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VARIABLE LOADS

1. A Diesel power plant has a maximum demand of 120 MW with a load factor of 0.80 and
capacity of 0.6. Estimate the plant capacity.
A. 100 MW
B. 160 MW
C. 180 MW
D. 200 MW
Solution:
Average
load
Loadfactor
Peakload

0.80

Average
load
120

Average
load 96 kw

Usefactor
0.60

Average
load
Plantcapacity

96
Plantcapacity

Plantcapacity
160 kw
2. Calculate the MW power capacity of a Geothermal plant with a load factor of 0.82 and 120
MW peak load. The operation is limited to 8500 hours a year with a use factor of 0.70.
A. 175
B. 199
C. 233
D. 145
Solution:
Average
load
Loadfactor
Peakload

0.82

Average
load
120

Average
load 98.4 kw

Usefactor
0.70

Average
load
Plantcapacity

98.4
Plantcapacity

Plantcapacity
144.9 kw
3. A given equipment consumes 5000 kw-hr/month at 24% rated plant capacity. It operates at
24 hours, 30 days/month. What is the rated capacity?
A. 17.50 kw
1

B. 23.90 kw
C. 28.90 kw
D. 82.94 kw
Solution:
kw hr 1 month 1 day

Average
load 5000

month 30 days 24 hrs

Average
load 6.94 kw
Plant factor
0.24

Average
load
Ratingof equipment

6.94
Ratingof equipment

Ratingof equipment
28.93 kw
4. A central station is supplying energy to a community through two substations. One substation
feeds four distribution circuits; the other, six. The maximum daily recorded demandsare:
Power station
12,000 kw
Substation A
6,000 kw
Feeder 1
1700
Feeder 2
1800
Feeder 3
2800
Feeder 4
600
Substation B
9,000 kw
Feeder 1
620
Feeder 2
1500
Feeder 3
1000
Feeder 4
2900
Feeder 5
2200
Feeder 6
3000
Calculate the diversity factor among feeders in substation B.
A. 1.05
B. 1.25
C. 1.15
D. 1.35
Solution:
Diversity factors among feeders in Substation B
sumof individualmaximumdemand
of eachfeeder

maximumdemand
of substation
B

600 1500 1000 2900 2200 3000


9000

1.247

5. The annual peak load on a 15,000-kw power plant is 10,500 kW. Two substations are being
supplied by this plant. Annual energy dispatched through substation A is 27,500,000 kW-hr
with a peak at 8,900 kw, while 16,500,000 kW-hr are being sent through substation B with a
peak at 6,650 kw. Neglecting line losses, find the capacity factor of the power plant.
A. 0.353
B. 0.533
2

C. 0.335
D. 0.535
Solution:

Plantcapacityfactor

actualenergyproduced
maximumpossibleenergyforthesameperiod

Plantcapacityfactor

27 ,500 ,000 16 ,500 ,000 kw hr


15,000 kw 8760 hr

Plantcapacityfactor 0.335
6. A power plant is said to have had a use factor of 48.5% and a capacity factor of 42.4%. How
many hours did it operate during the year?
A. 7660
B. 8760
C. 8920
D. 10,020
Solution:
actualkwhrproduced
Plantusefactor
kwplantcapacity
operating
hours
Plantcapacityfactor

actualkwhrproduced
kwplantcapacity
8760 hours

Therefore
Plantusefactor
8760 hrs

Plantcapacityfactor operating
hours

8760 hrs
48.5

42.4 operating
hours
operating
hours 7660 hrs
7. A distribution transformer supplies a group of general power customers having a connected
load of 186 kw. If energy sells at 3.5 cents per kW-hr, what will be the monthly income from
energy delivered through this transformer having an average motor efficiency of 75%.
General data:
Demand factor 0.75
Diversity Factor 1.50
Load factor
0.45
A. P1,047.00
B. P1,074.00
C. P1,407.00
D. P1,470.00
Solution:
Actual maximum demand = demand factor x connected load
Actual maximum demand = 0.75 x 186 = 139.5 kw
Simultaneous maximum demand = sum of individual maximum demands / diversity factor
Simultaneous maximum demand = 139.5 / 1.5 = 93 kw
With 75% motor efficiency
Simultaneous maximum demand = 93 / 0.75 = 124 kw
Average load on transformer = load factor x peak load
3

Average load on transformer = 0.45 x 124 = 55.8 kw


Kw-hrs delivered monthly = (55.8 kw)(30 days/mo.)(24 hrs/day)
Kw-hrs delivered monthly = 40,176 kw-hrs/mo.
Monthly income from energy delivered = (0.035/kw-hr)(40,176 kw-hr/mo.)
Monthly income from energy delivered = P1,406.16
8. A daily load curve which exhibited a 15-minute peak of 6,520 kW is drawn to scales of 1 cm =
2 hrs and 1 cm = 500 kw. The area under the curve is measured by a planimeter and found to
be 48.72 cm2. Determine the load factor based on the 15-minute peak.
A. 0.211
B. 0.411
C. 0.311
D. 0.511
Solution:
1 cm2 = 500(2) = 1000 kw-hrs
Average load = (48.72 cm2)(1000 kw-hrs/cm2)( 1 day/24 hours)
Average load = 2030 kw
Load factor = Average load / Peak load
Load factor = 2030 / 6520
Load factor = 0.311
9. A unit is rated at 80,000 kW. It operates for 6950 hrs during the year and generates
350,000,000 kW-hr. With a peak load of 75,500 kW, calculate the capacity factor.
A. 50%
B. 53%
C. 79%
D. 65%
Solution:
350 ,000 ,000
Capacityfactor
0.50 50%
8760 80,000
10.A 25,000 kW plant has a utilization factor of 71% and a load factor of 39.6%. What is the
average load on the plant in kW?
A. 24,850
B. 13,860
C. 9,841
D. 19,521
Solution:
Average load = (0.396)(25,000 kW) = 9,900 kW
11.A steam cycle produces 40 MW of power, 50 MW of process heat and rejects 60 MW of heat.
What is the utilization factor for this cycle?
A. 50%
B. 60%
C. 70%
D. 80%
Solution:

40 50
0.60 60%
40 50 60

Utilization Factor =
12.For a certain power plant, the load factor is 48%. The plant capacity is 42 MW. If the reserve
over peak is 5 MW and the number of hours the plant not in service per year is 420, calculate
the plant capacity factor.
A. 0.324
B. 0.387
C. 0.423
4

D. 0.46
Solution:
PlantCapacity
Factor

Energyproduced
peryear

Plantcapacity Hoursperyear

Energy produced Average Load Hours per year

LoadFactor

Average
Load
PeakLoad

PeakLoad PlantCapacity
Rese
rveOverPeak
PeakLoad 42 5 37 MW

Average
Load 0.48 37 17.76MW
PlantCapacity
Factor

PlantCapacity
Factor

Energyproduced
peryear
Plantcapacity
Hoursperyear

17.76 MW 8760 hrs year


0.423 42.3%
42 MW 8760 hrs year

13.The reserve over and above the peak load of a power station is 20 MW. For an annual factors
as follows: load, 75% and capacity, 60%; determine the rated capacity of the power plant.
A. 60 MW
B. 75 MW
C. 100 MW
D. 44.44 MW
Solution:
(Load Factor)(Peak Load) = (Capacity Factor)(Rated Capacity) = Average Load
(0.75)(Peak Load) = (0.60)(Rated Capacity)
Rated Capacity Peak Load = 20 MW = Reserve
(0.75)(Rated Capacity 20) = (0.60)(Rated Capacity)
Rated Capacity = 100 MW
14.A power plant is to have had a use factor of 46.5% and a capacity factor of 40.5%. Determine
the number of hours did the plant operated during the year.
A. 7269
B. 7962
C. 7629
D. 7692
Solution:
Energyproduced
peryear
PlantCapacity
Factor
Plantcapacity no. of hrsperyear
PCF

AEP 8760
PC 8760

PlantUseFactor

AEP
PC

Energyproduced
peryear
Plantcapacity No. of hoursnotin operationperyear

PUF

AEP 8760

PC Hoursnotin operationperyear

AEP
:
PUF PC Hoursnotin operationperyear
PCF PC
8760

Equate

Hoursnotin operation
peryear

PCF 8760 0.405 8760


PUF

0.465

7629 .677 hrs

FUELS AND COMBUSTION


15.Find the air fuel ratio, in kg air per kg of fuel, for a combustion process to which the fuel is
C8H20 with 20% excess air.
A. 15.7
B. 18.5
C. 19.7
D. 20.5
Solution:
C8H20 aO2 a 3.76 N2 bCO2 cH2O a 3.76 N2
Solving for a, b and c
C8H20 13O2 13 3.76 N2 8CO2 10H2O 13 3.76 N2

