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CHAPTER 17

OXIDATION-REDUCTION
SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

Oxidation of a metal occurs when the metal loses electrons. The easier it is for a metal to
lose electrons, the more active the metal is.

2.

(a)
(b)

3.

The higher metal on the list is more reactive.


(a) Al
(b) Ba
(c)

Iodine is oxidized. Its oxidation number increases from 0 to +5.


Chlorine is reduced. Its oxidation number decreases from 0 to -1.

Ni

4.

If the free element is higher on the list than the ion with which it is paired, the reaction
occurs.
(a) Yes. Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)
(b) No reaction
(c) Yes. Sn(s) + 2 Ag +(aq) Sn2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
(d) No reaction
(e) Yes. Ba(s) + FeCl 2(aq) BaCl 2(aq) + Fe(s)
(f) No reaction
(g) Yes. Ni(s) + Hg(NO3)2(aq) Ni(NO3)2(aq) + Hg(l)
(h) Yes. 2 Al(s) + 3 CuSO4(aq) Al 2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 Cu(s)

5.

Copper is more active than silver. Therefore, copper undergoes oxidation more easily
than silver. Accordingly, it is more difficult for copper ion to undergo reduction than it is
for silver ion. When a silver wire is placed in a solution of copper (II) nitrate one might
predict that copper crystals would form on the silver wire. However for copper to go from
an oxidation state of +2 to an oxidation state of 0 it would have to gain electrons
(reduction) and silver would have to lose electrons (oxidation). This will not happen
because copper is more active than silver.

6.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

2 Al + Fe 2O3 Al 2O3 + 2 Fe + Heat


Al is above Fe in the activity series, which indicates Al is more active than Fe.
No. Iron is less active than aluminum and will not displace aluminum from its
compounds.
Yes. Aluminum is above chromium in the activity series and will displace Cr 3+
from its compounds.
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- Chapter 17 -

7.

(a)

2 Al(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 AlCl 3(aq) + 3 H 2(g)


2 Al(s) + 3 H 2SO4(aq) Al 2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 H 2(g)

(b)

2 Cr(s) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 CrCl 3(aq) + 3 H 2(g)


2 Cr(s) + 3 H 2SO4(aq) Cr2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 H 2(g)

(c)

Au(s) + HCl(aq) no reaction


Au(s) + H 2SO4(aq) no reaction

(d)

Fe(s) + 2 HCl(aq) FeCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)


Fe(s) + H 2SO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + H 2(g)

(e)

Cu(s) + HCl(aq) no reaction


Cu(s) + H 2SO4(aq) no reaction

(f)

Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)


Mg(s) + H 2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H 2(g)

(g)

Hg(l) + HCl(aq) no reaction


Hg(l) + H 2SO4(aq) no reaction

(h)

Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ZnCl 2(aq) + H 2(g)


Zn(s) + H 2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H 2(g)

8.

The oxidation number for an atom in an ionic compound is the same as the charge of the
ion that resulted when that atom lost or gained electrons to form an ionic bond. In a
covalently bonded compound electrons are shared between the two atoms making up the
bond. Those shared electrons are assigned to the atom in the bond with a higher
electronegativity giving it a negative oxidation number.

9.

In an electrolytic cell the anode is the positively charged electrode and attracts negatively
charged ions (anions). The cathode is the negatively charged electrode and attracts positively
charge ions (cations). In a voltaic cell the anode is the negatively changed electrode where
oxidation occurs. The cathode is the positively charged electrode where reduction occurs.

10.

(a)
(b)

Oxidation occurs at the anode. The reaction is


2 Cl-(aq) Cl 2(g) + 2 e Reduction occurs at the cathode. The reaction is
Ni2+(aq) + 2 e - Ni(s)

(c)

The net chemical reaction is


Ni2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)

electrical
energy

" Ni(s) + Cl (g)


2
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- Chapter 17 -

11.

In Figure 17.3, electrical energy is causing chemical reactions to occur. In Figure 17.4,
chemical reactions are used to produce electrical energy.

12.

(a)
(b)

It would not be possible to monitor the voltage produced, but the reactions in the
cell would still occur.
If the salt bridge were removed, the reaction would stop. Ions must be mobile to
maintain an electrical neutrality of ions in solution. The two solutions would be
isolated with no complete electrical circuit.

13.

Oxidation and reduction are complementary processes because one does not occur
without the other. The loss of e - in oxidation is accompanied by a gain of e - in reduction.

14.

Ca2+ + 2 e - Ca
2 Br - Br2 + 2 e -

15.

During electroplating of metals, the metal is plated by reducing the positive ions of the
metal in the solution. The plating will occur at the cathode, the source of the electrons. With
an alternating current, the polarity of the electrode would be constantly changing, so at one
instant the metal would be plating and the next instant the metal would be dissolving.

16.

Since lead dioxide and lead(II) sulfate are insoluble, it is unnecessary to have salt bridges
in the cells of a lead storage battery.

17.

The electrolyte in a lead storage battery is dilute sulfuric acid. In the discharge cycle,
SO4 2-, is removed from solution as it reacts with PbO2 and H + to form PbSO4(s) and
H 2O. Therefore, the electrolyte solution contains less H 2SO4 and becomes less dense.

18.

If Hg 2+ ions are reduced to metallic mercury, this would occur at the cathode, because
reduction takes place at the cathode.

19.

