry committees and government bodies;
new legislation;
contractor audit programme and reports/vehicle inspections and
follow-up as necessary; and
relevant minutes and action items arising out of other meetings.
Safety Promotion
The effective promotion of safety in the company is essential if positive
attitudes are to be fostered. Promotional campaigns and materials may
include some of the following:
safety posters displayed in drivers mess rooms (posters need to be
changed regularly if they are to have an impact);
safety quiz competitions;
safety notice boards showing number of kilometres driven without
warning notices of road works and incident black spots; and
safety theme of the week/month.
Driver Meetings
Regular meetings for drivers should be held to discuss vehicle safety
issues which may cover:
matters arising from other meetings/committees;
specific safety concerns of management/awareness programmes;
driver safety concerns/initiatives;
current safety performance;
tachograph infringements;
unsafe situations at work sites;
specific hazardous situations on traffic black spots;
safety issues associated with the vehicles;
safety promotional activities;
results of any vehicle incident analysis reports; and
new legislation.
The results of drivers meetings should be documented. Copies should
also be sent to Safety Committees as appropriate.

Tool Box Meetings

Safety tool box meetings, lasting between 5 and 10 minutes, offer a very
effective mode of communication between supervisors and drivers.
Ideally they should be held daily and cover a specific safety point, linked
where appropriate to conditions prevailing on the day (e.g. poor visibility).



Tool box meetings can be supported by a weekly one page safety flash
covering a particular point of concern.

Because of the nature of driving activities, drivers may have little regular
contact with supervisors which can lead to difficulties in maintaining effective motivation. Supervisors and managers should show a genuine interest
in the welfare of drivers, the tasks they perform and their achievements.
This interest and recognition of skills, knowledge and good performance
will assist in developing a sense of self-esteem and pride in the job.
Whenever possible drivers should be consulted on matters affecting their
job and working environment.
Drivers must be aware that good safety performance is one of the principal objectives of supervisors and management. The rationale of policies
and procedures and the consequences of not following them should be
clearly communicated.



Risk Evaluation and Management of
Land Transport

Evaluating the Risks

The following hazards should be considered in the risk evaluation. A hazard register should be compiled.
The Driver

Incident investigations indicate that human behaviour is a primary cause in

the majority of vehicle incidents. A number of driver-related hazards exist.
The driver could be:
untrained for type of vehicle he is required to drive;
unaware of the risks;
without defensive driving skills;
not medically fit (ref. Health Assessment of Fitness to Work in the
E&P Industry, E&P Forum Report No 6.46/228);
under the influence of medication or substance abuse;
suffering from stress;
lacking in attention;
lacking judgement or experience;
not using safety or protective devices (seat belts etc.);
lacking in knowledge of cargo or product;
asleep at the wheel; or
blinded by glare, obstructions, dirty windscreen.
The Vehicle

Hazards associated with vehicles include:

inadequate selection criteria;
poor design/inadequate specification/unfit for purpose;
lack of specific safety features (e.g. side and rear guard protection);
inadequate maintenance.(e.g. defective or worn tyres);
inadequate procedures for dealing with defects;
overloading or inappropriate weight distribution; and
poor housekeeping.
External Environment

Incident investigations indicate that external factors are a significant cause

of fatal incidents. The specific hazards of regular routes or particular activities will be known to the drivers and they should be directly involved in the
risk management process. In some cases it may prove necessary to eliminate the use of certain high risk routes.
External hazards may include:
rapidly expanding vehicle ownership and untrained drivers;
drivers of third party vehicles;
cultural norms and lack of safety awareness e.g. unaware
inadequate vehicle safety legislation and inadequate law enforcement;
sabotage or hijack of vehicles and cargoes;
poor design and maintenance of roads;
hazardous driving features such as steep hills, narrow bridges, hair-pin
bends, complex road junctions, steep drops and ditches, floods,
landslides, rock falls and dangerous objects adjacent to the road,
temporary obstructions such as parked vehicles and road works;
off-road operations;
lack of effective traffic control measures;
little or no segregation of vehicles from pedestrians/livestock/wild



nature of terrain (e.g. mountains, deserts, swamps);

heat, humidity and glare;
dust, rain, snow, ice, fog;
hours of daylight;
insects, wild animals;
pollen; and
work demands (speed, short cuts, overload).