Wta

13 32 13 3.76 28
15.38
812 201

Waa 1.20Wta 1.2015.38 18.456

16.A fuel gas has the following volumetric analysis:


CH4 = 68%
C2H6 = 32%
Assume complete combustion with 30% excess air at 101.325 kPa, 21 C wet bulb and 27 C
dry bulb. What is the partial pressure of the water vapor in kPa?
A. 8.62
B. 19.28
C. 16.94
D. 14.24
Solution:
Theoretical Air
0.68CH4 0.32C2H6 aO2 a 3.76 N2

bCO2 cH2O a 3.76 N2

0.68CH4 0.32C2H6 2.48O2 2.48 3.76 N2


1.32CO2 2.32H2O 2.48 3.76 N2
With 30% Excess air

0.68CH4 0.32C2H6 2.481.3 O2 2.481.3 3.76 N2

1.32CO2 2.32H2O 0.3 2.48 O2 2.481.3 3.76 N2

Total moles in products = 1.32 + 2.32 + 0.3(2.48) + +1.3(2.48)(3.76)


Total moles in products = 16.506
Partial pressure = (2.32 / 16.506)(101.325) = 14.24 kPa
17.A diesel electric plant supplies energy for MECO. During a 240hr period, the plant consumed
300 gallons of fuel at 28 C and produced 4900 kw-hr. Industrial fuel used is 32 API and was
purchased at P32.0 per liter at 15.6 C. What should the cost of fuel to produce one kw-hr?
A. P7.05
B. P7.35
C. P7.69
D. P6.00
Solution:
Computing for price per kg from per liter at 15.6 C
141 .5
SG15.6
API 131 .5

SG15.6

141 .5
0.8654
32 131 .5

Density at 15.6 C = 0.8654 (1 kg/L) = 0.8654 kg/L


Price per kg = P32 / 0.8654 =P 36.977 per kg
Converting 300 gal per kw-hr to kg per kw-hr at 28 C
SGt SG15.6 1 0.0007 t 15.6
SG28 0.8654 1 0.0007 28 15.6

SG28 0.8579

300 gal
3.7854 L 0.8579 kg
kg

0.1988
4900 kw hr
gal
L
kw hr
Cost per kw-hr = 0.1988 x P 36.977 = P7.35 per kw-hr
18.Calculate the mass of the combustion products of a diesel fuel oil (C 16H30) with 30% excess air
if the mass of fuel is 30 kg.
A. 18.97 kg
B. 169.1 kg
C. 599.1 kg
D. 569.1 kg
Solution:
C16H30 aO2 a 3.76 N2 bCO2 cH2O a 3.76 N2
Solving for a, b and c
C16H30 23.5O2 23.5 3.76 N2 16CO2 15H2O 23.5 3.76 N2

Wta

23.5 32 23.5 3.76 28


14.53
1612 301

Waa 1.30Wta 1.3014.53 18.889

mf = 30 kg
Mass of product of combustion
7

= (1 + Wta)mf = (1+18.889)(30) = 596.67 kg


19.A mixture of 101 kPa and 23 C that is 30% by weight CO 2 and 70% by weight N2, determine
the partial pressure of CO2.
A. 3.182 kPa
B. 21.65 kPa
C. 100 kPa
D. 25 kPa
Solution:
nCO2
P
pCO2
nT T

For 100 kg of gas mixture:


Mass
Mol
CO2 = 30 kg
30/44 = 0.682 mol
N2 = 70 kg
70/28 = 2.5 mol
nT = 0.682 + 2.5 = 3.182 mol
0.682
pCO2
101 21.65 kPa
3.182
20.Find the air fuel ratio, in kg air per kg fuel, for a combustion process to which the fuel is C 8H20
with 30% excess air.
A. 3.76
B. 10
C. 13
D. 20
Solution:
C8H20 aO2 a 3.76 N2

bCO2 cH2O a 3.76 N2

Solving for a, b and c


C8H20 13O2 13 3.76 N2

8CO2 10H2O 13 3.76 N2

Wta

13 32 13 3.76 28
15 .38
812 201

Waa 1.30Wta 1.3015.38 20

21.At 28 API specific gravity, what is the heating value of oil in kJ/kg?
A. 46,790
B. 47,130
C. 45,039
D. 48,390
Solution:
Qh 41,130 139 .6 API
Qh 41,130 139 .6 28

Qh 45,038 .80 kJ kg

22.Dodecane (C12H26) is burned at constant pressure with 140% excess air. Determine the
number of moles of oxygen in the products of combustion?
A. 22.9
B. 25.9
C. 44.5
D. 55.5
Solution:
Theoretical Air
C12H26 aO2 a 3.76 N2 bCO2 cH2O a 3.76 N2

C12H26 18.5O2 18.5 3.76 N2 12CO2 13H2O 18.5 3.76 N2


With 140% Excess air

C12H26 18.5 1 1.4 O2 18.5 1 1.4 3.76 N2 12CO2 13H2O 1.4 18.5 O2 18.5 1 1.4 3.76 N2

Mols of O2 = 1.4 x 18.5 = 25.9 mols


23.A mixture of 14.7 psia and 68 F that is 30% by weight CO 2 and 70% by weight N2 has a partial
pressure of CO2 in psia that is nearest to:
A. 2.14
B. 8.83
C. 7.88
D. 3.15
Solution:
nCO2
P
pCO2
nT T

For 100 kg of gas mixture:


Mass
Mol
CO2 = 30 lb
30/44 = 0.682 mol
N2 = 70 lb
70/28 = 2.5 mol
nT = 0.682 + 2.5 = 3.182 mol
0.682
pCO2
14.7 3.15 psia
3.182
24.Given gaseous fuel C8H18 and the volumetric products of combustion:
CO2 = 10.01%, CO = 0.85%, N2 = 85%, O2 = 14%. Determine the air-fuel ratio.
A. 18.0
B. 20.1
C. 15.0
D. 24.0
Solution:
aC8H18 b O2 3.76N2 10.01CO2 0.85CO 0.14O2 cH2O 85N2
Carbon Balance:
8a = 10.01 + 0.85, a = 1.3575
Nitrogen Balance:
2(b)(3.76) = 2(85), b = 22.606
No need to determine c.
22.606 32 3.76 28
kg
Waa
20.1
1.3575 812 181
kg

(b)
9

25.A manufacturing company in Bicol operates a Diesel Electric Plant to supply its electric energy
requirements. During a 24 hr period, the plant consumed 250 gallons of fuel at 80 F and
produced 2700 kw-hrs. Industrial fuel used is 30 API and was purchased at P3.00 per liter at 60
F. Determine the over-all efficiency of the plant.
A. 25.06%
B. 29.07%
C. 26.08%
D. 30.01%
Solution:
output
e
input
2700 kw hr
24 hr
e
mQh
Qh

Solving for
:
Qh 41,130 139.6 API 41,130 139.6 30 45,318kJ kg

m
Solving for

S.G.60 F S.G.15.6 C

141 .5
131 .5 API

S.G.60 F S.G.15.6 C

141 .5
0.876
131 .5 30

S.G.80 F S.G.26.6 C 0.8761 0.0007 26.67 15.6 0.869


m V

1hr
250gal
0.003785

m3 gal

24hr
3600s

m 0.869 1000
kg m3

m 0.00952 kg s

Then,

2700 kW hr
24 hr
e
0.00952 kg s 45,318 kJ kg

=0.2608=26.08%
26.A certain coal has the following ultimate analysis:
A = 5%
C = 70%
H2 = 2.5%
M = 10% N2 = 4%
S = 5%
Q2 = 3.5%
Find actual air-fuel for an excess air of 30%.
A. 11.67
B. 9.54
10

C. 15.4
D. 13.75
Solution:

A F 11.5C 34.5 H 2 2 4.32 S


8

0.035

A F 11.5 0.70 34.5 0.025


4.32 0.05
8

A F 8.977 kg air kg coal


For an excess air = 30%
A F actual 8.977 1.30 11.671 kg air kg coal
27.It is required to find the theoretical volume of air at 20 C and 100 kPa absolute pressure to
burn one kilogram coal. The ultimate analysis of coal as-fired is as follows:
C = 65.65%
O = 18.61%
S = 1.51%
Moist. = 3%
H = 5.87%
N = 1.3%
Ash = 5.36%
A. 9.43 m3air/kgcoal
B. 7.43 m3air/kgcoal
C. 8.43 m3air/kgcoal
D. 6.43 m3air/kgcoal
Solution:
The theoretical volume of air required;
mRT
V
p

m
Solving for

m A F t 11.5C 34.5 H 4.3S


8

m 11.5 0.6565
34.5 0.0587 0.1861 4.3 0.0151

m 8.84kgair kgcoal

8.84kgair kgcoal 0.287kJ kgairK20 273K


100kN m2

V 7.43m3 air kgcoal


28.A steam boiler burns fuel oil with 30% excess air and represented as C16H32. The fuel gas
leaves the preheater at 220 kPa. Find the actual-air fuel ratio.
A. 15.6
B. 19.2
C. 16.75
D. 18.01
Solution:
CnHm C16H32
11