In both electrolytic and voltaic cells, oxidation and reduction reactions occur. In an
electrolytic cell an electric current is forced through the cell causing a chemical change to
occur. In voltaic cells, spontaneous chemical changes occur, generating an electric current.

20.

In some voltaic cells, the reactants at the electrodes are in solution. For the cell to function,
these reactants must be kept separated. A salt bridge permits movement of ions in the cell.
This keeps the solution neutral with respect to the charged particles (ions) in the solution.

cathode reaction, reduction


anode reaction, oxidation

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CHAPTER 17
SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
1.

The oxidation number of the underlined element is indicated by the number following the
formula.
PbO2 +4
(a) NaCl +1
(c)
(e) H 2SO3 +4
NaNO3 +5
NH 4Cl -3
(b) FeCl 3 -1
(d)
(f)

2.

The oxidation number of the underlined element is indicated by the number following the
formula.
(a)
(b)

3.

NH 3
KClO3

-3
+5

S2-2
NO2 +3

(c)
(d)

(e)
(f)

K 2CrO4
K 2Cr2O7

+6
+6

Na 2O2 -1
Bi3+
+3

O2
0
3AsO4
+5

(c)
(d)

Fe(OH)3
IO3 -

-2
+5
Changing
Element

Balanced half-reaction
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

6.

(c)
(d)

The oxidation number of the underlined element is indicated by the number following the
formula.
(a)
(b)

5.

+7
0

The oxidation number of the underlined element is indicated by the number following the
formula.
(a)
(b)

4.

KMnO4
I2

Zn2+ + 2 e - Zn
2 Br - Br2 + 2 e MnO4 - + 8 H + + 5 e - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O
Ni Ni2+ + 2 e -

Balanced half-reactions
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

SO3 2- + H 2O SO4 2- + 2 H + + 2 e NO3 - + 4 H + + 3 e - NO + 2 H 2O


S2O4 2- + 2 H 2O 2 SO3 2- + 4 H + + 2 e Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + 1 e -

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Zn
Br
Mn
Ni

Type of
reaction
reduction
oxidation
reduction
oxidation

Changing
Element

Type of
reaction

S
N
S
Fe

oxidation
reduction
oxidation
oxidation

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7.

(1)

Cr + HCl CrCl 3 + H 2
(a)
(b)

(2)

SO4 2- + I - + H + H 2S + I 2 + H 2O
(a)
(b)

8.

(1)

(a)
(b)
(c)

As is oxidized, Ag is reduced
Ag + is the oxidizing agent, AsH 3 the reducing agent

Cl 2 + NaBr NaCl + Br2


(a)
(b)

9.

I is oxidized, S is reduced
SO4 2- is the oxidizing agent, I - the reducing agent

AsH 3 + Ag + + H 2O H 3AsO4 + Ag + H +
(a)
(b)

(2)

Cr is oxidized, H is reduced
HCl is the oxidizing agent, Cr the reducing agent

Br is oxidized, Cl is reduced
Cl 2 is the oxidizing agent, NaBr the reducing agent

correctly balanced
correctly balanced
incorrectly balanced
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) + H 2(g)

(d) incorrectly balanced


3 CH 3OH(aq) + Cr2O7 2- (aq) + 8 H + (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 3 CH 2O(aq) + 7 H 2O(l)
10.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

incorrectly balanced
3 MnO2(s) + 4 Al(s) 3 Mn(s) + 2 Al 2O3(s)
correctly balanced
correctly balanced
incorrectly balanced
8 H 2O(l) + 2 MnO4 - (aq) + 7 S2- (aq) 2 MnS(s) + 16 OH - (aq) + 5 S(s)

11.

Balancing oxidation-reduction equations


(a)
ox
red

Zn + S ZnS
Zn0 Zn2+ + 2 e S0 + 2 e - S2Zn + S ZnS

Add half-reactions
the 2 e - cancel
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(b)
ox
red

AgNO3 + Pb Pb(NO3)2 + Ag
Pb 0 Pb 2+ + 2 e Ag + + 1 e - Ag 0
Pb + 2 Ag + Pb 2+ + 2 Ag

Multiply by 2, add the half-reactions


the 2 e - cancel

Transfer the coefficients to the original equation and complete the balancing
by inspection.
2 AgNO3 + Pb Pb(NO3)2 + 2 Ag
(c)
ox
red

Fe 2O3 + CO Fe + CO2
C 2+ C 4+ + 2 e Fe 3+ + 3 e - Fe 0
3 C 2+ + 2 Fe 3+ 3 C 4+ + 2 Fe

Multiply by 3
Multiply by 2, add, the 6 e - cancel

Transfer the coefficients to the original equation (the coefficient 2 in front of


the Fe 3+ becomes the subscript 2 in Fe 2O3). Complete the balancing by
inspection.
Fe 2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2
(d)

H 2S + HNO3 S + NO + H 2O
S2- S0 + 2 e N 5+ + 3 e - N 2+
3 S2- + 2 N 5+ 3 S + 2 N 2+

Multiply by 3
Multiply by 2, add, the 6 e -

Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
3 H 2S + 2 HNO3 3 S + 2 NO + 4 H 2O
(e)

MnO2 + HBr MnBr2 + Br2 + H 2O


Br - Br 0 + 1 e Mn4+ + 2 e - Mn2+
Mn4+ + 2 Br - Mn2+ + 2 Br 0

Multiply by 2
Add equations and the 2 e - cancel

Transfer the coefficients to the original equation. The coefficient 2 in front of the
Br - becomes the subscript 2 in the Br2 . Also, 2 more Br - ions are required to
account for the 2 Br - ions that do not change oxidation numbers. These 2 are part
of the compound MnBr2 .
MnO2 + 4 HBr MnBr2 + Br2 + 2 H 2O
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- Chapter 17 -

12.

