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ADVANCED

WRITTEN
ENGLISH
Robin Macpherson

&
WyDAWNICTWO
WYDAWN ICTWO

NAUKOWE PWN
2004
WARSZAWA 2004

ijekt
okladki i stron tytulowych
tytulow ych Maryna Wisniewska
Wisniewska
jekt okladki
lak to r Barbara Wewior
iaktor
daktor techniczny Leonard Zielinski
Zielinski
daktor

Table of Contents

jpyright
obin Macpherson
M acpherson
Robin
>pyright by R
arszaw a 2001
2001
arszawa

BN 83-01-13575-1
83-01-13575-1

ydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA


1-251 Warszawa,
W arszawa, ul. Miodowa 10
L: (0-prefiks-22)
(O-prefiks-22) 695 43 21
1.:
ks: (0-prefiks-22)
(O-prefiks-22) 826 71 63
mail: pwn@pwn.com.pl
ww.pwn.pl

Preface
Preface...........................................................................................

Glossary of Concepts
Concepts.................................................................

Vocabulary
Vocabulary..................................... *...........................................
*
Lexical Choice Involving Parts of
o f Speech
Sp eech .........................
Nominalisations
Nominalisations..................................................................
Adverbs vs. Verbs
Verbs..............................................................
Adjectives
Proper Adjectives...............................................................
Adjectives vs. Prepositional Modifiers.............................
Modifiers

19
19
19
22
24
25

Frequent Problems with Specific Lexical Items


Item s...............
B
elong.................................................................................
Belong
.
Get
G e t.......................................................................................
Prove, Turn Out
Emerge,
Emerge, Happen,
Happen, Occur, Prove,
O u t..........................
Namely and Related Expressions
Expressions.......................................
Easy, Difficult, Possible,
Impossible
Easy,
Possible, Impossible.................................
Value
Value....................................................................................
Citizen
C itizen.................................................................................

27
27
28
30
32
34
36
37

Selected Structural Peculiarities


Peculiarities..............................................
Appositions I .......................................................................
Appositions II: Appositions vs. Prepositional Structures
Because in Negative Sentences
Sentences.........................................
Having
Being and Having...............................................................
Be + to-infinitive
fo-infmitive...............................................................
Ass................................................ .
Comment Clauses with A
Bee.....................................
Complements and the Verb To B
Than.......................................
Constructions with As and Than

39
39
43
47
50
54
55
57
61

Gerunds.........................................................................................
Gerunds
M
o st...............................................................................................
Most
Of
Many of..., Most of..., Some of... etc
O f :-.Many
etc.....................................
Problems with Negative Sentences ............................................
Comma...............................................
Relative Clauses and the Comma
There..............................................................................................
There
What,
What, Which etc
etc............................................................................

64
66
67
69
73
77
83

tylistic Devices
D evices.....................................................................................
Cleft Sentences with the Pronoun IItt ...........................................
Fronting ..............................................
Emphatic Word Order: Fronting
.
etc..................................
I: Hardly, Only, Rarely, Scarcely etc
Though................................ ......................
II: With As and Though
Apposition..................................................
Relative Clauses in Apposition

89
89
92
92
95
98

.
Iarity
larity and Syntax
S yn tax...............................................................................
Endings............................................................
Abrupt Sentence Endings
Coordination.................................................................................
Coordination
Subject.......................................
I: Unjustified Change of Subject
Bias..............................................
II: Concord and Gender Bias
Structure........................................
III: Absence of Parallel Structure
IV: Unjustified Change of Person
Person........................................
IV:
V: Dangling Participles
Participles.....................................................
Splices
Splices...........................................................................................
Unclear Antecedents I .................................................................
- The Pronoun IItt ..................................
Unclear Antecedents II Un-English Syntax
Syntax.......................................................................
Object.............................................................
I: Verb and Object
Clauses......................................
II: Main and Subordinate Clauses
III: Composite Attributive Expressions
Expressions..............................
IV: Parallel Expressions
Expressions.......................................................
Passive...........................................................
V: Active vs. Passive

103
103
103
103
106
106
106
106
108
108
112
112
117
117
118
118
119
119
121
121
123
123
126
126
126
126
127
127
129
129
132
132
134
134

Markers.....
Discourse Markers
Contrast.............................................................
Concession and Contrast
Contrast.................................................................
Similarity and Contrast
Therefore and Related Expressions
Expressions.............................................
.
In
In My Opinion...
Opinion... ............................................. .........................

