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Introduction

A power system can be subdivided into three major parts before supplying electrical
energy to consumers :
Generation
Transmission and Subtransmission
Distribution

A generation of electric power is done by using a generators where one of the


essential components of power systems is the three phase ac generator known as
synchronous generator or alternator
ac generators can generate high power at high voltage. typically 30 kV the size of
generators can vary from 50 MW to 1500 MW.
In a power station several generators are operated in parallel in the power grid to
provide the total power needed. They are connected at a common point called a bus.
After the electric power is generated by a generators a step-up transformers are used
for transmission of power to reduce the power losses . These transformers connecting
to the transmission network is used to transfer electric energy from generating units
at various locations to the distribution system which ultimately supplies the load
.Transmission voltage lines operating at more than 60kV are standardized at 69 kV,
115 kV, 138 kV, 161 kV, 230 kV,345 kV, 500 kV, and 765 kV line-to-line.
Transmission voltages above 230 kV are usually referred to as extra-high voltage
(EHV).
At the receiving end of the transmission lines step-down transformers are used to
reduce the voltage to suitable values for distribution or utilization.
The distribution system is that part which connects the distribution substations to the
consumers ' service entrance equipment.
Loads of power systems are divided into industrial, commercial, and residential.
In addition to generators, transformers, and transmission lines, other devices are
required for the satisfactory operation and protection of a power system. Some of the
protective devices directly connected to the circuits are called switchgear. They
include instrument transformers, circuit breakers, disconnect switches, fuses and
lightning arresters. These devices are necessary to deenergize either for normal
operation or on the occurrence of faults. The associated control equipment and
protective relays are placed on switchboard in control houses.

For a power system to be practical it must be safe, reliable, and economical. Thus
many analyses must be performed to design and operate an electrical system.
However, before going into system analysis we have to model all components of
electrical power systems
Power system representation
The complete circuit diagram for a three phase system is seldom necessary to convey
even the most detailed information about a system. Therefore the interconnection
among the components of the power system may be shown in a simplified diagram is
called a single line diagram.
Single line diagram
A single-line diagram of a power system shows the main connections and
arrangements of components . Power system networks are represented by single-line
diagrams using suitable symbols as shown below :

The impedance diagram on single-phase basis for use under balanced operating
conditions can be easily drawn from the single-line diagram such as shown

The impedance diagram can be abbreviated to reactance diagram when the


resistances and capacitors are neglected.

The per unit quantities (pu)


Because of the large amount of power transmitted , kilowatts or megawatts
and kilovolt-ampere or megavolt-ampere are the common terms. However,
these quantities as well as amperes and ohms are often expressed as a
percent or per unit of a base or reference value specified for each.
In the per-unit system, all quantities are represented as a fraction of the base
value:

actualvalue
Quantityin per unit
basevalueof quantity
For example
V(pu) =

actual value of voltage (v)


base value of voltage (v)

I(pu) =

actual value of current (A)


base value of current (A)

Z(pu) =
S(pu) =

actual value of impedance()


base value of impedance()

actual value of appearant power(VA)


base value of appearant power(VA)

If any two of the four base quantities are specified, the other base values can
be calculated. Usually, base apparent power and base voltage are specified
at a point in the circuit, and the other values are calculated from them. The
base voltage varies by the voltage ratio of each transformer in the circuit but
the base apparent power stays the same through the circuit.
Real power systems are convenient to analyze using their per-phase (since
the system is three-phase) per-unit (since there are many transformers)
equivalent circuits. The per-phase base voltage, current, apparent power, and
impedance are

I base

S1 ,base
VLN ,base

Zbase

VLN ,base
I base

LN ,base

S1 ,base

Where VLN,base is the line-to-neutral base voltage in the three-phase circuit


S1,base is the base apparent power of a single phase in the circuit.
The base current and impedance in a per-unit system can also be expressed
in terms of the three-phase apparent power (which is 3 times the apparent
power of a single phase) and line-to-line voltages (which is 3 times the lineto-neutral voltage):

I base

Zbase

S3 ,base
3VLL ,base

VLL ,base
3I base

LL ,base

S3 ,base

Change base impedance


The per-unit impedance may be transformed from one base to another as:

Per unitZ new

Vold Snew
per unitZ old

V
S
new old

Example : a power system consists of one synchronous generator and one


synchronous motor connected by two transformers and a transmission line.
Create a per-phase, per-unit equivalent circuit of this power system using a
base apparent power of 100 MVA and a base line voltage of the generator G1
of 13.8 kV. Given that:
G1 ratings: 100 MVA, 13.8 kV, R = 0.1 pu, Xs = 0.9 pu;
T1 ratings: 100 MVA, 13.8/110 kV, R = 0.01 pu, Xs = 0.05 pu;
T2 ratings: 50 MVA, 120/14.4 kV, R = 0.01 pu, Xs = 0.05 pu;
M ratings: 50 MVA, 13.8 kV, R = 0.1 pu, Xs = 1.1 pu;
L1 impedance: R = 15 , X = 75 .

Solution: To create a per-phase, per-unit equivalent circuit, we need first to


calculate the impedances of each component in the power system in per-unit
to the system base. The system base apparent power is Sbase = 100 MVA
everywhere in the power system. The base voltage in the three regions will
vary as the voltage ratios of the transformers that delineate the regions.
These base voltages are:

Vbase,1 13.8kV Region 1


110
110kV Region 2
13.8
14.4
Vbase,2
13.2kV Region 2
120

Vbase,2 Vbase,1
Vbase,3

The corresponding base impedances in each region are:

Z base,1
Z base,2
Z base,3

VLL ,base 2
S3 ,base

13.8kV

VLL ,base 2
S3 ,base
VLL ,base 2
S3 ,base

100MVA

1.904Region1

110kV

121Region1
100MVA
2

13.2kV

100MVA

1.743Region1

The impedances of G1 and T1 are specified in per-unit on a base of 13.8 kV


and 100 MVA, which is the same as the system base in Region 1. Therefore,
the per-unit resistances and reactances of these components on the system
base are unchanged:
RG1,pu = 0.1 per unit
XG1,pu = 0.9 per unit
RT1,pu = 0.01 per unit
XT1,pu = 0.05 per unit
There is a transmission line in Region 2 of the power system. The impedance
of the line is specified in ohms, and the base impedance in that region is 121
. Therefore, the per-unit resistance and reactance of the transmission line
are:

15
Rline, system
0.124 perunit
121
75
X line, system
0.620 perunit
121
The impedance of T2 is specified in per-unit on a base of 14.4 kV and 50
MVA in Region 3. Therefore, the per-unit resistances and reactances of this
component on the system base are:

per unitZ new per unitZ given Vgiven Vnew Snew S given
2

RT 2, pu 0.0114.4 13.2 100 50 0.238 perunit


2

X T 2, pu 0.05 14.4 13.2 100 50 0.119 perunit


2

The impedance of M2 is specified in per-unit on a base of 13.8 kV and 50


MVA in Region 3. Therefore, the per-unit resistances and reactances of this
component on the system base are:

per unitZ new per unitZ given Vgiven Vnew Snew S given
2

RM 2, pu 0.114.8 13.2 100 50 0.219 perunit


2

X M 2, pu 1.114.8 13.2 100 50 2.405 perunit


2

Therefore, the per-phase, per-unit equivalent circuit of this power system is


shown:

node equation
When the per-unit equivalent circuit of a power system is created, it can be used to
find the voltages, currents, and powers present at various points in a power system.
The most common technique used to solve such circuits is nodal analysis.
In nodal analysis, we use Kirchhoffs current law equations to determine the voltages
at each node (each bus) in the power system, and then use the resulting voltages to
calculate the currents and power flows at various points in the system.
For example a simple three-phase power system bellow

The per-unit equivalent circuit of this power system:

Note that the per-unit series impedances of the transformers and the transmission
lines between each pair of busses have been added up, and the resulting
impedances were expressed as admittances (Y=1/Z) to simplify nodal analysis.
The voltages between each bus and neutral are represented by single subscripts (V1,
V2) in the equivalent circuit, while the voltages between any two busses are indicated
by double subscripts (V12).
The generators and loads are represented by current sources injecting currents into
the specific nodes. Conventionally, current sources always flow into a node meaning
that the power flow of generators will be positive, while the power flow for motors
will be negative.
According to Kirchhoffs current flow law (KCL), the sum of all currents entering
any node equals to the sum of all currents leaving the node. KCL can be used to
establish and solve a system of simultaneous equations with the unknown node
voltages.
Assuming that the current from the current sources are entering each node, and that
all other currents are leaving the node, applying the KCL to the node (1) yields:

V1 V2 Ya V1 V3 Yb V1Yd I1
Similarly, for the nodes (2) and (3):

V2 V1 Ya V2 V3 Yc V2Ye I 2
V3 V1 Yb V3 V2 Yc V3Y f I3
Rearranging these equations, we arrive at:

Ya Yb Yd V1 YaV2 YbV3 I1
YaV1 Ya Yc Ye V2 YcV3 I 2

YbV1 YcV2 Yb Yc Y f V3 I 3

In matrix form:

Ya Yb Yd

Ya

Yb

V1 I1
Ya
Yb

Ya Yc Ye
Yc
V2 I 2
Yc
Yb Yc Y f V3 I 3

Which is an equation of the form:

YbusV I
where Ybus is the bus admittance matrix of a system, which has the form:

Ybus

Y11 Y12 Y13


Y21 Y22 Y23
Y31 Y32 Y33

Ybus has a regular form that is easy to calculate:


1) The diagonal elements Yii equal the sum of all admittances connected to node i.
2) Other elements Yij equal to the negative admittances connected to nodes I and j.
3) The diagonal elements of Ybus are called the self-admittance or driving-point
admittances of the nodes; the off-diagonal elements are called the mutual
admittances or transfer admittances of the nodes.
4) Inverting the bus admittance matrix Ybus yields the bus impedance matrix:

Zbus Ybus

Simple technique for constructing Ybus is only applicable for components that are not
mutually coupled. The technique applicable to mutually coupled components can be
found elsewhere.
Once Ybus is calculated, the solution to (10.15.1) is

1
bus

V Y I
V bus I
A number of techniques can be used to solve systems of simultaneous linear
equations, such as substitution, Gaussian elimination, LU factorization, etc.
A system of n linear equations in n unknowns

Ax b
where A is an n x n matrix and b is and n-element column vector; the solution will be

xA b
where A-1 is the n x n matrix inverse of A.
Example 10.3: a power system consists of four busses interconnected by five
transmission lines. It includes one generator attached to bus 1 and one synchronous
motor connected to bus 3.

The per-phase, per-unit equivalent circuit is shown.


We observe that all impedances are considered as pure reactances to simplify the case
since reactance is much larger than resistance in typical transformers, synchronous
machines, and overhead transmission lines.
Find the per-unit voltage at each bus in the power system and the per-unit current
flow in line 1.

The first step in solving


for bus voltages is to convert the voltage sources into the equivalent current sources
by using the Nortons theorem. Next, we need to convert all of the impedance
values into admittances and form the admittance matrix Ybus then use it to solve for
the bus voltages, and finally use voltages on buses 1 and 2 to find the current in line
1.
First, we need to find the Norton equivalent circuits for the combination of G1 and T1.
The Thevenin impedance of this combination is ZTH = j1.1, and the short-circuit
current is

Voc 1.110
I sc

1.0 80
ZTH
j1.1

The combination of M3 and T2 is shown.


The Thevelin impedance of this combination is ZTH = j1.6, and the short-circuit
current is

I sc

Voc 0.9 22

0.563 112
ZTH
j1.6

I sc

Voc 0.9 22

0.563 112
ZTH
j1.6

The Nortons equivalent circuit.


The per-phase, per-unit circuit with the current sources included

The resulting
admittance matrix is:

Ybus

j 5.0
0
j 6.667
j12.576
j 5.0

j
12.5
j
5.0
j
2.5

0
j 5.0 10.625
j 5.0

j
6.667
j
2.5
j
5.0

j
14.167

The current vector for this circuit is:

1.0 80

I
0.563 112

The solution to the system of equations will be

0.989 0.60
0.981 1.58
1
V
V Ybus
I
0.974 2.62

0.982 1.48
The current in line 1 can be calculated from the equation:

I1 V1 V2 Yline1 0.989 0.60 0.981 1.58 j5.0


0.092 25.16