By Formula
137 .28 n 0.25m
Wta
12n m

Wta

137 .2816 0.25 32


14.708
12 16 32

Waa 1 eWta 1.30 14.708 19.12

29.In burning a typical coal, the theoretical air-fuel ratio was found to be 15 kg/kg. The
approximate heating value of the coal in kJ/kg is,
A. 40,650
B. 45,610
C. 46,500
D. 41,510
Solution:
7.65HHV
Wta
10 ,000

HHV

1510 ,000 Btu lb 19,607 .84 Btu lb

7.65
45,613 kJ kg

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


30.Determine the thermal efficiency of an air standard Otto cycle with 10% clearance.
A. 53.89%
B. 61.68%
C. 58.33%
D. 72.33%
Solution:
1
1 k1
r
r ratioof compressio
n

V1
V2

V2
V1 V2

cV1 cV2 V2
V1 c 1 0.1 1

11
V2
c
0.1

1
1.41

11

0.6168 61.68%

31.A two-stroke Diesel engine has a friction power of 13% of the heat generated. Determine the
brake thermal efficiency if the indicated thermal efficiency of the engine is 50%.
A. 33%
12

B. 37%
C. 34%
D. 36%
Solution:
Wf 0.13QA
Wi 0.5QA

Wb Wi Wf 0.5QA 0.13QA 0.37QA


e

Wb
0.37
QA

or 37%
32.During a Morse test on a four-cylinder automotive engine, the speed was kept constant at
24.5 rps by the brake and the following brake torque readings were obtained:
All cylinders firing
193.8 N-m
No. 1 cylinder cut-out
130.8 N-m
No. 2 cylinder cut-out
130.2 N-m
No. 3 cylinder cut-out
129.9 N-m
No. 4 cylinder cut-out
131.1 N-m
Account for the frictional power, in kW.
A. 8.72
B. 9.13
C. 10.15
D. 12.07
Solution:
2 193 .8 24.5
BP 2TN
29.83 kW
1000
No. 1 cylinder cut-out:
2 130 .8 24.5
BP1
20.14 kW
1000
IP1 29.83 20.14 9.69 kW

No. 2 cylinder cut-out:


2 130 .2 24.5
BP2
20.04 kW
1000
IP2 29.83 20 .04 9.79 kW

No. 3 cylinder cut-out:


2 129 .9 24.5
BP3
20.00 kW
1000
IP3 29.83 20 .00 9.83 kW

No. 4 cylinder cut-out:


2 131 .1 24.5
BP4
20 .18 kW
1000

13

IP4 29.83 20 .18 9.65 kW


IP IP1 IP2 IP3 IP4 38 .96 kW

FP IP BP 38.96 29.83 9.13 kW


33.An engine burns a liter of fuel each 12 min. The fuel has a specific gravity of 0.8 and a
heating value of 45 MJ/kg. The thermal efficiency of the engine is 25%. What is the brake
horsepower of the engine?
A. 11
B. 17
C. 13
D. 15
Solution:
QA mHV

1Liter

12 min

m SP.GR. w

1 Liter
0.06667 kg min
12 min

m 0.8 1.0 kg L

1 min
50 kW
60
sec

QA 0.06667 kg min 45,000 kJ kg


W eQA 0.25 50 kW 12 .5 kW
hp

12.5 kW
17 hp
0.746 kW hp

34.A Diesel engine used 27 tons of fuel per day when developing 4960 kW indicated power and
4060 kW brake power. Of the total heat supplied to the engine, 31.7% is carried away by
cooling water and radiation, and 30.8% in the exhaust gases. Calculate the indicated thermal
efficiency.
A. 37.5%
B. 35.7%
C. 31.25%
D. 32.75%
Solution:
ei 100 31.7 30.8 37.5%
35.The combined mechanical electrical efficiency of an engine-generator set is 82%. If the
combined specific fuel consumption is 0.205 kg/kW-hr, the indicated specific fuel consumption
is,
A. 0.235 kg/kW-hr
B. 0.25 kg/kW-hr
C. 0.168 kg/kW-hr
D. 0.175 kg/kW-hr
Solution:
ind. s. f .c. comb
. s. f .c. comb 0.205 0.82 kg kW hr
14

= 0.168 kg/kW-hr
36.The thermal efficiency of an engine is 30% and the fuel used have a heating value of 40,500
kJ/kg. The engines specific fuel consumption is,
A. 3.375 kg/kW-hr
B. 0.285 kg/kW-hr
C. 0.296 kg/kW-hr
D. 0.375 kg/kW-hr
Solution:
3600 kJ kW hr
s. f .c
0.296 kg kW hr
0.30 40 ,500 kJ kg
37.A car engine produces an average of 25 kW of power in a period of 10 min. during which 1.25
kg of gasoline is consumed. If the heating value of gasoline is 43,000 kJ/kg, the efficiency of
this engine during the period is,
A. 24%
B. 28%
C. 32%
D. 36%
Solution:
1.25 kg 1 min

43,000 kJ kg 89.58 kW
QA
10 min 60 s
W 25 kW

W 25

100 % 28%
QA 89 .58

38.An engine burns a liter of fuel each 12 minutes. The fuel has a relative density 0.8 and a
heating value of 45 MJ/kg. The engine has a brake thermal efficiency of 25%. What is the
brake horsepower of the engine?
A. 16.76
B. 12.68
C. 13.56
D. 28.34
Solution:
1 Liter = 0.001 m3
Q mf HV

0.001 m3

Q 0.80 9000 kg m

12
min

1 min

60 sec 45,000 kJ kg

Q 50 kW

1 hp
16.76 hp
0.746 kW

bhp 0.25 50 kW

39.A 500 kW Diesel engine develops torque of 2 kN-m. The engine drives an alternating current
generator with 8 poles producing current at 60 Hz. What is the speed ratio of reduction gear?
A. 3.6:1
B. 1.6:1
C. 2.6:1
15

D. 4.6:1
Solution:
2TN
P
60
500

2 2 N
60

N 2387.32 rpm
Ns

120 f 120 60

900 rpm
p
8

Thus, the speed ratio is


N 2387 .32 2.6
R

Ns
900
1
40.A 1500 kW diesel engine operates at an altitude of 1200 meters elevation. Find the power
developed by the engine at higher elevation.
A. 1100 kw
B. 1285 kw
C. 1195 kw
D. 1205 kw
Solution:
Considering the effect of both pressure and temperature change:

pH

pL
Brake power at a higher elevation = Brake power at a lower elevation
pH
= pressure at a higher elevation
pL
= pressure at sea level (standard)
TH
= temperature at a higher elevation
TL
= temperature at a lower elevation (standard)
For every 1000 feet above sea level;
Decrease in pressure is 1 inch Hg absolute
Decrease in temperature is 3.566 degrees Rankine
1 in. Hg
1200 m 3.28 ft m 25.984 in. Hg

1000 ft

pH 29.92 in. Hg

3.566 R
1200 m 3.28 ft m 515 .964 R
1000 ft

TH 70 460 R

16

TH
TL

25.984

29.92

515 .964
1285 kW
70 460

BPH 1500

41.Determine the power output of a Diesel power plant if the engine and generator efficiency is
83% and 95% respectively. The engine uses 25 o API fuel and has a fuel consumption of 228
kg/hr.
A. 2815 kw
B. 2500 kw
C. 2650 kw
D. 2750 kw
Solution:
PlantOutput Heatgenerated
fromfuel m g

PlantOutput mf HV m g

HV 41,130 139 .6 API 41,130 139 .6 25 44 ,620 kJ kg

mf 288 kg hr
m
= engine mechanical efficiency = 83%

g
= generator efficiency = 95%

1 hr
44 ,620 kJ kg 0.83 0.95
3600 s

PlantOutput 288 kg s

PlantOutput 2815 kW
42.An engine developing 30 hp, is transferring 10 hp more to the cooling tower. If the top water
and bottom water of the radiator are 200 F and 190 F, respectively, calculate the required
water flow rate in gallons per minute.
A. 20.34
B. 15.25
C. 5.08
D. 10.17
Solution:
Q 30 10 hp 2544 Btu hp hr 101,760 Btu hr
T 200 190 10 F

cp 1.0 Btu lb F
Q mcpT
101,760 m1.0 10
m 10,176 lb hr

In gpm:
17

1 hr 1 gal

8.34 20.34 gpm


60
min

10,176 lb hr

43.The efficiency of an Otto engine is 55% and the stroke volume is 35 liters. If the heat added at
the beginning of the combustion is 12.6 kJ, calculate the mean effective pressure.
A. 194 kPa
B. 188 kPa
C. 198 kPa
D. 184 kPa
Solution:
W
pm net
VD
Where;