(a)

Balancing oxidation-reduction equations


Cl 2 + KOH KCl + KClO3 + H 2O
Cl0 Cl5+ + 5 e Cl0 + e - ClMultiply by 5, add, the 5 e - cancel
3 Cl 2 Cl5+ + 5 Cl6 Cl0 becomes 3 Cl 2
Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
3 Cl 2 + 6 KOH KClO3 + 5 KCl + 3 H 2O

(b)

Ag + HNO3 AgNO3 + NO + H 2O
Ag 0 Ag + + e Multiply by 3, add,
5+
2+
the 3 e - cancel
N + 3e N
3 Ag + N 5+ 3 Ag + + N 2+
Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
3 Ag + 4 HNO3 3 AgNO3 + NO + 2 H 2O

(c)

CuO + NH 3 N2 + Cu + H 2O
N 3- N 0 + 3 e Multiply by 2
2+
0
Cu + 2 e Cu
Multiply by 3, add, the 6 e - cancel
2 N 3- + 3 Cu2+ N2 + 3 Cu
Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
3 CuO + 2 NH 3 N2 + 3 Cu + 3 H 2O

(d)

PbO2 + Sb + NaOH PbO + NaSbO2 + H2O


Sb0 Sb3+ + 3 eMultiply by 2
4+
2+
Pb + 2 e Pb
Multiply by 3, add, the 6 e - cancel
2 Sb + 3 Pb4+ 2 Sb3+ + 3 Pb2 +
Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
3 PbO2 + 2 Sb + 2 NaOH 3 PbO + 2 NaSbO2 + H 2O

(e)

H 2O2 + KMnO4 + H 2SO4 O2 + MnSO4 + K 2SO4 + H 2O


O2 2- O2 0 + 2 e Multiply by 5
7+
2+
Mn + 5 e Mn
Multiply by 2, add, the 10 e - cancel
5 O2 2- + 2 Mn7+ 5 O2 + 2 Mn2+
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- Chapter 17 -

Transfer the coefficients to the original equations and complete the balancing by
inspection.
5 H 2O2 + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H 2SO4 5 O2 + 2 MnSO4 + K 2SO4 + 8 H 2O
13.

(a)

Zn + NO3 - Zn2+ + NH 4 +
Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Zn Zn2+
NO3 - NH 4 +

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


Zn Zn2+
10 H + + NO3 - NH 4 + + 3 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


Zn Zn2+ + 2 e 10 H + + NO3 - + 8 e - NH 4 + + 3 H 2O

Step 4

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons


4 (Zn Zn2+ + 2 e -)
10 H + + NO3 - + 8 e - NH 4 + + 3 H 2O

Step 5

Add the half-reactionselectrons cancel


10 H + + 4 Zn + NO3 - 4 Zn2+ + NH 4 + + 3 H 2O

(b)

NO3 - + S NO2 + SO4 2Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


S SO4 2NO3 - NO2

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


4 H 2O + S SO4 2- + 8 H +
2 H + + NO3 - NO2 + H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


4 H 2O + S SO4 2- + 8 H + + 6 e 2 H + + NO3 - + e - NO2 + H 2O
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Step 4 and 5

(c)

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


4 H 2O + S SO4 2- + 8 H + + 6 e 6 (2 H + + NO3 - + e - NO2 + H 2O)
4 H + + S + 6 NO3 - 6 NO2 + SO4 2- + 2 H 2O
4 H 2O, 8 H + and 6 e - canceled from each side

PH 3 + I 2 H 3PO2 + I Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


PH 3 H 3PO2
I 2 2I -

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


2 H 2O + PH 3 H 3PO2 + 4 H +
I2 2 I -

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


2 H 2O + PH 3 H 3PO2 + 4 H + + 4 e I2 + 2 e - 2 I -

Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


2 H2O + PH3 H3PO2 + 4 H+ + 4 e2 (I2 + 2 e- 2 I-)
PH3 + 2 H2O + 2 I2 H3PO2 + 4 I- + 4 H +

(d)

Cu + NO3 - Cu2+ + NO
Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Cu Cu2+
NO3 - NO

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


Cu Cu2+
4H + + NO3 - NO + 2 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


Cu Cu2+ + 2 e 4H + + NO3 - + 3 e - NO + 2 H 2O
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Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


3 (Cu Cu2+ + 2 e -)
2 (4 H + + NO3 - + 3 e - NO + 2 H 2O)
3 Cu + 8 H + + 2 NO3 - 3 Cu2+ + 2 NO + 4 H 2O

(e)

ClO3 - + Cl- Cl 2
Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Cl- Cl0
ClO3 - Cl0

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


Cl- Cl0
6 H + + ClO3 - Cl0 + 3 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


Cl- Cl0 + e 6 H + + ClO3 - + 5 e - Cl0 + 3 H 2O

Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


5 (Cl- Cl0 + e -)
6 H + + ClO3 - + 5 e - Cl0 + 3 H 2O
6 H + + ClO3 - + 5 Cl- 3 Cl 2 + 3 H 2O

14.