Risk Assessment
The level of risk associated with each of the identified hazards can be
assessed after the probability of occurrence is determined and the possible consequences are defined.
Risk Management
A variety of risk reduction measures may be employed, appropriate to the
nature, probability and severity of the LTS-MS. Prevention measures are
designed to prevent the realization of hazards. Such measures include:
reducing the exposure of drivers and passengers to unnecessary
reducing fuel consumption and thereby reducing emissions to the
limiting systems; and
vehicle data recorders.
These may also include organisational and system measures, such as:
intrinsically safer designs;
quality assurance, maintenance and inspection procedures;
scheduling plans that take account of human factors;
clear and well-communicated work instructions, e.g. Drivers
use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) when transporting
hazardous cargoes; and
substance abuse programmes.

Measures are also required to mitigate or lessen the adverse effects, in

the event that an incident prevention measure fails. Such measures
include, amongst others:
air bags;
safety belts;
head restraints; and
roll bars.



Drivers Handbook

Many companies will already have driver handbooks in place. However,

where these are not available the following framework may be considered. The handbook should be kept in the vehicle cab. Driver handbooks
should be regularly reviewed.

1. Foreword
2. Company Land Transport Safety Policy
3. Emergency Telephone Numbers
4. The Professional Driver
risks of driving
common causes of incidents
vehicle incident prevention measures
defensive driving and drivers responsibilities
company safety rules
product/cargo information
5. Legal Responsibilities (as applicable)
driving hours and rest periods
what to do when an incident occurs
weight limits
authorised routes and parking areas
6. Vehicle Cleanliness
washing vehicles and cab cleanliness and housekeeping
safe use of cleaning materials
7. Loading and unloading
instructions on correct loading and unloading
emergency uplift and cargo handling equipment
specialist cargo handling
passenger care
8. Technical
vehicle operation
vehicle safety features
9. Emergency Response
incident procedures
cargo shedding and spill containment
breakdown procedures
first aid
fire fighting



This appendix provides guidance to managers and supervisors to assist
them in the management of vehicle operations. The management of vehicle operations should take into account the following.
Vehicle operations should take account of the journey management
Freight should only be carried on vehicles that are properly designed
for the purpose.
Vehicles should not be overloaded.
Attention should be given to positioning of heavy or dense loads so as
not to overload or damage any part of the vehicle or to affect its
Freight should be securely fixed before movement and proper use
made of pallets and dunnage. All freight vehicles should be equipped
with securing equipment (including lashings, chains, binders, nets as
necessary) and there should be clear instructions as to its proper use.
The vehicle should have adequate locking and security, particularly for
the transportation of hazardous materials (a safe/secure parking area
should be provided for overnight stops).
Drivers should be briefed on the special provisions applicable to the
load and their understanding of those provisions checked before
movement. When transporting chemicals or materials of a hazardous
nature the driver must be competent to handle any incident that may
occur. The relevant Materials Safety Data Sheets must also be carried
on the vehicle.
Potentially reactive chemicals or materials should be segregated so
that they cannot be brought into contact with each other.
The company should comply with government or other local
regulations and restrictions including such aspects as route
restrictions, requirements for police escort, action in event of
obstructions, etc. This may be equally applicable to wide/high loads.
Where journeys by road are part of an international journey which
may include other transport modes (rail, sea, air) the requirements
for freight classification packaging and labelling may need to comply
with the requirements of internationally-based recommendations/
Audio-visual warning devices for reversing will help avoid third party
crush incidents.
Carriage of passengers and freight in same vehicle.