VD 35 liters 0.035 m3

Wnet
Solving for
W
e net
QA

0.55

Wnet
12 .6

Wnet 6.93 kJ

Thus,
6.93
pm
198 kPa
0.035
44.A test bed, 16-cylinder, V-type, turbo-charged Diesel engine developed 9,961 metric
horsepower at 514 rpm. Heat rejection to lubricating oil is 76 kCal per metric hp-hr. Specific
gravity of lubricating oil used is 0.90 and specific heat of oil is 0.50 Btu/lb-F. Compute the
quantity of lubricating oil circulated in m 3/hr if the temperature of lubricating oil entering the
engine is 55 C and 65 C leaving.
A. 258.34 m3/hr
B. 123.45 m3/hr
C. 168.23 m3/hr
D. 324.56 m3/hr
Solution:
m
V

Solving for mass flow rate of lubricating oil:


Q
= heat carried away by lubricating oil = (9961)(76) = 757,036 kCal/hr

cp 0.5 Btu lb F 0.5 kCalkg C

18

Q mcpt
757 ,036 m 0.5 65 55
m 151,407 .2 kg hr

0.901000 900 kg m3
Then;
151,407 .2 kg hr
V
168 .23 m3 hr
3
900 kg m
45.In an ideal Otto cycle, the initial pressure and temperature of air are 100 kPa and 18 degree
C. Determine the maximum pressure in the cycle if the maximum temperature in the cycle is
600 degree C, and the compression ratio is 8.
A. 1890 kPa
B. 2240 kPa
C. 2400 kPa
D. 1500 kPa
Solution:

p1 = 100 kPa
T1 = 18 + 273 = 291 K
T3 = 600 + 273 = 873 K
rk = V1/V2 = 8

p3 p2

T3 T2

T2 T1 rk k1
p2 p1 rk k

p3 p1 rk k p1 rk

T3 T1 rk k1
T1
p3 100 8

873
291

p3 2400 kPa
19

46.Air enters the cylinder of an internal combustion engine at an initial pressure and temperature
of 95 kPa and 28 deg C. A four cylinder, single-acting, 40 mm x 55 mm, four stroke engine
runs at 4500 rpm. The mass flow rate of air per seconds is 0.01 kg. What is the volumetric
efficiency of the engine?
A. 72%
B. 81%
C. 87%
D. 97.7%
Solution:
mRT
V1
p1

V1

0.01 0.287 28 273


95

0.00909 m3 s

VD

2
D LNpNc
4

Np

4500
2250 rpm
2

VD

2250
3
0.040 3 0.055
4 0.01037 m s
4
60

V1 0.00909

0.877 87.7%
VD 0.01037

47.A 20 cm x 36 cm, twin cylinder, two stroke cycle diesel engine running at 650 rpm. The
engine rate is 112 kw. Determine the engine displacement in cubic meter/sec per brake
horsepower.
A. 0.0163
B. 0.16300
C. 0.00163
D. 0.0631
Solution:

VD D2LNpNc
4

Np 650 rpm

2
D LNpNc
VD 4

BP
BP

0.20 2 0.36 650 2


VD 4
60

BP
112 0.746
VD
0.001632 m3 sec bhp
BP
20

48.A 1000 kw-hr diesel generating set has a generator efficiency of 85%. If the mass of the fuel
is 150 kg, compute the engine fuel rate.
A. 0.15 kg/kw-hr
B. 0.1175 kg/kw-hr
C. 0.127 kg/kw-hr
D. 22.7 kg/kw-hr
Solution:
mf
150

0.1275 kg kWhr
BP 1000 0.85
49.In an air standard diesel cycle, compression starts at 100 kPa and 303 K. The compression
ratio is 20 to 1. The maximum cycle temperature is 2200 K. Determine the thermal efficiency.
A. 46%
B. 64%
C. 69%
D. 70%
Solution:

e 1

1 rck 1

rkk1 k rc 1

rk

V1
20
V2

rc

V3 T3

V2 T2

V
T2 T1 1
V2

k1

303 20 1.41

T2 1004 K
T3 2200 K

rc

2200
2.19
1004

e 1

1 rck 1

rkk1 k rc 1
21

e1

2.19 1.4 1
20 1.41 1.4 2.19 1
1

e 0.6384 63 .84%

50.If the pressure at the beginning and end of compression in an Otto cycle engine are 100 kPa
and 950 kPa, respectively, the maximum cycle temperature is 1500 K. Determine the air
standard efficiency.
A. 35.7%
B. 39.5%
C. 47.5%
D. 57.7%
Solution:

e1

1
rkk1

V p
rk 1 2
V2 p1
950
rk

100

e1

1
1.4

1
k

4.993

1
0.4744 47.44 %
4.9931.41

(c)
51.An Otto engine has a clearance volume of 8%. It produces 500 kw power. Compression starts
at 100 kPa and 25 C. What is the heat rejected in kw?
A. 273 kw
B. 372 kw
C. 327 kw
D. 732 kw
Solution:
1
e 1 k1
rk

rk

1 c 1 0.08

13 .5
c
0.08

22

1
0.6469
13.5 1.41

e1

W
QA

0.6469

500
QA

QA 772.92 kW
QA W QR

772.92 500 QR
QR 272.92 kW
52.The following data are the results on a test of a two cylinder, four stroke cycle Otto engine:
torque = 2000 N-m; indicated mean effective pressure = 700 kPa; fuel consumption = 0.006
kg/sec; fuel heating value = 43,000 kJ/kg; bore x stroke = 30 cm x 40 xm; speed = 600 rpm.
Calculate the brake mean effective pressure.
A. 375 kPa
B. 325 kPa
C. 445 kPa
D. 285 kPa
Solution:
600
BP 2TN 2 2.0
125 .66 kW
60

VD

2
D LNpNc
4

Np

600
300 rpm
2

VD

300
3
0.30 3 0.40
2 0.2827 m s
4
60

pmb

BP 125 .66

444 .49 kPa


VD 0.2827

53. A four-cylinder, four-cycle engine with 10-cm diameter pistons and a 16-cm stroke operates
at a speed of 600 rpm and yields an indicator diagram. The area under the curve (pV
diagram) is equal to 12.0 cm2. The length of the diagram is 9.0 cm, and the spring constant of
the indicator spring is 600 kPa/cm. Determine the mean effective pressure.
A. 800 kPa
B. 400 kPa
C. 600 kPa
D. 950 kPa
Solution:
23

pm

Areaundercurve
springscale
stroke

pm

12
600 800 kPa
9

54.The compression ratio of an air-standard gasoline engine is 7.5. The heat added is 1890 kJ/kg.
If the initial pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 27 C respectively, determine the
temperature in C at the end of the isentropic expansion.
A. 1206
B. 2968
C. 1765
D. 1347
Solution:

T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K
rk = 7.5
QA/m = 1890 kJ/kg

T2 T1rkk1 300 7.5 1.41 671 .7 K


QA
cv T3 T2
m
1890 0.716 T3 671 .7
T3 3311 .4 K

T3
rkk1
T4

3311 .4
7.5 1.41
T4
T4 1479 K
t4 1479 273 1206 C

55.Calculate the thermal efficiency of an air-standard Diesel cycle operating with a compression
ratio of 21 and cut-off ratio of 3.
A. 55.9%
B. 61.4%
C. 66.9%
D. 71.9%
24

Solution:

e 1

1 rck 1

rkk1 k rc 1

e1

1 3 1.4 1
21 1.41 1.4 3 1

e 0.6137 61 .37%

GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT


56.A gas turbine plant working on a closed air-standard Brayton cycle has a pressure ratio of 5.
The heat rejected in the heat sink is 2000 kW. If one-fifth of the expansion work is supplied for
compression ideally, determine the theoretical power of the gas turbine.
A. 1460 kW
B. 740 kW
C. 1260 kW
D. 1640 kW
Solution:

rp 5
1

k1
rp k

1.41
1.4

0.3686

Wnet QA QR

QA
QA

QA

2000 kW
QR

3168 kW
1 1 0.3686

Wnet QA 0.3686 3168 1168 kW


1
4
Wnet W34 W12 W34 W34 W34
5
5

W3 4

5
1168 1460 kW
4

57.A gas turbine power plant operating in a Brayton cycle, the compressor power needed is 250
kW which is driven by a 1000 kW turbine. The compressor efficiency is 90% and that of the
turbine is 90%. Determine the back work ratio.
A. 30%
B. 34%
25