(a)

ClO3 - + I - I 2 + ClStep 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


2 I - I2
ClO3 - Cl-

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


2 I - I2
6 H + + ClO3 - Cl- + 3 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


2 I - I2 + 2 e 6 H + + ClO3 - + 6 e - Cl- + 3 H 2O
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Step 4 and 5

(b)

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


3 (2 I - I 2 + 2 e -)
6 H + + ClO3 - + 6 e - Cl- + 3 H 2O
6 H + + ClO3 - + 6 I - 3 I 2 + Cl- + 3 H 2O

Cr2O7 2- + Fe 2+ Cr 3+ + Fe 3+
Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Fe 2+ Fe 3+
Cr2O7 2- 2 Cr 3+

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


Fe 2+ Fe 3+
14 H + + Cr2O7 2- 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + e 14 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O

Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


6 (Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + e -)
14 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O
14 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 6 Fe 2+ 2 Cr 3+ + 6 Fe 3+ + 7 H 2O

(c)

MnO4 - + SO2 Mn2+ + SO4 2Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


SO2 SO4 2MnO4 - Mn2+

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


2 H 2O + SO2 SO4 2- + 4 H +
8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


2 H 2O + SO2 SO4 2- + 4 H + + 2 e 8 H + + MnO4 - + 5 e - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O
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Step 4 and 5

(d)

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


5 (2 H 2O + SO2 SO4 2- + 4 H + + 2 e -)
2 (8 H + + MnO4 - + 5 e - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O)
2 H 2O + 2 MnO4 - + 5 SO2 4 H + + 2 Mn2+ + 5 SO4 28 H 2O, 16 H +, and 10 e - canceled from each side

H 3AsO3 + MnO4 - H 3AsO4 + Mn2+


Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


H 3AsO3 H 3AsO4
MnO4 - Mn2+

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4
8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4 + 2 e 8 H + + MnO4 - + 5 e - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O

Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


5 (H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4 + 2 e -)
2 (8 H + + MnO4 - + 5 e - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O)
6 H + + 5 H 3AsO3 + 2 MnO4 - 5 H 3AsO4 + 2 Mn2+ + 3 H 2O
5 H 2O, 10 H +, and 10 e - canceled from each side

(e)

Cr2O7 2- + H 3AsO3 Cr 3+ + H 3AsO4 (acidic solution)


Step 1

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


H 3AsO3 H 3AsO4
Cr2O7 2- 2 Cr 3+

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4
14 H + + Cr2O7 2- 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4 + 2 e 14 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O
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Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


3 (H 2O + H 3AsO3 2 H + + H 3AsO4 + 2 e -)
14 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ + 7 H 2O
8 H + + Cr2O7 2- + 3 H 3AsO3 2 Cr 3+ + 3 H 3AsO4 + 4 H 2O
3 H 2O, 6 H +, and 6 e - canceled from each side

15.

(a)

(basic solution)
Cl 2 + IO3 - Cl- + IO4 Step 1
Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.
IO3 - IO4 Cl 2 2 ClStep 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


H 2O + IO3 - IO4 - + 2 H +
Cl 2 2 Cl-

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


2 OH - + H 2O + IO3 - IO4 - + 2 H + + 2 OH Cl 2 2 Cl-

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


2 OH - + H 2O + IO3 - IO4 - + 2 H 2O
Cl 2 2 Cl2 OH - + IO3 - IO4 - + H 2O
Cl 2 2 Cl

Step 5

(1 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


2 OH - + IO3 - IO4 - + H 2O + 2 e Cl 2 + 2 e - 2 Cl-

(b)

Step 6

Electron loss and gain is balanced

Step 7

Add half-reactions
2 OH - + IO3 - + Cl 2 IO4 - + 2 Cl- + H 2O

MnO4 - + ClO2 - MnO2 + ClO4 (basic solution)


Step 1
Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.
ClO2 - ClO4 MnO4 - MnO2
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Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


2 H 2O + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 4 H +
MnO4 - + 4 H + MnO2 + 2 H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


4 OH - + 2 H 2O + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 4 H + + 4 OH 4 OH - + MnO4 - + 4 H + MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


4 OH - + 2 H 2O + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 4 H 2O
4 H 2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH 4 OH - + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 2 H 2O
-

2 H 2O + MnO4 MnO2 + 4 OH
Step 5

(2 H 2O cancelled)
(2 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


4 OH - + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 2 H 2O + 4 e 2 H 2O + MnO4 - + 3 e - MnO2 + 4 OH -

Step 6 and 7

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


3 (4 OH - + ClO2 - ClO4 - + 2 H 2O + 4 e -)
4 (2 H 2O + MnO4 - + 3 e - MnO2 + 4 OH -)
2 H 2O + 4 MnO4 - + 3 ClO2 - 4 MnO2 + 3 ClO4 - + 4 OH 6 H 2O, 12 OH -, and 12 e - canceled from each side

(c)

Se SeO3 2- + Se 2Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Se SeO3 2Se Se 2-

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


3 H 2O + Se SeO3 2- + 6 H +
Se Se 2-

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


6 OH - + 3 H 2O + Se SeO3 2- + 6 H + + 6 OH Se Se 2- 269 -

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Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


6 OH - + 3 H 2O + Se SeO3 2- + 6 H 2O
Se Se 26 OH - + Se SeO3 2- + 3 H 2O

Step 5

(3 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


6 OH - + Se SeO3 2- + 3 H 2O + 4 e Se + 2 e - Se 2-

Step 6 and 7

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


6 OH - + Se SeO3 2- + 3 H 2O + 4 e 2 (Se + 2 e - Se 2-)
6 OH - + 3 Se SeO3 2- + 2 Se 2- + 3 H 2O

(d)