Vehicle Operations

Carriage of Passengers and Freight in Care Vehicles

Passengers and freight should be carried in separate compartments; there
should be a means of securing freight to the vehicle, i.e. securely attaching boxes to the vehicle. Conversion of a vehicle designed to carry freight
to passenger carrying should include safe means of boarding and should
comply with local regulations. All fuel containers should be correctly and
clearly labelled, and should not be carried inside passenger compartments.
Vehicle cleanliness both in the cab and outside are an important part of vehicle safety. Procedures regarding the cleaning of vehicles externally and
internally should be documented and form part of the drivers handbook.



Passenger Compartments
All seating should be securely fixed; passengers should be seated whilst
travelling. The maximum passenger load should be indicated on the vehicle. There should be means for the driver to observe passengers carried in
the rear of the vehicle. On trucks, buggies and semi-trailers converted to
passenger carrying service, fixed sides should be fitted to the passenger
space at least to the height of seated passengers. For off road, rough road
and all uses with significant risk of roll over, all occupants should have roll
bar protection. The occupants of light commercial vehicles should be protected by a steel body shell if roll bar protection is not provided. Sideways
facing seats should be avoided where possible.
Seat Belts
The use of seat belts by all occupants of cars, vans and goods vehicles
should be mandatory. Belts should be of the lap/sash configuration incorporating automatic retraction and deceleration activated emergency locking mechanismsoften referred to as inertia reels. Where there are
more than two seats in a row, lap belts are acceptable for centre seat passengers. For vehicles used in off road operations, consideration may need
to be given to the use of four point harnesses. Where a vehicle has rear
seats, except for buses, these seats should be fitted with seat belts. On
buses, seat belts should be worn by the driver and front seat passengers
and, as a minimum, by all passengers seated in front of an open space,
e.g. on a rear seat facing the aisle or on a seat adjacent to the doorway.
Speed Limits
Speed limits set for premises and road systems should be seen to be
enforced by line management. Speed limits where defined shall be prominently displayed in all vehicles. Speed limiting rules for vehicles on public
roads should be set with caution. Enforcing compliance with a limit which
is significantly lower than the limit set by traffic authorities or lower than
local norms may increase vehicle hazards due to overtaking.
Tyre Pressures and Condition
Tyres are an important safety feature requiring careful selection, and operators should be guided by manufacturers recommendations. The condition of tyres has a significant effect on vehicle steering, road holding, fuel
consumption and braking performance. Tyres need to be maintained at the
correct operating pressure. The tyre pressures recommended should be
displayed on vehicles and drivers should be given the means to check
them. Drivers should be responsible for checking tyre condition on a regular basis, and reporting any deficiencies.
Electronic Tachographs (Vehicle Data Recorders)
Electronic tachographs/vehicle data recorders are an effective way of monitoring: driving hours; duty hours; rest periods; acceleration and braking
rates; speeds and unscheduled stops.



Supervisors and drivers should ensure that all vehicles are roadworthy and
correctly fitted with the appropriate safety equipment before a journey
commences. Care of the vehicle should be the responsibility of the driver.
Both driver and supervisor have the following responsibilities in respect of
vehicle care:
daily and weekly inspections of the vehicle on the basis of checklists
(tyres, fluids, brakes, steering, batteries, lights etc.);
ensuring defects that have an immediate effect on safety are reported
and that they have been repaired before the vehicle is put back into
ensuring that non-critical defects are attended to in a timely manner;
ensuring that servicing and maintenance are carried out as scheduled.

Care and Maintenance of Vehicles

Drivers should be seen as professionals and be expected to take full

responsibility for safety and the safety status of the vehicle. This responsibility can be enhanced by linking drivers to specific vehicles.