C. 25%
D. 40%
Solution:
Back work ratio = compressor power / turbine power = 250 kw / 1000 kw = 0.25 = 25%
58.A gas turbine plant utilizing a closed cycle has the following temperatures at each state point:
T1 = 90 F, T2 = 590 F, T3 = 1440 F, and T4 = 530 F. Based on these values, calculate the
thermal efficiency of the cycle.
A. 48%
B. 45%
C. 46%
D. 47%
Solution:
T T
530 90
e 1 4 1 1
0.48
T3 T2
1440 590
or 48%
59.In a simple gas turbine plant working on the ideal constant pressure cycle, air is taken into
the compressor at 1 bar, 16 C and delivered at 5.4 bar. If the temperature at turbine inlet is
700 C, calculate the ideal thermal efficiency. Take k = 1.4.
A. 35.28%
B. 42.61%
C. 38.23%
D. 45.66%
Solution:
T T
et 1 4 1
T3 T2

T2 T3
T4
Solving for , , and :
T2 p2

T1 p1

k1
k

T1 16 273 289 K
T2 5.4

289 1

1.41
1.4

T1 467 .90 K

T4 p4

T3 p3

k1
k

T3 700 273 973 K

26

T4 5.4

973 1

1.4 1
1.4

T4 600.98 K
Then;
et 1

600 .98 289


0.3823 38.23%
973 467 .9

60.The net power output of an air-standard Brayton cycle is 200 kW. Air enters the compressors
at 32 C and leaves the high-temperature heat exchanger at 800 C. What is the mass flow rate
of air if it leaves the turbines at 350 C.
A. 0.57 kg/s
B. 0.67 kg/s
C. 0.87 kg/s
D. 0.77 kg/s
Solution:
Wn Wt Wc

Wt
Solving for
and
T1 32 273 305 K

Wc
.

T3 800 273 1073 K


T4 350 273 623 K
T2 T3

T1 T4
T2 1073

305 623

T2 525 .30 K
Wc mcp T2 T1

Wc m1 525 .30 305 220 .3m


Wt mcp T3 T4

Wt m11073 623 450 m


Then;
200 450 m 220 .3m
27

m 0.87 kg s
61.Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 110 kPa and 27 C with a volume flow rate of 8.5
m3/sec. The compressor pressure ratio is 10 and its isentropic efficiency is 82%. At the inlet to
the turbine, the pressure is 950 kPa and the temperature is 1400 K. The turbine has an
isentropic efficiency of 85% and the exit pressure is 100 kPa. On the basis of an air standard
analysis, what is the thermal efficiency of the cycle in percent?
A. 27.3
B. 22.0
C. 21.8
D. 20.2
Solution:
p1 = 110 kPa, T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K
V1 = 8.5 m3/sec
p2/p1 = 10, c = 0.82
p3 = 950 kPa, p4 = 100 kPa, t = 0.85
T3 = 1400 K
k1

kp1V1 p2 k

Wc
1

k 1 p1

Wc

1.4 1
1.4110 8.5
10 1.4 1
1.4 1

Wc 3045.7 kw

Wc

Wc 3045 .7 kw

3714 .3 kw
c
0.82

p
kpV
Wt 3 3 1 4
k 1
p3

k1

p
kp1V1 T3

Wt
1 4

k 1 T1
p3

k1

1.4110 8.5 1400


100
Wt

1.4 1 300
950

1.4 1

1.4

Wt 7245.0 kw
Wt tWt 0.85 7245 .0 kw 6158 .3 kw
Wt Wc 6158 .3 3714 .3 2444 kw
Wnet

QA mcp T3 T2
28

QA mcp T3 T2
p
T2 T1 2
p1

k1
k

p
kp1V1
QA
T3 T1 2

k 1T1
p1

QA

k1

1.4 1
1.4110 8.5

1400 300 10 1.4

1.4 1 300

QA 8953.5 kw

Wnet
2444 kw
100 % 27.30%

QA 8953 .5 kw

62.Air enters a gas turbine power plant at 1 bar and 30 C with a volume flow rate of 5 m 3/s. The
compressor pressure is 10 and its isentropic efficiency is 80%. The turbine inlet pressure and
temperature are 1000 kPa and 1300 C, respectively. The turbine isentropic efficiency is 85%
and the exit pressure is 100 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle in percent?
A. 52.9%
B. 39.5%
C. 29.5%
D. 92.5%
Solution:
p1 = 1 bar = 100 kPa
T1 = 30 + 273 = 303 K
V1 = 5 m3/s
p2/p1 = 10
c = 0.80
p3 = 1000 kPa
T3 = 1300 + 273 = 1573 K
ht = 0.85
p4 = 100 kPa
k1

kp1V1 p2 k

Wc
1

k 1 p1

Wc

1.4 1
1.4100 5
10 1.4 1
1.4 1

Wc 1628.7 kw

Wc

Wc 1628 .7 kw

2035 .9 kw
c
0.80

29


p
kpV
Wt 3 3 1 4

k 1
p3

k1

p
kp1V1 T3

Wt
1 4

k 1 T1
p3

k1

1.4100 5 1573
100
Wt

1.4 1 303
1000

1.4 1

1.4

Wt 4379.4 kw
Wt tWt 0.85 4379 .4 kw 3722 .5 kw
Wt Wc 3722 .5 2035 .9 1686 .6 kw
Wnet

QA mcp T3 T2
QA mcp T3 T2
p
T2 T1 2
p1

k1
k

p
kp1V1
QA
T3 T1 2

k 1T1
p1

QA

k1

1.4 1
1.4100 5

1573 30310 1.4

1.4 1 303

QA 5706.3 kw

1686 .6 kw
Wnet
100 % 29.56%

QA 5706 .3 kw

63.A 75 MW stationary gas turbine power plant has air enters the compressor at 100 kPa, 300 K
temperature and pressure ratio of 10. The turbine inlet temperature is 1650 K. Using the
standard Brayton cycle, determine the back-work ratio of the gas turbine power plant.
A. 0.255
B. 0.879
C. 1.061
D. 0.351
Solution:
p1 = 100 kPa
T1 = 300 K
T3 = 1650 K
p2/p1 = p3/p4 = 10
30

p
T2 T1 2
p1

k1
k

300 10

1.4 1
1.4

T2 579 .2 K
T3 p3

T4 p4

k1
k

1.4 1
1650
10 1.4
T4

T4 854 .6 K
Back workratio

T2 T1
T3 T4

Back workratio

579 .2 300
1650 854 .6

Back workratio 0.351

64.A 20,000 MW gas turbine operating in the simple open cycle has an exhaust gas flow of 100
kg per second. The gas enters a waste heat recovery boiler at 450 C and leaves at 180 C,
specific heat of the gas is 0.85 kJ/kg-K, heat required to produced 1 kg of steam at 4.5 MPa
and 320 C from feedwater at 110 C is 5.5 kJ. Calculate the quantity of steam that can be
produce in kg per second.
A. 4173 kg/s
B. 1723 kg/s
C. 2173 kg/s
D. 3173 kg/s
Solution:
Heat rejected = heat absorbed
mcp t4 t5 msh
100 0.85 450 180 ms 5.5
ms 4172
.72kg sec

65.A simple Brayton cycle which uses helium as the working fluid, has a maximum temperature
of 1150 K, and a pressure ratio of 2.90. At the start of the compression, the helium pressure
and temperature are 90 kPa and 300 K. Based upon cold air-standard analysis assumptions,
determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle in percent?
A. 34.7%
B. 17.5%
C. 23.7%
D. 28.7%
Solution:
k = 1.667 for helium
p1 = 90 kPa
31

T1 = 300 K
T3 = 1150 K
p2/p1 = p3/p4 = 2.9

p
T2 T1 2
p1

k1
k

300 2.9

1.6671
1.667

T2 459 .34 K
T3 p3

T4 p4

k1
k

1.6671
1150
2.9 1.667
T4

T4 751 .07 K
Wc mcp T2 T1

Wt mcp T3 T4
Wnet Wt Wc
QA mcp T3 T2
e
e

Wnet T3 T4 T2 T1

QA
T3 T2

1150 751 .07 459 .34 300


1150 459 .34

100 % 34.69%

66.The mass flow rate of the gas in a gas turbine is 30 kg/sec. The specific enthalpy and velocity
in the inlet are 1300 kJ/kg and 200 m/sec respectively while in the outlet are 300 kJ/kg and 50
m/s, respectively. Calculate the power output in kw of the turbine if there is a heat loss of 3
MW.
A. 32,678.50 kw
B. 27,562.50 kw
C. 37,125.50 kw
D. 45,500.50 kw
Solution:
mV22 V12
Wt m h2 h1
QL
21000