136
136
136
136
141
141

thetorica]
Rhetorical Enhancers: Conjunctions and

......
145
145
148
148

152
.. 152

Articles: A Few Tips


T ips................................................. ..........................

Punctuation
Punctuation...........................................................................................
(The
(The Comma see Relative Clauses and the Comma
Comma..............
The Colon
Colon.................................................... .................................
The Dash
D ash.......................................................................................
Inverted Commas
Commas.........................................................................
The Semicolon
Semicolon.............................................. ................................

161
161
73)
73)
161
161
165
165
168
168
172
172

Key to the Exercises


Exercises..............................................
...............................
.
.
Index
In d e x .......................................................................................................

177
177
203
203

..

Preface

Glossary of Concepts

past decade has witnessed an unprecedented increase in the level of


lglish among non-native speakers. Having mastered the language to
legree which allows for essentially unimpaired communication in both
iegree
eech and writing, more and more learners are aiming to achieve aa native:e competence. It is precisely these learners whose written English, adnced as it is, may still be marred by syntactical patterns that do not vio:e the grammatical rules in any obvious way and yet are alien to English
:e
iom.
Written English focusses on sophisticated structures characAdvanced Written
ristic of English at a high idiomatic level, since their complex character
d richness of nuance are a source of recurrent problems. Common as they
5, these problems are still generally overlooked by grammar books and
e,
nee by the learner. It was my aim to draw the readers attention to these
oblem areas, which I have presented with detailed, step-by-step explana>ns, accompanied by exercises and a key.
>ns,
forr Writers
Writers and Translators, this publiLike my previous work English fo
of English, and the two books are to
tion is addressed to advanced users of
large extent complementary in character. However, it must be stressed
Written English
at my presentation of the issues included in Advanced Written
>es not in any way presuppose the readers knowledge of material dis>es
issed elsewhere. Nor is the reader required to adhere to the order of presitation as has been offered: the respective sections can be used independitly or combined in such a way as to answer individual needs, aa feature
hich makes the book ideal both as a teaching aid and as reference material
rr self-study. It is particularly recommended to teachers, translators, writtraining colteacher-training
s and journalists, as well as students of philology, teacherProficiency
exams.
ges and those preparing for the CAE and
ie
ie

Gdansk, 2001

In
In this book a number of terms appear that might be unfamiliar to the reader:

adverbial ((also
also -)
- link, sentence -)
- expression, An adverbial is a word or phrase which functions as an adverb (e.g. by
contrast,
fact, moreover,
fortunately, in fact,
therefore,
moreover, possibly,
possibly, quite recently, therefore,
contrast, fortunately,
undoubtedly),
us
extra
giving
information about an action, happening or
undoubtedly),
state. An adverbial may introduce a sentence, but is not to be confused with
a conjunction (e.g. although,
because, while etc.).
although, because,

antecedent
This is the word to which a pronoun (he,
who, which etc.) refers, e.g.:
it, who,
{he, she,
she, it,
1.
party was a great success - the guests really enjoyed it.
1hejiarty
1 . The
2. Anyone can join our club who is interested in poetry.

In 1
party is the antecedent of it; in 2 Anyone is the
1 the expression The party
who.
antecedent of who.

apposition
Generally an apposition denotes a noun or noun phrase placed beside an
an
other in order to describe it, while being unconnected to it by any preposi
preposi
tion or conjunction, e.g.:
1. Joan,
my wifes cousin, has just returned from America.
Joan, my
2. Jack is visiting Brighton,
Brighton, his hometown.