In order to ensure that proper levels of safety are maintained, all vehicles
should be subject to a regular road worthiness inspection, the frequency
of which should be determined on the basis of local regulations, manufacturers recommendations, vehicle age, distances travelled and operating
Management should therefore ensure road worthiness of all vehicles by
implementation of an effective maintenance programme which should
setting of appropriate maintenance standards;
establishment of schedules for inspection and testing;
ensuring check-lists cover all safety related items;
availability of appropriately qualified and equipped staff with efficient
working facilities to adequately inspect and maintain vehicles;
an adequate supply of spare parts;
an effective system for drivers to report defects;
a procedure for vehicles to be taken out of service until critical defects
are rectified;
ready access for drivers to maintenance, inspection and current defect
status reports; and
special detailed inspection and repair procedures for vehicles involved
in incidents.



Journey Management Planning

Journey Management Objectives

to assure the health and safety of all travellers and reduce risk
to challenge the need for unnecessary journeys and to undertake only
the minimum number of journeys necessary;
to maximise the efficiency of each journey;
to avoid or minimise the effect of all identified hazards likely to be
to be able to recover in a timely manner from any incident;
to monitor journey performance; and
to ensure that drivers are fully aware of journey plans and any hazards.
Journey Planning
Once the need for a journey has been established then aspects of journey
management should be introduced which will assist in reducing the risk of
an incident. Systems need to be in place for:
selecting appropriate vehicle for the taskmaximise payload carried to
minimise number of journeys;
establishing and controlling maximum speeds;
controlling duty hours and rest periods;
establishing standard journey times;
implementing optimum time for travel and driver shift patterns;
route identification and planning, avoiding high risk areas where
possible (poor road surface, delay situations, urban congestion);
setting designated routes for certain categories of vehicles (height,
width, length, weight, cargo);
provision of auxiliary equipment, e.g. tow chains, shovels, ice chains,
survival kits, extra wheels, extra fuel, vehicle parts (lamps, fuses, filters,
fan belts, radios, emergency flares, emergency locator beacons);
checking survival kit contents, e.g. to verify that they are the correct
type for the season and sufficient for the number of travellers;
checking that sufficient fuel is provided for the journey, allowing for
detours or long stretches of slow speeds and that fuel is available en
checking that correct maps and, where appropriate, compasses or
Global Satellite Positioning System (GPS) units are carried;
the provision of communication systems in the vehicle (e.g. mobile
phones or radios etc.);
establishing agreed stopover points en route and reporting status back
to base at regular intervals;
authorising and recording deviations from the planned route;
designating contact points for advising base, both en route and at end
of journey;
recording the journey details, times, locations to be visited and number
of people travelling;
the driver to maintain a log of the journey details;
emergency response and provision of resources for search and rescue;
recording of travellers with special skills e.g. first aid, survival training,
recovery training;
awareness of special health hazards associated with the region where
vehicles will transit;
avoiding roadworks; and
implementing changes due to weather conditions.



The roles and responsibilities of employees dealing with emergencies
should be documented. To assess the effectiveness of response plans,
procedures should be established to test emergency plans by scenario
drills and other suitable means, at appropriate intervals, and to revise them
as necessary in the light of the experience gained. Procedures should also
be in place for the periodic assessment of emergency equipment needs
and the maintenance of such equipment in a ready state.

Emergency Response Plans and Procedures

Emergency plans should be based on risk assessments and could include:

driver lost in hostile environment;
vehicle stolen or sabotaged;
vehicle off the road;
overturned vehicle;
vehicle fire/explosion in various situations (urban, isolated);
single/multi fatality collisions;
loss of cargo/load;
leaking hazardous cargo;
cargo or product fire;
tyre fire;
hazardous chemical incident;
pollution (water, land, air); and
trailer incidents (detachment, cargo loss).
Responses should be documented for each event where a significant risk
has been assessed.
Roles and responsibilities of the company, contractors, vehicle recovery
specialists, authorities and emergency services will vary from country to
country. In all cases, however, effective working relationships and channels of communication need to be developed.
Every vehicle should carry instructions for emergency services or other
third parties to alert the vehicle owners in an emergency, which can be
used 24 hours each day. Effective communication is vital in dealing with
an off-site emergency such as a traffic incident. Consideration should be
given to fitting mobile radios or telephones, and where vehicles are operating in remote areas, consideration should be given to fitting GPS (Global
satellite positioning systems).
In some operations it is impractical to have a single telephone point of call
and in such cases it is important that multiple contact numbers are clearly
differentiated from one another, e.g. by providing a map showing the
areas in which the number applies.
Procedures dealing with medical emergencies should be developed.
Incidents involving injury to people usually occur away from the depot or
operating location. The provision of medical response should be identified.