Wt 301300 300

30 200 2 50 2
3000
21000

Wt 27 ,562 .5 kW

32

67.An ideal gas turbine operates with a pressure ratio of 7.5 and temperature limits of 25 C and
1100 C. The energy input in the high temperature heat exchanger is 500 kw. Determine the
air flow rate in kg/hr.
A. 59.3
B. 2135
C. 235
D. 3450
Solution:
p2/p1 = 7.5
T1 = 25 + 273 = 298 K
T3 = 1100 + 273 = 1373 K
T2 p2

T1 p1

k1
k

1.4 1
T2
7.5 1.4
298

T2 530 .0 K

QA mcp T3 T2
500 m1.0 1373 530
m 0.593 kg s 2135 kg hr

68.Air at 400 kPa and 590 K is extracted from a jet engine compressor to be used for the
generation of auxiliary power for the cabin. The extracted air is cooled in a constant pressure
heat exchanger down to 460 K. It then enters an isentropic turbine and expands to 100 kPa
before being rejected into the cabin. If the mass flow is 15 kg/min, determine the power
developed by the turbine in kw.
A. 63.7 kw
B. 73.6 kw
C. 37.6 kw
D. 76.3 kw
Solution:
T2 = 590 K, T3 = 460 K
p4 = 100 kPa, p3 = 400 kPa
m = 15 kg/min
T4 p4

T3 p3

k1
k

100
T4 460

400

1.41
1.4

309
.56K

Power developed by the turbine = mcp(T3 T4)


= (15/60)(1.0)(460 309.56) = 37.61 kW
69.The mass flow rate of the gas in gas turbine is 40 kg/sec. The specific enthalpy and velocity in
the inlet are 1600 kJ/kg and 200 m/sec respectively while the outlet are 500 kJ/kg and 50
m/sec, respectively. Calculate the power output in kw of the turbine if there is a heat loss of
1.5 MW.
A. 37,462
33

B. 40,872
C. 43,250
D. 34,605
Solution:

Wt m h2 h1

mV22 V12
QL
21000

Wt 401600 500

40 200 2 50 2
1500
21000

Wt 43,250 kW

70.An ideal gas turbine operates with a pressure ratio of 9 and temperature limits of 25 C and
1100 C. The energy input in the high temperature heat exchanger is 300 kw. Determine the
air flow rate in kg/hr.
A. 1650
B. 1859
C. 1325
D. 1732
Solution:
p2/p1 = 9
T1 = 25 + 273 = 298 K
T3 = 1100 + 273 = 1373 K
T2 p2

T1 p1

k1
k

1.4 1
T2
9 1.4
298

T2 558 .3 K

QA mcp T3 T2
300 m1.0 1373 558 .3
m 0.3682 kg s 1325 .5 kg hr

STEAM POWER PLANT


71.The energy input to the turbine is 2800 kJ/kg and the energy at the exit is 1400 kJ/kg,
efficiency of the engine is 75% and power output at full load is 6000 kW. What is the turbine
flow rate at full load in kg/kW-hr?
A. 5.97
B. 4.33
C. 3.43
D. 9.23
Solution:

34

Turbineflowrate

3600 m
Wt

Turbineflowrate

3600 m
m h1 h2 t

Turbineflowrate

3600
h1 h2 t

Turbineflowrate

3600
2800 1400 0.75

Turbineflowrate 3.43 kg kWhr

72.A water-tube condenser has a total of 90 tubes. If these type of condenser are two passes,
then compute the number of tubes per pass.
A. 45 tubes
B. 30 tubes
C. 60 tubes
D. 180 tubes
Solution:
For two pass. The number of tubes per pass = 90 tubes / 2 pass = 45 tubes
73.A steam condenser receives 10 kgs per second of steam with an enthalpy of 2570 kJ/kg.
Steam condensers into a liquid and leaves with an enthalpy of 160 kJ/kg. Cooling water
passes through the condenser with temperature increases from 13 degree C to 24 degree C.
Calculate the cooling water flow rate in kgs per second.
A. 533.2
B. 518.4
C. 528.9
D. 523.2
Solution:
m2 h2 h3 mwcpwtw
10 2570 160 mw 4.187 24 13
mw 523.3 kg s

74.In a steam Rankine cycle, saturated liquid at 14.7 psia (vf = 0.01672 cu. ft. per lb,) is pump to
a high pressure liquid at 100 psia. How much work is required to pump one lbm of water?
A. 118 Btu
B. 18.5 Btu
C. 0.129 Btu
D. 0.264 Btu
Solution:
Wp mvf pf pi
Wp

1 lb 0.01672 ft3

lb 100 14.7 psia 144 in2 ft 2


778 ft lb Btu

Wp 0.264 Btu
35

75.A steam power plant has a turbine work of 320 kJ/kg and the pump work is 2 kJ/kg. If the mass
flow rate is 10 kg per second, compute the power produced by this plant?
A. 3200 kw
B. 3220 kw
C. 3180 kw
D. 2080 kw
Solution:
W Wt Wp
W 10 320 2 3180 kW

76.A turbine has an efficiency of 75% and has a steam flow rate of 22,000 kg/hr. If the available
energy is 1200 kJ/kg, determine the kilowatt output at full load.
A. 5500
B. 3500
C. 4500
D. 4000
Solution:
Wt m h1 h2 t

22 ,000
1200 0.75 5500 kW
3600

Wt

77.The available energy of a turbine is 1450 kJ/kg, efficiency of the engine is 70% and the power
output at full load is 5.5 MW. What is the engine flow rate at full load in kg/kW-hr?
A. 2.5
B. 3.5
C. 3.0
D. 2.75
Solution:
3600 m
Engineflowrate
Wt

Engineflowrate

3600 m
m h1 h2 t

Engineflowrate

3600
h1 h2 t

Engineflowrate

3600
1450 0.70

Engineflowrate 3.54 kg kWhr

78.A steam plant operates with an initial pressure of 1.7 MPa and 370 C temperature and to a
condenser at 170 kPa. If the turbine efficiency and boiler efficiency are 75% and 85%,
respectively, determine the cycle thermal efficiency.
Steam properties:
At 1.70 MPa & 370 C:
h = 3187.1 kJ/kg
s = 7.1081 kJ/kg
At 170 kPa:
36

hf = 483.20
hfg = 2216.0
sf = 1.4752
sfg = 5.7062
A. 25.6%
B. 52.6%
C. 12.1%
D. 35.6%
Solution:

h1 3187 .1 kJ kg
s2 s1 7.1081 kJ kg K

s2 sf xsfg
7.1081 1.4752 x 5.7062
x 0.987

h2 hf xhfg
h2 483 .2 0.987 2216 .0
h2 2670 .6 kJ kg
Wt h1 h2 t
Wt 3187 .1 2670 .6 0.75
Wt 387.36 kJ kg

Wp v3 p4 p3
Assume water density at 1000 kg/m3.
1700 170
Wp
1.53 kJ kg
1000

Wp h4 h3
1.53 h4 483 .2

37

h4 484 .73 kJ kg

QA

h1 h4
b

QA

3187 .1 484 .73


0.85

QA 3179.25 kJ kg

Wt Wp
QA
387 .36 1.53
3179 .25

e 0.121 12.1%

79.Naga private power plant is using water as the working fluid that operates on an ideal
Rankine cycle. Superheated vapor enters the turbine at 10,000 kPa and 520 C and is
exhausted into the condenser at 8 kPa. The net output of the Rankine cycle is 100,000 kW.
Determine the mass flow rate of steam in kg per second.
Steam properties:
At 10,000 kPa (100 bar) and 520 C:
h = 3425.1, s = 6.622
At 8 kPa:
hf = 173.88, sf = 0.5926
hg = 2577, sg = 8.2287
vf = 0.0010084
A. 967 kg/sec
B. 267 kg/sec
C. 74.4 kg/sec
D. 20.1 kg/sec
Solution:

h1 3425 .1 kJ kg
s2 s1 6.622 kJ kg K

s2 sf xsfg
6.622 0.5926 x 8.2287 0.5926

38

x 0.7896

h2 hf xhfg
h2 173 .88 0.7896 2577 173 .88
h2 2071 .38 kJ kg

Wt
h1 h2
m
Wt
3425 .1 2071 .38 1353 .72 kJ kg
m
Wp
m

Wp
m

v3 p4 p3

0.0010084 10 ,000 8 10.08 kJ kg

W Wt Wp

m m m

100 ,000
1353 .72 10 .08
m
m 74.4 kg sec

80.A 15,000 kW steam turbine-generator power plant has full load steam rate of 7.5 kg/kW-hr. No
load steam consumption is around 10% of full load steam consumption. Calculate the hourly
steam consumption at three-fourths load in kg/hr.
A. 112,500 kg/hr
B. 15,500 kg/hr
C. 87,187.50 kg/hr
D. 6,750 kg/hr
Solution:
ms kx b
At full load
ms 7.515 ,000 112 ,500 lb hr
At no load
b 0.10112 ,500 11,250 lb hr

x 15,000
Then,
ms kx b
112 ,500 k15,000 11,250
k 6.75

39

x 15,000 0.75 11,250 kW

At load,
ms 6.7511,250 11,250
ms 87 ,187 .5 kg hr

81.A typical steam generator with an efficiency of 85% is producing 18 kg/sec of steam. The
enthalpy of the entering water is 140 kJ/kg and is superheated to an enthalpy of 3300.50
kJ/kg. The fuel used has a heating value of 44,500 kJ/kg. The A/F ratio by weight is 20.
Determine the amount of air needed in kg/hr.
A. 168,317
B. 178,328
C. 96,123
D. 108,288
Solution:
m h h
b s 2 1
mf HV