In 1 Joan is the grammatical subject of the sentence, while the phrase my


wifes cousin is an apposition; the phrase is in apposition to Joan.
Joan. In 2
visiting, while his hometown is in
Brighton is the object of the verb phrase is visiting,
apposition to Brighton.
Brighton.

ributive

attributive adjective occurs before the noun to which it refers. Compare


Compare
attributive
:: following alternatives:
dangerous road.
a. This is a dangerous
b. This road is dangerous.
dangerous.

dangerous is
is in
in attributive position, while in b it is in predicative
predicative
aa dangerous
predicative.
sition.
and
Most
attributive
both
be
can
adjectives
predicative.
sition. Most

ixiliary verb

verb is one like be, do, have or will which is used in


in combinacombinaverb
tenses,
n
with
another
form
verb
especially
to
make
verb
and
phrases,
to
tenses,
n with another

auxiliary
11 auxiliary
7T *
5* *
5"

Do you want another biscuit?


Mary is visiting her friends.
John has gone to London.
Peter will miss the train.

eft sentence

part of
cleft sentence
sentence is
is when special emphasis is given to one particular part
of
cleft
sentence by means of it or what, e.g.:
e sentence
1. Who
W ho took
took the money?
money? It
It was Peter that took the money.
money.
1.
long holiday.
hat you need is a long
holiday.
What
2. W

1 and
and 22 special
special emphasis is given to Peter and a long holiday respectively.
respectively.
1

m m en t clause
imment
ie
following sentences contain comment clauses (underlined):
(underlined):
re following
1. John
John was a pilot, so he claims, in the Battle of Britain.
Britain.
1.
2. She
She was,
was, as she admits, too lazy to take the jo
job
b seriously.
seriously.
2.

parenthehe types
types of
of comment
comment clause discussed in this book are virtual parenthehe
with
<s - in
in the
the above
above examples the commas could almost be replaced
;s
replaced with
rackets:
ackets:
la . John
was a pilot
Britain.
pilot (so he claims) in the Battle of Britain.
John was
la.
2a.
She
job
was
(as
seriously.
she admits) too lazy to take the job seriously.
2a. She was

complement
complemen t
Complement in the broad sense means something that is necessary to com
com
plete a grammatical construction. Here, however, it is used in a restricted
meaning to denote a noun or noun phrase that completes a predicate con
con
taining the verb to be:
be:
1. Margaret is a librarian.
librarian.
2. Peter was such a kindly
kindly man.
m an.

In 1 and 2 a librarian and such a kindly man are complements


complements of Margaret
and Peter respectively.

concord
Concord is the way a verb form changes according to whether the subject is
singular or plural (concord of number), or first, second or third person
(concord of person). Thus we say the boy is
is (singular) but the boys are
(plural); we say I am (first person) but he is (third person) etc.
conjunction
A conjunction is a word like and, but, although,
although, because,
because, if, whereas etc.
It can be used to link clauses together:
a. I arrived early, but John appeared much later.
b. I arrived early whereas John appeared much later.

(Cf. also adverbial and coordinate clause.)

coordinate clause
Compare the following sentences:
a. I arrived at the party early, but
hut John appeared much later.
b. I arrived at the party early, whereas John appeared much later.
j

In a the two clauses are grammatically


grammatically equal (i.e. coordinate). In b, how
how
ever, the second clause is subordinate to the first: the second clause ((whereas
whereas
John appeared much later) cannot function as a grammatically
grammatically self-conself-con
tained sentence, while the first clause (7
(/ arrived at the party
party early) can.
coordinatio n
coordination
Unlike coordinate clause, the term coordination in this book does not have
any specialised grammatical significance. The sections which are listed un11
11