Fe 3O4 + MnO4 - Fe 2O3 + MnO2


Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3
MnO4 - MnO2

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


H 2O + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + 2 H +
4 H + + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


2 OH - + H 2O + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + 2 H + + 2 OH 4 OH - + 4 H + + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


2 OH - + H 2O + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + 2 H 2O
4 H 2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH 2 OH - + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + H 2O
-

2 H 2O + MnO4 MnO2 + 4 OH
Step 5

(1 H 2O cancelled)
(2 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


2 OH - + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + H 2O + 2 e 2 H 2O + MnO4 - + 3 e - MnO2 + 4 OH - 270 -

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Step 6 and 7

(e)

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


3 (2 OH - + 2 Fe 3O4 3 Fe 2O3 + H 2O + 2 e -)
2 (2 H 2O + MnO4 - + 3 e - MnO2 + 4 OH -)
H 2O + 6 Fe 3O4 + 2 MnO4 - 9 Fe 2O3 + 2 MnO2 + 2 OH 3 H 2O, 6 OH -, and 6 e - canceled from each side

(basic solution)
BrO - + Cr(OH)4 - Br - + CrO4 2Step 1
Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.
Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2BrO - Br Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H +
2 H + + BrO - Br - + H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H + + 4 OH 2 OH - + 2 H + + BrO - Br - + H 2O + 2 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O
2 H 2O + BrO - Br - + H 2O + 2 OH H 2O + BrO - Br - + 2 OH -

Step 5

(1 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O + 3 e H 2O + BrO - + 2 e - Br - + 2 OH -

Step 6 and 7

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


2 (4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O + 3 e -)
3 (H 2O + BrO - + 2 e - Br - + 2 OH -)
2 OH - + 3 BrO - + 2 Cr(OH)4 - 3 Br - + 2 CrO4 2- + 5 H 2O
3 H 2O, 6 OH - and 6 e - canceled from each side

16.

(a)

MnO4 - + SO3 2- MnO2 + SO4 2- (basic solution)


Step 1

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


SO3 2- SO4 2MnO4 - MnO2
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Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


H 2O + SO3 2- SO4 2- + 2 H +
MnO4 - + 4 H + MnO2 + 2 H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


2 OH - + H 2O + SO3 2- SO4 2- + 2 H + + 2 OH 4 OH - + MnO4 - + 4 H + MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


2 OH - + H 2O + SO3 2- SO4 2- + 2 H 2O
MnO4 - + 4 H 2O MnO2 + 2 H 2O + 4 OH 2 OH - + SO3 2- SO4 2- + H 2O
-

MnO4 + 2 H 2O MnO2 + 4 OH
Step 5

(1 H 2O cancelled)
-

(2 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


2 OH - + SO3 2- SO4 2- + H 2O + 2 e 3 e - + MnO4 - + 2 H 2O MnO2 + 4 OH -

Step 6 and 7

(b)

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


3 (2 OH - + SO3 2- SO4 2- + H 2O + 2 e -)
2 (MnO4 - + 2 H 2O + 3 e - MnO2 + 4 OH -)
H 2O + 2 MnO4 - + 3 SO3 2- 2 MnO2 + 3 SO4 2- + 2 OH 3 H 2O, 4 OH -, and 6 e - canceled from each side

ClO2 + SbO2 - ClO2 - + Sb(OH)6 Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 ClO2 ClO2 -

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


4 H 2O + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 - + 2 H +
ClO2 ClO2 -

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


2 OH - + 4 H 2O + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 - + 2 H + + 2 OH ClO2 ClO2 - 272 -

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Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


2 OH - + 4 H 2O + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 - + 2 H 2O
ClO2 ClO2 2 OH - + 2 H 2O + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 -

Step 5

(2 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


2 OH - + 2 H 2O + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 - + 2 e ClO2 + e - ClO2 -

Step 6 and 7

(c)

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


2 H 2O + 2 OH - + SbO2 - Sb(OH)6 - + 2 e 2 (ClO2 + e - ClO2 -)
2 H 2O + 2 ClO2 + 2 OH - + SbO2 - 2 ClO2 - + Sb(OH)6 -

Al + NO3 - NH 3 + Al(OH)4 Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Al Al(OH)4 NO3 - NH 3

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H +
9 H + + NO3 - NH 3 + 3 H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


4 OH - + 4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H + + 4 OH 9 OH - + 9 H + + NO3 - NH 3 + 3 H 2O + 9 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


4 OH - + 4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H 2O
9 H 2O + NO3 - NH 3 + 3 H 2O + 9 OH 4 OH - + Al Al(OH)4 -

6 H 2O + NO3 NH 3 + 9 OH
Step 5

(4 H 2O cancelled)
-

Balance electrically with electrons


4 OH - + Al Al(OH)4 - + 3 e 6 H 2O + NO3 - + 8 e - NH 3 + 9 OH - 273 -

(3 H 2O cancelled)

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Step 6 and 7

(d)

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


8 (4 OH - + Al Al(OH)4 - + 3 e -)
3 (6 H 2O + NO3 - + 8 e - NH 3 + 9 OH -)
8 Al + 3 NO3 - + 18 H 2O + 5 OH - 3 NH 3 + 8 Al(OH)4 27 OH - and 24 e - canceled from each side