Post-Incident Procedures

Post-incident procedures fall into four phases:

initial incident report;
making the scene safe;
treatment of injured; and
vehicle recovery.

Initial incident report

The initial incident report should contain the following information:
location, cause, time, urgency, anyone injured;
details of vehicle, damage and its situation;
description of terrain, how far from road and route in;
weather conditions;
how many people available to assist;
whether radio contact possible with location; and
any additional support required for personnel at the scene.
Making the scene safe
The following issues need to be considered:
additional hazards, e.g. traffic, terrain, weather, time of day;
hazard warning signs, traffic control (positioning of other vehicles);
initial radio alert, location/time and preliminary assessment;
use of bystanders or uninjured;
maintenance of access for emergency services (crowd control);
fire fighting, e.g. correct extinguisher application to vehicle fire and
running fires;
fire prevention, e.g. isolate ignition/master switches, batteries, fuel spills;
dangerous cargo, e.g. fuel, chemicals, explosives;
unstable vehiclesif a hazard, make safe using material to hand;
location and condition of injured;
control and use of bystanders; and
second radio alertdetails of injured and support needed.
Treatment of Injured
The following issues should be considered:
safety of self and injuredremove danger;
leave injured in place unless under threat;
identify injured with life threatening conditions and treat (airways, heart
stoppage, major bleeding);
stabilise vehicle to prevent further injury from vehicle movement;
if access to injured is difficult, move vehicle carefully, otherwise gain
access through windscreen or windows;
be prepared for spinal injuries and, where required, fit cervical collars;
never leave the unconscious unattended;
leave the minor injured or secondary minor injuries to lastreassure;
record vital signs; and
ensure that everyone is accounted for.
Suitable personnel should be trained in advanced procedures for the maintenance of life, how to take charge in a medical emergency, and record
vital signs and patient history until superior medical support arrives.

Vehicle Recovery
Vehicle recovery is hazardous and should only be undertaken by a trained
specialist using equipment dedicated for recovery purposes.



Recovery Scene Assessment

Time spent on assessment is never wasted and the recovery team should consider:
whether the route in is suitable as the way out;
soil type, e.g. whether hard, soft, wet, muddy etc.;
condition of incident vehicle, e.g. whether on wheels/tracks, rolled over;
damage to incident vehicle, e.g. brakes locked or free, gear seized;
position of incident vehicle in relation to terrain;
danger from incident vehicle, e.g. hydraulic/air pressure;
danger from cargo or spillages;
obstacles, natural or otherwise; and
natural features of vehicles to be used to advantage.
The Recovery Plan
When planning recovery operations, consideration should be given to:
the pull to overcome, mass, incline, soil resistance and damage, and
application of safety factor;
ensure that the equipment applying the pull is adequate and meets
safety requirements;
the route out: this may not be straight and more than one recovery rig
may be required; an assessment of where to anchor the recovery rig
should also be made; and
the type of recovery rig available, its advantages and disadvantages.
The Recovery Operation
A safe and effective recovery will involve the following procedures:
attachment of recovery rig to the incident vehicles strong points;
laying out the rig, using mechanical advantage;
testing each element for security;
prestressing of rig for safety check;
clearing area of unnecessary personnel;
confirming with recovery crew that the command signals are understood;
commencement of recovery, monitoring for safety;
when incident vehicle is on firm ground make securerecover and
stow equipment;
check incident vehicle for damage, and prepare for towing; and
leave incident area safe and clear of debris.