J
;

|
;

conrr the heading coordination bring together problems involving formal conof a given sentence.
;tency and logicality in the construction of

iangling participle
participle is a participle that, when referred to its grammatidangling participle
Mangling
1 subject, gives nonsense, e.g.:
seem
things might seem
many things
*Not knowing the British mentality, many
rather strange at first.

ere the participle not knowing has the grammatical subject many things,
ere
hich makes the sentence nonsensical.
{also: restrictive relative clause)
efining relative clause (also:
e.g.:
to, e.g.:
which
defines or identifies the noun it refers to,
clause
his is a relative
tenier.
H eres the lady who owns that black terTier.
Heres

clause.)
'Totevery lady owns a black terrier. Contrast non-defining relative clause.)
'lot

iscourse marker

., discourse marker denotes a large group of words and phrases which indicate
te relationship between what is being said and its context, and which often
le
:veal the speakers attitude to what he is saying (e.g. as a matter of fact, fortuweal
etc.).
possibly, on the other hand, strangely enough etc.).
frankly, obviously, possibly,
ately, frankly,

llipsis
of words when their meaning can be understood
-llipsis is the leaving out of
'.llipsis
:om the context. Compare the following alternatives:
a. On one side the passengers could see the bay,
and on the other they could see spectacular hills.
b. On one side the passengers could see the bay,
and on the other spectacular hills.

nn b it is not necessary to insert the words they could see in the second part
if
if the sentence.
tote:
Jote:

unacceptable,
'hroughout the book asterisks (*) have been used to indicate usage which is unacceptable.
hroughout
(**).
ixtreme examples of incorrectness have been marked with double asterisks (**).
ixtreme

.2

fronting
Fronting
give
to give
Fronting is when a part of the clause is brought to the front in order to
it special emphasis, e.g.:
John
hates,
John loves Renaissance music. Baroque he absolutely hates.

gender bias
This
be
to be
expression denotes a tendency in grammar (not only English) to
This expression
have
as
if
all
human
beings
were
of
following
of the male sex. Compare the following
have as
alternatives:
a.
All people can become members of
o f our Society who wish
a. All
wish
to
to deepen their understanding of Britains heritage.
b. Anyone
of our Society who wishes
ber of
Anyone can become a mem
member
to deepen his understanding of Britains heritage.

Sentence
singu
is singu
b means essentially the same as a, but the subject Anyone is
Sentence b
lar.
The
possessive
adjective
his
sexes
refers to Anyone, even though both sexes
lar. The
are clearly intended.

inversion
Inversion is when the verb comes before the subject, e.g.:
She is a smoker, as are most of
o f her friends.
{instead
{instead of: just as most of her friends are.)

In
grammatical
o f her friends
the underlined words the phrase most of
In the
friends is the grammatical
subject of the cis-clause
as-clause and governs the verb are.

main clause
Sentences
e.g.:
of a main clause and a subordinate clause, e.g.:
Sentences often consist of
1.
1.
2.
2.

ll do the job when I get there.


IIll
Although the driver was drunk, the police let him
him go.

the main clause is I'll do the job,


In
job, and
in
and in 2 it is the police
1 the
In 1
police let him go\
go\ in
both
2
and
1
these
clauses
could
form
gramma
both 1
self-contained sentences, being gramma
tically
driver
complete. By contrast the clauses when I get there and Although the driver
tically complete.
was
sentences.
drunk could never on their own form grammatically complete sentences.
was drunk

modifier
Cf. postmodifier
13

{cf. noun phrase)


ominal phrase (cf.

part
speech
of speech
part of

ominalisation

A
ad
noun, ad
verb, noun,
e.g. aaverb,
word, e.g.
of word,
category of
grammatical category
is aa grammatical
speech is
of speech
part of
A part
verb,
conjunction.
orconjunction.
adjective or
verb, adjective

to
order to
in order
language in
verbal language
ominalisation means preferring nominal to verbal
someexpress
to
using
noun
a
somemeans
express
to
a noun
simply, it
onvey
unvey the message; more simply,
example:
For example:
of aa verb. For
ling which could also be expressed by means of
iing
a.
b.