P4 HPO3 2- + PH 3
Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


P4 4 HPO3 2P4 4 PH 3

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


12 H 2O + P4 4 HPO3 2- + 20 H +
12 H + + P4 4 PH 3

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


20 OH - + 12 H 2O + P4 4 HPO3 2- + 20 H + + 20 OH 12 OH - + 12 H + + P4 4 PH 3 + 12 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


20 OH - + 12 H 2O + P4 4 HPO3 2- + 20 H 2O
12 H 2O + P4 4 PH 3 + 12 OH 20 OH - + P4 4 HPO3 2- + 8 H 2O (12 H 2O cancelled)

Step 5

Balance electrically with electrons


20 OH - + P4 4 HPO3 2- + 8 H 2O + 12 e 12 H 2O + P4 + 12 e - 4 PH 3 + 12 OH -

Step 6 and 7

(e)

Loss and gain of electrons are equal; add half-reactions


8 OH - + 4 H 2O + 2 P4 4 HPO3 2- + 4 PH 3
Divide equation by 2
4 OH - + 2 H 2O + P4 2 HPO3 2- + 2 PH 3

Al + OH - Al(OH)4 - + H 2
Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Al Al(OH)4 OH - H 2

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Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H +
3 H + + OH - H 2 + H 2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H + ions)


4 OH - + 4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H + + 4 OH 3 OH - + 3 H + + OH - H 2 + H 2O + 3 OH -

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


4 OH - + 4 H 2O + Al Al(OH)4 - + 4 H 2O
3 H 2O + OH - H 2 + H 2O + 3 OH 4 OH - + Al Al(OH)4 -

2 H2O + OH H2 + 3 OH
Step 5

(4 H 2O cancelled)
-

(1 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


4 OH - + Al Al(OH)4 - + 3 e 2 H2O + OH- + 2 e- H2 + 3 OH-

Step 6 and 7

17.

(a)

Equalize gain and loss of electrons; add half-reactions


2 (4 OH- + Al Al(OH)4 - + 3 e-)
3 (2 H2O + OH- + 2 e- H2 + 3 OH-)
2 Al + 6 H2O + 2 OH- 2 Al(OH)4 - + 3 H2
9 OH- and 6 e- canceled on each side

IO3 - + I - I 2
Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


2 IO3 - I 2
2 I - I2

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


12 H + + 2 IO3 - I 2 + 6 H 2O
2 I - I2

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


12 H + + 2 IO3 - + 10 e - I 2 + 6 H 2O
2 I - I2 + 2 e -

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Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss, and gain of electrons; add the half-reaction.


12 H + + 2 IO3 - + 10 e - I 2 + 6 H 2O
5 (2 I - I 2 + 2 e -)
12 H + + 2 IO3 - + 10 I - 6 I 2 + 6 H 2O

(b)

Mn2+ + S2O8 2- MnO4 - + SO4 2Step 1

(acid solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O


Mn2+ MnO4 S2O8 2- 2 SO4 2-

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


4 H 2O + Mn2+ MnO4 - + 8 H +
S2O8 2- 2 SO4 2-

Step 3

Balance electrically with electrons


4 H 2O + Mn2+ MnO4 - + 8 H + + 5 e 2 e - + S2O8 2- 2 SO4 2-

Step 4 and 5

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


2 (4 H 2O + Mn2+ MnO4 - + 8 H + + 5 e -)
5 (2 e - + S2O8 2- 2 SO4 2-)
2 Mn2+ + 5 S2O8 2- + 8 H 2O 2 MnO4 - + 10 SO4 2- + 16 H +
Each side has 2 Mn, 10 S, 16 H, and 48 O and a -6 charge.

(c)

Co(NO2)6 3- + MnO4 - Co 2+ + Mn2+ + NO3 Step 1

(acidic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


Co(NO2)6 3- Co 2+ + 6 NO3 MnO4 - Mn2+

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


6 H 2O + Co(NO2)6 3- Co 2+ + 6 NO3 - + 12 H +
8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O

Step 3

Balance electrically with e 6 H 2O + Co(NO2)6 3- Co 2+ + 6 NO3 - + 12 H + + 11 e 5 e - + 8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O


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Step 4

Equalize the loss and gain of electrons.


5 (6 H 2O + Co(NO2)6 3- Co 2+ + 6 NO3 - + 12 H + + 11 e -)

Step 5

11 (5 e - + 8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O)


Add the half-reactions

5 Co(NO2)6 3- + 11 MnO4 - + 28 H + 5 Co 2+ + 30 NO3 - + 11 Mn2+ + 14 H 2O


Each side has 5 Co, 30 N, 11 Mn, 28 H, 104 O and a + 2 charge.
18.

(a)

Mo 2O3 + MnO4 - MoO3 + Mn2+ (acid solution)


Step 1
Write half-reactions equations. Balance except H and O
Mo 2O3 2 MoO3
Step 2

MnO4 - Mn2+
Balance H and O using H 2O and H +
3 H 2O + Mo 2O3 2 MoO3 + 6 H +

Step 3

8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O
Balance electrically with electrons
3 H 2O + Mo 2O3 2 MoO3 + 6 H + + 6 e -

Steps 4 and 5

5 e - + 8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O
Equalize the loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions.
5 (3 H 2O + Mo 2O3 2 MoO3 + 6 H + + 6 e -)
6 (5 e - + 8 H + + MnO4 - Mn2+ + 4 H 2O)
5 Mo 2O3 + 6 MnO4 - + 18 H + 10 MoO3 + 6 Mn2+ + 9 H 2O

(b)