0.85

18 3600 3300 .5 140


mf 44 ,500

mf 5414.42 kg hr
ma rfamf 20 5414 .42 108 ,288 kg hr
82.A 12,000 kW steam turbine-generator power plant has full load steam rate of 5.5 kg/kW-hr. No
load steam consumption is around 10% of full load steam consumption. Calculate the hourly
steam consumption at two-third of load in kg/hr.
A. 40,250
B. 36,830
C. 46,200
D. 35,820
Solution:
ms kx b
At full load
ms 5.512 ,000 66 ,000 lb hr
At no load
b 0.10 66 ,000 6,600 lb hr

x 12,000
Then,
ms kx b
66 ,000 k 6600 12 ,000
k 4.95

x 12 ,000 2 3 8,000 kW

At load,
40

ms 4.95 8,000 6,600


ms 46,200 kg hr

83.A condenser gauge reads 25.5 in Hg vacuum when the barometer stands at 10.32 m of H2O.
Determine the absolute pressure in the condenser in mm Hg.
A. 78.9 mm Hg
B. 235.6 mm Hg
C. 157.6 mm Hg
D. 111.6 mm Hg
Solution:
760 mmHg

pg 25.5 in. Hg

29.92 in.Hg

pg 647.73 mmHg

patm 10.32 mH2O 9.81 kN m3

patm 101.24 kPa

760 mmHg

patm 101 .24 kPa

101 .325 kPa


760 mmHg

patm 101 .24 kPa

101 .325 kPa

pabs pg patm
pabs 647 .73 759 .4
pabs 111.67 mmHg

84.Steam at a pressure of 1 MPa (hf = 768.81 kJ/kg, hfg = 2015.3 kJ/kg) in the main steam line is
passed through a throttling calorimeter with an absolute pressure of 110 kPa and a
temperature of 105 C (h = 2685.15 kJ/kg). Calculate the steam quality.
A. 95.39%
B. 93.95%
C. 99.53%
D. 91.35%
Solution:
h hf 2685 .15 768 .81
x

95.09%
hfg
2015 .3
85.A steam turbine is powered by a set of fixed orifice nozzles. Each has an isentropic efficiency
of 90%. 176.67 C sat. steam (hg = 2773.10 kJkg) at 85.4 m/s enters the nozzles. The steam
expands adiabatically to 533.5 m/s. What is the enthalpy of the steam as it leaves the
nozzles?
A. 2619 kJ/kg
B. 2643 kJ/kg
C. 2634 kJ/kg
D. 2691 kJ/kg
41

Solution:
v12
v22
h1
h2
21000
21000

2773 .10

85.4 2 h 533 .5 2
2
21000
21000

h2 2634 kJ kg

86.An industrial plant operates a 5000 kW turbine having an engine efficiency of 73%. The initial
steam conditions are at 3002.4 kJ/kg enthalpy and 6.4200 kJ/kg-K entropy. The back pressure
is 3.4 kPa (sf = 0.38 kJ/kg-K, sg = 8.5246 kJ/kg-K, hf = 109.32 kJ/kg, hg = 2546.82 kJ/kg. The
turbine steam rate in kg/kw-hr is,
A. 3.32
B. 4.54
C. 3.23
D. 4.45
Solution:
s1 6.4200 kJ kg K
s2 s1 6.4200 kJ kg K

s2 sf
sg sf

6.4200 0.3818
0.7415
8.5246 0.3818

h2 hf x hg hf 109 .32 0.7415 2546 .82 109 .32


h2 1916 .73 kJ kg
h1 3002 .4 kJ kg

steamrate

3600 s hr

0.73 3002 .4 1916 .73 kJ kg

4.54 kg kW hr

87.A water tube boiler has a heating surface area of 500 m 2. For a developed boiler hp of 825.
Determine the percent rating of the boiler.
A. 162.45%
B. 148.98%
C. 153.37%
D. 142.18%
Solution:
500 m2 = 5383 ft2
Dev. Bo. Hp. = 825
Rated Bo. Hp. = 5383 / 10 = 538.3
Percent rating = Dev. Bo. Hp. / Rated Bo. Hp. = (825 / 538.3 )(100%) = 153.26%
88.19 liters per min of hot water at 82 C (vf = 1.0305 x 10-3 m3/kg) is produced in a flow system
by injection and condensation of low pressure steam at 138.675 kPag and 80% quality into
cold water at 16 C. Calculate the steam flow rate in kg/min. @ 138.675 kPag, hf = 529.65
kJ/kg, hg = 2715.0 kJ/kg.
A. 3.69
B. 14.75
C. 2.80
42

D. 10.45
Solution:
19 litersmin 0.019 m3 min
mw

0.019 m3 min
18.44 kg min
1,0305 10 3 m3 kg

msh mw cpt
At 80 % quality

h hf x hg hf 529 .65 0.80 2715 .0 529 .65 2277 .93 kJ kg

ms 2277 .93 529 .65 18.44 4.187 82 16


mw 2.9 kg min

89.After expanding 2.5 L of superheated steam at 2.5 MPaa and 400 C, its pressure was
decreased to 0.01 MPaa. If its dryness fraction is 90%, what is the final volume of the steam
in L? @ 2.5 MPaa & 400 C, v = 125.2 x 10-3 m3/kg. @ 0.01 MPaa, vf = 1.0102 x 10-3 m3/kg, vg =
14,674 x 10-3 m3/kg.
A. 264
B. 164
C. 364
D. 464
Solution:
v2 vf x vg vf 1.01022 10 3

0.90 14 ,674 10 3 1.01022 10 3

13,206 10 3 m3 kg
m

V1 V2

v1 v2

2.5 L
V2

3
125 .2 10
13,206 10 3
V2 264 L

90.The equivalent evaporation of a boiler, from and at 100 C is 15 kg steam per kg fuel and the
calorific value of the fuel burned is 41.9 MJ/kg. What is the boiler efficiency? @ 2.5 MPaa &
400 C; hfg = 2257 kJ/kg.
A. 88.0%
B. 80.8%
C. 84.8%
D. 82.0%
Solution:
2257 kJ kg
100 % 80.8%
b 15 kgsteamkg fuel

41,900 kJ kg

43

91.In a steam power plant, the capacity is 20 MW and 5% is for auxiliaries. If the energy charged
to the station is 100 MW and the boiler efficiency is 75%, the gross station heat rate in kJ/kWhr is ___.
A. 14,210
B. 13,500
C. 18,950
D. 18,000
Solution:
100 MW 3600 kJ kW hr
grossstationheatrate
18000 kJ kW hr
20 MW
92.The power developed by the steam turbine is 2800 kW while the power required by the
feedwater pump is 12 kW. If the heat supplied to the boiler is 3500 kJ/kg and the heat rejected
from the condenser is 2200 kJ/kg, find the mass flow rate of the steam in kg/s.
A. 2.1
B. 1.7
C. 2.5
D. 3.1
Solution:
2800 12
m
2.145 kg s
3500 2200
93.Determine the work of a pump in kJ required in raising the pressure of 10 kg of water from 20
kPaa to 3 MPaa, assuming that the specific volume of saturated water at 20 kPaa is 1.017 x
10-3 m3/kg.
A. 30.3
B. 2.65
C. 3.03
D. 26.5
Solution:
W mvp 10 1.017 103 m3 kg 3000
20kPa 30.3kJ