Council.
Town Council.
of the Town
employee of
M r Jones is an employee
Mr
Council.
Town
the
by
Council.
employed
r
M
is
Jones
Mr

while
employee, while
an employee,
(or nominal phrase) an
entence a uses the noun phrase (or
uses language which is more verbal.

clause)
relative clause)
non-restrictive relative
{also: non-nestrictive
on-defining relative clause (also:
or
identify
noun
or
the
noun
define
or noun
noun
the
identify
or
not define
his is aa relative clause which does not
thing
is
or thing is
person or
which person
already know which
(because we already
hrase that it refers to (because
leant), e.g.:
Here is Pamela Jones, who owns that black terrier.

Contrast defining relative clause.)

ion-finite verb
in aa
predicate in
as aa predicate
serve as
own serve
on its own
cannot on
that cannot
s.s. non-finite verb is one that
infinitives,
to infinitives,
especially to
term refers especially
smoking,, been etc. The term
entence, e.g. smoking
as aa predicate
serve as
can serve
that can
one that
is one
tarticiples and gerunds. (A finite verb is
larticiples
etc.)
been etc.)
expected, has been
is expected,
nn a sentence, e.g. smokes, is smoking, is

loun phrase ({also


also nominal phrase)
toun
the previous
e.g. the
noun, e.g.
as aa noun,
together behave as
of words which together
"his is a group of
etc.
o f Rome etc.
the city of
ditions,
ditions, my nephews wife, the

)arallel expression
larallel
relaparallel relain aa parallel
clauses in
and clauses
Jarallel expressions are words, phrases and
>arallel
by
separated by
but separated
conjunction, but
any conjunction,
by any
ionship to each other, unlinked by
ii comma:
emotions.
feelings, emotions.
*TV influences our feelings,
*TV
them .
*We must face these problems, try to understand them.

14
14

participial
postmodifier
participial postmodifier
This
clause
participialclause
orparticipial
participleor
byaaparticiple
modified by
phraseisismodified
orphrase
wordor
when aaword
is when
This is
that
e.g.:
it, e.g.:
after it,
comes after
that comes
1.
innocent.
clearly innocent.
were clearly
accused were
people accused
the people
o fthe
Some of
1. Some
2.
advanced.
been advanced.
have been
phenomenon have
this phenomenon
explaining this
theories explaining
Various theories
2. Various

In
participial
the participial
In22 the
the people. In
o fthe
Some of
modifies Some
accused modifies
participle accused
the participle
In11 the
clause
also
{Cf. also
theories. (Cf.
Various theories.
modifies Various
phenomenon modifies
this phenomenon
explaining this
clause explaining
postmodifier
postmodifier.)
prepositional postmodifier.)
and prepositional
postmodifier and

possessive
possessive)
{also: possessive)
adjective (also:
possessive adjective
My,
your,
her,
adjectives.
possessive adjectives.
are possessive
etc. are
their etc.
our, their
her, our,
My,
postmodifier
postmodifier
This
whichitit
phrase which
orphrase
wordor
the word
afterthe
comesafter
thatcomes
clause that
orclause
phrase or
word, phrase
is aa word,
This is
modifies,
e.g.:
modifies, e.g.:
a.
haunted.
be haunted.
to be
said to
is said
road is
the road
across the
house across
The house
a. The
b.
garden.
the garden.
in the
singing in
nightingale singing
was aa nightingale
there was
night there
Last night
b. Last
c.
banned.
be banned.
should be
foxhunting should
why foxhunting
reasons why
many reasons
are many
There are
c. There