BrO - + Cr(OH)4 - Br - + CrO4 2Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equation. Balance except H and O


BrO - Br Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2-

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


2 H + + BrO - Br - + H 2O
Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H +

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H +)


2 OH - + 2 H + + BrO - Br - + H 2O + 2 OH 4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H + + 4 OH - 277 -

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Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


2 H 2O + BrO - Br - + H 2O + 2 OH 4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O
H 2O + BrO - Br - + 2 OH -

Step 5

(1 H 2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


2 e - + H 2O + BrO - Br - + 2 OH 4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O + 3 e -

Steps 6 and 7

(c)

Equalize loss and gain of electrons; add the half-reactions


3 (2 e - + H 2O + BrO - Br - + 2 OH -)
2 (4 OH - + Cr(OH)4 - CrO4 2- + 4 H 2O + 3 e -)
3 BrO - + 2 Cr(OH)4 - + 2 OH - 3 Br - + 2 CrO4 2- + 5 H 2O

S2O3 2- + MnO4 - SO4 2- + Mn2+


Step 1

(basic solution)

Write half-reaction equations. Balance except H and O.


S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2MnO4 - MnO2

Step 2

Balance H and O using H 2O and H +


5 H 2O + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 10 H +
4 H+ + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H2O

Step 3

Add OH - ions to both sides (same number as H +)


10 OH - + 5 H 2O + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 10 H + + 10 OH 4 OH- + 4 H+ + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H2O + 4 OH-

Step 4

Combine H + and OH - to form H 2O; cancel H 2O where possible


10 OH - + 5 H 2O + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 10 H 2O
4 H2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 2 H2O + 4 OH-

Step 5

10 OH - + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 5 H 2O

(5 H 2O cancelled)

2 H2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 4 OH-

(2 H2O cancelled)

Balance electrically with electrons


10 OH - + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 5 H 2O + 8 e 3 e- + 2 H2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 4 OH- 278 -

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Step 6 and 7

Equalize loss and gain of electrons; add half-reactions.


3 (10 OH- + S2O3 2- 2 SO4 2- + 5 H2O + 8 e - )
8 (3 e- + 2 H2O + MnO4 - MnO2 + 4 OH-)
3 S2O3 2- + 8 MnO4 - + H2O 6 SO4 2- + 8 MnO2 + 2 OH
Each side has 6 S, 8 Mn, 2 H, 42 O and a -14 charge.

19.
Voltage
source

+
Anode (+)

Cathode ()

Br
H3O+
Solution of HBr

20.

(c)

Pb + SO4 2- PbSO4 + 2 e PbO2 + SO4 2- + 4 H + + 2 e - PbSO4 + 2 H 2O


The first reaction is oxidation (Pb 0 is oxidized to Pb 2+).
The second reaction is reduction (Pb 4+ is reduced to Pb 2+).
The first reaction (oxidation) occurs at the anode of the battery.

(a)
(b)
(c)

The oxidizing agent is KMnO4 .


The reducing agent is HCl.
5 moles of electrons 5 e - + Mn7+ Mn2+

(a)
(b)

21.

5 mol e 6.022 * 1023 e electrons

= 3.011 * 1024
mol KMnO4
mol e
mol KMnO4

22.

Zinc is a more reactive metal than copper so when corrosion occurs the zinc preferentially
reacts. Zinc is above hydrogen in the Activity series of metals; copper is below hydrogen.

23.

3 Ag + 4 HNO3 3 AgNO3 + NO + 2 H 2O

(balanced)

g Ag mol Ag mol NO
(25.0 g Ag)a

1 mol Ag
1 mol NO
ba
b = 0.0772 mol NO
107.9 g Ag
3 mol Ag
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24.

3 Cl 2 + 6 KOH KClO3 + 5 KCl + 3 H 2O


mol KClO3 mol Cl 2 L Cl 2
(0.300 mol KClO3)

25.

3 mol Cl2
22.4 L
b = 20.2 L Cl2
a
1 mol KClO3
1 mol

5 H 2O2 + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H 2SO4 5 O2 + 2 MnSO4 + K 2SO4 + 8 H 2O


mL H 2O2 g H 2O2 mol H 2O2 mol KMnO4 g KMnO4
(100. mL H 2O2 solution)a
a

26.

9.0 g H 2O2
1.031 g
1 mol
b
b
a
mL
100. g H 2O2 solution 34.02 g

2 mol KMnO4 158.0 g


ba
b = 17 g KMnO4
5 mol H 2O2
mol

Cr2O7 2- + 3 H 3AsO3 + 8 H + 2 Cr 3+ + 3 H 3AsO4 + 4 H 2O


g H 3AsO3 mol H 3AsO3 mol Cr2O7 2- mL Cr2O7 2(5.00 g H 3AsO3)a

27.

1 mol Cr2O7 21 mol


1000 mL
b
b = 66.2 mL of 0.200 M K 2Cr2O7
a
125.9 g 3 mol H 3AsO3 0.200 mol

Cr2O7 2- + 6 Fe 2+ + 14 H + 2 Cr 3+ + 6 Fe 3+ + 7 H 2O
mL FeSO4 mol FeSO4 mol Cr2O7 2- mL Cr2O7 2(60.0 mL FeSO4)a

0.200 mol 1 mol Cr2O7 21000 mL


b
b
a
1000 mL
6 mol FeSO4
0.200 mol
= 10.0 mL of 0.200 M K2Cr2O7

28.