94.Given the steam pressure of 900 lb/ft2, temperature of 300 F, specific volume of 5.8 ft3/lb. If
the specific enthalpy is 9500 ft-lb/lb. What is the internal energy per pound of the system?
A. 4400 ft-lb
B. 3900 ft-lb
C. 4280 ft-lb
D. 3400 ft-lb
Solution:
u h pv 9500 900 5.8 4280 ft lb lb
95.Determine the heat transferred to the cooling fluid in a condenser operating under steady
flow conditions with steam entering with an enthalpy of 2300 kJ/kg and a velocity of 350 m/s.
The condensate leaves with an enthalpy of 160 kJ/kg and velocity of 70 m/s.
A. -1992 kJ/kg
B. 2190 kJ/kg
C. -2199 kJ/kg
D. 2910 kJ/kg
Solution:
V 2 V12
Q h2 h1 2
21000

44

Q 160 2300

70 2 350 2
21000

Q 160 2300

70 2 350 2
21000

Q 2199 kJ kg

96.Steam at the rate of 500 kg/hr is produced by a boiler from 40 C feedwater. If the enthalpy of
the steam is 2512 kJ/kg, find the hourly rate of heat required.
A. 1,151,370
B. 1,134,270
C. 1,172,264
D. 1,121,274
Solution:
hf cpw t 4.187 40 0 167 .48 kJ kg
h1 2512 kJ kg
s 500 kg hr
m

A m
s h1 hf
Q
A 500 2512 167 .48 1,172 ,260 kJ hr
Q
97.A simple Rankine cycle operates between superheated steam at 6 MPa. 600 C entering the
turbine, and 10 kPa entering the pump. Determine the maximum possible cycle thermal
efficiency. Steam properties: at 6 MPa, 600 C, h = 3658, s = 7.1685; at 10 kPa, hf = 192, hfg =
2393, sf = 0.649, sfg = 7.502, vf = 0.001 m3/kg.
A. 35.0
B. 37.5
C. 40.0
D. 42.5
Solution:
h1 3658
s2 s1 7.1685 0.649 x2 7.502
x2 0.869

h2 hf x2 hfg 192 0.869 2393 2271 .52


h3 hf at10kPa 192
h4 h3 v3 p4 p3 192 0.001 6000 10 197 .99

Wp v3 p4 p3 0.001 6000 10 5.93


e

h1 h2 Wp
h1 h4

3658 2271 .52 5.93


0.39894 39.894 %
3658 197 .99
45

98.An open feedwater heater utilizes saturated steam at 150 C extracted from the steam
turbine. Feedwater to be heated enters at 60 C. If the mixture leaves the heater at the rate of
18000 kg/hr, calculate for the quantity of steam extracted from the turbine, in kg/hr. Steam
properties at 150 C, hf = 632.2, hfg = 2114.3; at 60 C, hf = 251.13.
A. 2974
B. 2749
C. 4279
D. 4792
Solution:
ms 18,000 kg hr
Energy balance
meh2 ms me h5 msh6
At 150 C
h2 hf hfg 632 .2 2114 .3 2746 .5
h6 632 .2

At 60 C
h5 251 .13

me

ms h6 h5 18,000 632 .2 251 .13

2748 .795 kg hr
h2 h5
2746 .5 251 .13

99.A steam generating unit produces steam at the rate of 10 kg/s at 5 MPa, 450 C which is
continuously blown down at 0.25 kg/s. Feedwater enters the economizer at 100 C. Coal with a
heating value of 42,000 kJ/kg as fired is burned at the rate of 1 kg/s. What is the over-all
efficiency of the steam boiler? Steam properties at 5 MPa, 450 C, h = 3316.2; at 5 MPa, 100 C,
h = 422.72; at 5 MPa, hf = 1154.23, hg = 2794.3.
A. 69.33
B. 63.39
C. 66.36
D. 72.30
Solution:
hbo hf at 5MPa 1154 .23
Over-all boiler efficiency, eo.
ms hs hfw mbo hbo hfw
eo
mf HHV
eo

10 3316 .2 422 .72 0.251154 .23 422 .72


100 %
1 42 ,000

eo 69.33 %

(c).
100. A horizontal return tubular boiler with a heating surface of 2000 m 2 generates steam at
the rate of 4.5 kg/s. Feedwater enters at 5 MPa, 120 C and steam leaves at 5 MPa, 350 C.
Calculate for the percent rating developed if coal with a heating value of 20,000 kJ/kg is
burned at the rate of 9 Mtons/hr. Steam properties at 5 MPa, 350 C, h = 3068.4; at 5 MPa, 120
C, h = 507.09.
46

A. 62.46
B. 66.78
C. 64.62
D. 68.94
Solution:
For fire tube boiler
totalheatingsurface 2000 m2
ratedbohp

1818 .18
k
1.1 m2
Developed boiler hp:
ms hs hfw 4.5 3600 3068 .4 507 .09
devbohp

1174 .91
35 ,316 kJ hr
35,316
Percent rating
devbohp
1174 .91
%rating
100
100 64.62%
ratedbohp
1818 .18
101. A 5-MW steam turbine generator power plant has a full-load steam rate of 6.0 kg/kW-hr.
Assuming that no-load steam consumption as 10% of full-load steam consumption, compute
for the hourly steam consumption at 60% load, in kg/he.
A. 12,900
B. 25,500
C. 19,200
D. 31,800
Solution:
At full load
Steam consumption, ms2
ms2 = (5000 kw)(6.0 kg/kW-hr) = 30,000 kg/hr
At no-load
Steam consumption, ms1
ms1 = (0.10)(30,000 kg/hr) = 3,000 kg/hr
Using two-point form:
y y
y y1 2 1 x x1
x2 x1
Where:
P1(x1,y1) = P1(0,3000)
P2(x2,y2) = P2(5000,30000)
P(x,y) = P(ms,L)
Thus
ms = 5.4L + 3000
At 60 % load, L = 0.6(5000) = 3000
ms = 5.4(3000) + 3000 = 19,200 kg/hr
102. The vacuum in the surface condenser of a small condensing steam power plant is 640 mm
Hg as referred to a 760 mm Hg barometer. If the temperature in the condenser is 35 C
(corresponding pressure of 5.628 kPa), the vacuum efficiency is approximately:
A. 81.96
B. 86.19
C. 89.16
D. 93.39
Solution:
47

vac

patm pcond
patm psat

patm = 760 mm Hg
pcond = 640 mm Hg vac = 120 mm Hg
psat = 5.628 kPa (760 mm Hg / 101.325 kPa) = 42.21 mm Hg
760 120
vac
100 89.16%
760 42.21
103. A boiler feedpump receives water at 200 C (enthalpy, h = 850 kJ/kg) from a surface
condenser at the rate of 100 L/s. It operates against a total head of 850 meters. Determine
the enthalpy leaving the pump, in kJ/kg.
A. 878.5
B. 899.2
C. 857.8
D. 919.9
Solution:
Pump work, Wp
Wp = m(h2 h1) = mgh/1000
h2 850 = (9.81)(800)/1000
h2 = 857.8 kJ/kg
104. A binary mercury-steam cycle produces a net power output of 30 MW. Steam enters the
turbine at 4 MPa, 400 C where it is being exhausted to a condenser pressure of 10 kPa.
Assuming an overall thermal efficiency of 80% for the cycle and 100% heat transfer efficiency
in the heat exchanger, determine the enthalpy difference in the boiler per kilogram of
mercury per second. Steam properties at 4 MPa, 400 C, h = 3213.6, s = 6.769; at 10 kPa, hf =
191.83, hfg = 2392.8, sf = 0.6394, sfg = 7.5009.
A. 37,500
B. 30,000
C. 32,500
D. 35,000
Solution:
W
eb net
QA

QA

Wnet 30 ,000

37 ,500 kW
eb
0.80

QA mHg ha hd

ha hd

QA 37 ,500

37 ,500 kJ kg
mHg
1

105. In a co-generation steam power plant, steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa, 400 C. A quarter
of the steam is extracted from the turbine at 170 kPa while the remaining steam is allowed to
expand to 10 kPa. The extracted steam is then condensed and mixed with feedwater at
constant pressure. The mixture is then pumped to a boiler pressure of 5 MPa. Mass flowrate of
steam through the boiler is 25 kg/s. Assuming no pressure drops and heat losses in the piping
system, calculate for the process heat required in kW. Steam properties at 5 MPa, 400 C, h =
3195.7, s = 6.6459; at 0.17 MPa, hf = 483.2, hfg = 2216, sf = 1.4752, sfg = 5.7062; at 0.01
MPa, hf = 191.83, hfg = 2392.8, sf = 0.6493, sfg = 7.5009.
A. 12,551
48

B. 11,255
C. 13,829
D. 15,125
Solution:
s1 = s2 = 6.6459 = 1.4752 + x2(5.7062)
x2 = 0.9062
h2 = hf2 + x2hfg2 = 483.2 + 0.9062(2216) = 2491.34
Qph = m(h2 h3) = (25/4)(2491.34 483.2) = 12,550.875 kW

49