In
henceititisis
house-, hence
The house-,
modifiesThe
roadmodifies
the road
across the
phraseacross
prepositional phrase
the prepositional
In aa the
also
singing
phrasesinging
participial phrase
theparticipial
Inbb the
postmodifier. In
prepositional postmodifier.
called aaprepositional
also called
in
the
garden
participial
called aa participial
also called
is also
hence itit is
nightingale-, hence
modifies aa nightingale-,
in the garden modifies
postmodifier.
modifies
banned modifies
be banned
should be
why foxhunting
clause why
the clause
In cc the
foxhunting should
postmodifier. In
many
prepositional
and prepositional
postm odifier and
participial postmodifier
also participial
(Cf. also
reasons. (Cf.
many reasons.
postmodifier.)
postmodifier.)

predicate
predicate
The
For
subject. For
thesubject.
aboutthe
us about
tells us
which tells
sentence which
ofaasentence
partof
the part
is the
predicate is
The predicate
example,
Marjory
exceptMarjory
everythingexcept
arrived,everything
justarrived,
has just
Marjoryhas
sentenceMarjory
thesentence
in the
example, in
is
verb.)
non-finite verb.)
complement, non-finite
also complement,
(Cf. also
predicate. (Cf.
the predicate.
is the

15
15

>redicative
VV predicative adjective is one that is placed after the verb to be, to look,
o seem etc., as in the following examples:
This road is dangerous.
You look tired.

If. attributive.

prepositional postmodifier
fhis is when a word or phrase is modified by a prepositional phrase that
:omes after it, e.g.:
the man on the moon
the house across the road

Here the prepositional phrases on the moon and across the wad modify
Cf. also postmodifier and partici
'he
he man and the house respectively. ((Cf.
partici
pial postmodifier.)

proper adjective
European and American are examples of proper adjectives. A proper ad
ad
Euwpe, America).
America).
jective is formed from a proper noun (e.g. Europe,

proper noun
This is a type of noun that designates a particular person, place or thing, e.g.
Charles, Europe,
Euwpe, Buckingham Palace. Typically it begins with a capital let
let
(Cf.
ter.
proper adjective.)

register
Register denotes a variety of language employed in a particular situation.
For example, in private a politician or chairman of the board might talk
about tackling specific problems, but in front of the television cameras he
will express the intention of addressing
addressing those problems. Addressing is of
higher register than tackling.
tackling.
a more formal or higher

sentence adverbial (cf. adverbial)

16
16

splice
By
By splice
splice is
is meant an element in the middle of a sentence
sentence whose
whose relation
relation
ship
whether
ship whether to
to the
the preceding or subsequent part of the sentence
sentence is
is uninten
uninten
tionally
tionally obscure, as in the following example:
Like
*Like Mother
Mother Teresa,
Teresa, devoting herself to the poor
and dying.
dving.
poor and
Lady
Lady Diana
Diana also made caring for them her principal
principal work.
work.

subordinate clause

Cf.
Cf. also main clause and coordinate clause
clause
transitive
This
This is
is aa category
category of verb that is able to take a direct object, e.g.
e.g. eat
eat (a
(a biscuit),
biscuit),
present), throw (a stone).
give (a present),
stone).

Vocabulary
Lexical Choice Involving Parts of
o f Speech

Nominalisations
English often displays a strong tendency to prefer verbal rather than nomi
nomi
nal constructions in order to express its meaning. This may be illustrated
by means of the following alternatives:
la.
la . *We humans do not have any influence on our death. Those who wish
to live a long time often die in their 30s, while those who do not care
about longevity tend to live to a ripe old age.
lb.
lb . We humans do not have any influence on how and when we die....

Of
Of the two formulations our death (la)
(la ) and how and when we die (lb)
(lb ) only
the latter is in keeping with English idiom.

Let us now consider the following four sentences:


2a.
2b.
2c.
2d.

All our efforts are aimed at the improvement of quality.


quality.
quality.
All our efforts are aimed at the improving of quality.
All our efforts are aimed at improving quality.
quality.
All our efforts aim to improve quality.