2 Al + 2 OH - + 6 H 2O 2 Al(OH)4 - + 3 H 2
g Al mol Al mol H 2
(100.0 g Al)a

29.

(a)
(b)

1 mol Al 3 mol H 2
b
= 5.560 mol H 2
26.98 g
2 mol Al

Cu+ Cu2+ is an oxidation, but when electrons are gained reduction should occur.
Cu+ + e - Cu0
or
Cu+ Cu2+ + e 2+
When Pb is reduced, it requires two individual electrons. Pb 2+ + 2 e - Pb 0. An
electron has only a single negative charge (e -).

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30.

The electrons lost by the species undergoing oxidation must be gained (or attracted) by
another species which then undergoes reduction.

31.

A(s) + B2+(aq) NR
B2+ cannot take e - from A
A(s) + C +(aq) NR
C + cannot take e - from A
+
2+
D(s) + 2 C (aq) 2C(s) + D (aq) C + takes e - from D
B(s) + D 2+(aq) D(s) + B2+(aq)
D 2+ takes 2 e - from B
Therefore, B2+ is least able to attract e -, then D 2+, then C +, then A+

32.

Sn4+ can only be an oxidizing agent.

Sn4+ + 2 e - Sn2+
Sn4+ + 4 e - Sn0

Sn0 can only be a reducing agent.

Sn0 Sn2+ + 2 e Sn0 Sn4+ + 4 e -

Sn2+ can be both oxidizing and reducing.

Sn2+ + 2 e - Sn0
Sn2+ Sn4+ + 2 e -

33.

Mn(OH)2
MnF3
MnO2
K 2MnO4
KMnO4

34.

Equations (a) and (b) represent oxidation


(a) Mg Mg 2+ + 2 e (b) SO2 SO3 ; (S4+ S6+ + 2 e -)

35.

(a)

MnO2 + 2 Br - + 4 H + Mn2+ + Br2 + 2 H 2O

(b)

mL Mn2+ mol Mn2+ mol MnO2 g MnO2

+2
+3
+4
+6
+7

KMnO4 is the best oxidizing agent of the group, since its greater
oxidation number (+7) makes it very attractive to electrons.

(100.0 mL Mn2+)a
(c)

(oxidizing)
(reducing)

1 mol MnO2 86.94 g


0.05 mol
b
b = 0.4 g MnO2
a
1000 mL
mol
1 mol Mn2+

1 mol Br2
0.05 mol
b = 0.005 mol Br2
ba
1000 mL 1 mol Mn2+
nRT
PV = nRT
V =
P
0.005 mol 0.0821 L atm
V = a
ba
b (323 K) = 0.09 L Br2 vapor
1.4 atm
mol K
(100.0 mL Mn2+)a

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F2 + 2 Cl- 2 F - + Cl 2
Br2 + Cl- NR
I 2 + Cl- NR
Br2 + 2 I - 2 Br - + I 2

36.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

37.

Mn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) Mn2+(aq) + H 2(g) + 2 Cl-(aq)

38.

4 Zn + NO3 - + 10 H + 4 Zn2+ + NH 4 + + 3 H 2O

39.

Equation 1

See Exercise 13(a).


4

a C oxidized

S oxidized

N oxidized

S oxidized

O2 2- oxidized

O2 reduced

N reduced

Cu reduced

O2 2- reduced

O2 2- reduced

O2 , O.A.

HNO3 , O.A.

CuO, O.A.

H 2O2 , O.A.

H 2O2 , O.A.

C3H 8 , R.A.

H 2S, R.A.

NH 3 , R.A.

Na 2SO3 , R.A.

H 2O2 , R.A.

N 3- N2 0

S4+ S6+

O2 2- O2 0

O2 2- O 2-

O2 2- O 2-

223 +

C 4+ S2- S0

O 0 O 2-

N 5+ N 2+ Cu2+ Cu0

O.A. = Oxidizing agent


R.A. = Reducing agent
40.

Pb + 2 Ag + 2 Ag + Pb 2+
(a) Pb is the anode
(b) Ag is the cathode
(c) Oxidation occurs at Pb (anode)
(d) Reduction occurs at Ag (cathode)
(e) Electrons flow from the lead electrode through the wire to the silver electrode.
(f) Positive ions flow through the salt bridge towards the negatively charged strip of silver;
negative ions flow toward the positively charged strip of lead.
Salt
bridge
Ag

Pb

Pb2+
NO3

Ag+
NO3

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HEINS17-256-283v3.qxd

12/27/06

2:48 PM

Page 283

- Chapter 17 -

41.

8 KI + 5 H 2SO4 4 I 2 + H 2S + 4 K 2SO4 + 4 H 2O
start with grams I 2 and work towards g KI
g I 2 mol I 2 mol KI g KI
(2.79 g I 2)a
a

42.

1 mol
8 mol KI 166.0 g
b
b = 3.65 g KI in sample
a
253.8 g
4 mol I 2
mol

3.65 g KI
b11002 = 91.3% KI
4.00 g sample

3 Ag + 4 HNO3 3 AgNO3 + NO + 2 H 2O
mol Ag mol NO
(0.500 mol Ag)a
PV = nRT
P = (744 torr)a

1 mol NO
b = 0.167 mol NO
3 mol Ag
V =

nRT
P

1 atm
b = 0.979 atm
760. torr

T = 301 K
V =

(0.167 mol NO)(0.0821 L atm>mol K)(301 K)


= 4.22 L NO
(0.979 atm)

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