In the first sentence improvement is a noun pure and simple, albeit one
that is derived etymologically from the verb improve.
improve. To many English
people the sentence would sound highly formal, even unnatural. In terms
of register it might be found in an annual report, or in a statement delivered
by a president or chairperson on a highly formal occasion.
19
19

The second sentence (2b) contains the gerund improving preceded by

articlethe
theand
andmodified
modifiedbybythe
thepreposition
prepositionof.
of.ItItisisless
lessformal
formalthan
thanthe
the
55 article
st sentence.
The third sentence (2c) again contains the gerund improving, which is
llowed by the direct object quality.
quality. It is even less formal than the second
Uowed
ntence.
The fourth sentence (2d) uses a very different structure, namely the
aim. Of
Of all the sentences it is
finitive to improve, governed by the verb aim.

e least formal of all.


The four sentences represent a gradation: from the formal to the inforal, and from nominal to verbal structures. Sentence 2a represents a style
' writing that is frequently felt to be alien to English idiom.

13.
For those
people who
who do
13. For
those people
do not happen to be the lucky owners
owners of
o f aa car,
car, trains
trains are
are
the
the easiest and quickest m
eans of travelling.
travelling.
means
14.
14. The
The improvement
improvement and more intensive utilisation of
o f the
railways would
the railways
would have
have
the
the effect
effect of a significant decrease in traffic congestion.
congestion.
15.
failure of
persisted, and we thought we
15. The
The failure
o f the
the engine persisted,
we would
would be
be stuck
stuck there.
there.

The
The importance
importance of
of paraphrasing will be familiar to any experienced
experienced trans
trans
lator.
Let
us
look
at
lator. Let us look the following sentence, which is
is an
an extreme
extreme but
not
but
not
infrequent
infrequent example of translationese:
3a.
3a. *The
*The knowledge of the principles of correct
correct usage
usage
of
o f a language is very important.

'

uggested Exercises (1):

ewrite the sentences below using verbal structures to replace or modify


italicised words.
words. Avoid using gerunds wherever possible.
possible . Example:

ie
le

o f this tendency is beyond all doubt.


a. The existence of
tendency exists.
b. It is beyond all doubt that this tendency

simple.
1. An answer to this question is not simple.
participation in a correspondence course.
2. Our foundation invites you to participation
3. TV is not only an ideal source of information but the easiest way of
o f manipu
manipu
well.
lation as well.
4. It is enough to get on a bus to be a witness of
o f many discussions about politics.
preparation of
ofxhe
5. The purpose of the course is the preparation
the students fo
forr a conscious
and critical use of
o f the language.
Kings
6 . The Royal Family was opposed to the K
ings marriage to a divorcee.
6.
o f a country and its people.
Such a man is an unsuitable representative of
m istake often made by parents is lack of
o f trust in children.
Another mistake
o f Enlightenment is the wish of
o f every Buddhist.
The attaining of
Buddhist.
o f repeating the same
A good teacher must be patient, as the necessity of
information several times over is quite common in this job.
job.
1. Poles may be critics of
o f priests and question some of the Churchs
C hurchs teachings,
1.
but they love the Pope.
o f adoles
adoles
2. Unfortunately some teenagers stop their development at the stage of
cence.
cence.

7.
8.
8.
9.
0.

Characterised
by three
Characterised by
three o/-phrases one after the other, the sentence
sentence is
is all too

all too
typical
typical of
of aa text
text that has been translated into English mechanically
and
mechanically and
without
any
attempt
to
without any
make the end
end product
product truly readable.
readable. Of
Of course
course
there
ways in which the above sentence may
there are
are various
various ways
may be
improved
and,
be improved and,
by implication,
by
implication, the
the mistake which it exemplifies avoided.
avoided. Here
Here are
are just
just two
two
possibilities:
3b.
3b. In
In any
any language it is very important to
to know
know
the
principles that determine correctness of
the principles
o f usage.
usage.
3c.
Knowing the
the principles determining correct usage is
3c. Knowing
is very
very important
important in
in
any language.
language.

Suggested Exercises
Exercises (2):

Rewrite the
following sentences using verbal structures
Rewrite
the following
to replace
replace or
or
structures to
modify the italicised words:
1.
1. One
One shortcoming
shortcoming of globalisation is the danger of domination
domination of
o f small
small
countries by multinational concerns.
concerns.
2.
fair judgement
2. A
A teacher
teacher must
m ust be capable of
o f fairjudgem
ent of
o f students
students as
as individuals.
individuals.
3.
Such
problems
3. Such problem s are
are aa consequence
consequence of
o f unawareness of
o f the
full significance
significance of
of
the full
the situation.
4.
4. The
The factors
factors determining
determining life expectancy can easily be
identified by
of
be identified
by means
means of
a
a comparison
comparison of
o f the present century with former
form er epochs.
epochs.
5.
5. The
The theme
theme of
of this
this essay is the computers invasion of
o f every
every sphere
sphere of
o f our
our
private domain.
6.
6 . With
With the
the decline
decline of established values people seem to have
lost the
the feelin
of
have lost
feelingg of
the necessity ooff doing good deeds.
deeds.

>0

21

paranor
senses of
The incredible sharpness of
o f the senses
o f cats makes them react to paranor
phenomena.
mal phenomena.
values.
. We
W e run a serious risk of a loss of
o f our traditional, rather conservative values.
o f the
the
'. The new developments in archaeology resulted in the consideration of
numerous
people as reflected through numerous
possibility
o f groups of
o f people
possibility ooff coexistence of
ancient cultures.
cultures.
..

an
Yet notwithstanding all the above remarks, nominalisation remains an
us compare
mportant stylistic option for any serious writer of English. Let us
compare
he following two alternative sentences:
4a. TV can lead to family life becoming impoverished.
life.
4b. TV can lead to the impoverishment of family life.
999.
5a. If there is an emergency, call 999.
o f an emergency call 999.
999.
5b. In the event of

vVhich of the two we prefer will be largely determined by our


our sense
sense of
of
iVhich
This diffediffeegister, the second of each being more formal than the first. This
ence of register is especially obvious in 5a-b: if, as is likely, the context
context is
is
appropriate.
be
will
only
booth,
5b
then
m official notice in a telephone
appropriate.
tn
And if we compare the following two sentences:
release the
6 a. Pharaoh was chastised because he refused to release
the Israelites.
Israelites.
6a.
Israelites.
the
release
to
refusal
for
chastised
6
b.
Pharaoh
was
his
Israelites.
6b.

is rather
rather
which is
see that the first sentence uses a verbal construction which
might
tale, while the latter
latter might
simplistic and more appropriate for a childrens tale,
adult
context.
any
oe
3e considered typical of
of
adult
we
iVe

Adverbs vs. Verbs


In the previous section it was pointed out that English often
often displays
displays aa striking
striking
In
tendency to favour verbal rather than nominal constructions
constructions in
in order
order to
to ex
ex
to
marked,
also
is
less
press its meaning. The same predilection, albeit
albeit less marked, is also to be
be
construction
a
verbal
between
found when there is a choice
construction and
and an
an adverbial
adverbial
means of
expression. This may be illustrated by
by means
of the
the following
following alternatives:
alternatives:

22

la.
l a . Although the artists works apparently enter the surrealist
convention, they are closer to the poetry of childrens dreams.
dreams.
lb.
lb . Although the artists works appear to enter....
2a.
2a. This castle was supposedly built by Ulrich von Falkenberg
around 1440.
1440.
2b. This castle is supposed to have been built by....
by....

In
In each
each of the above alternatives, the second (lb,
(lb , 2b) would be widely
considered to be more in keeping with English idiom.
It
It is
is especially at the beginning of the sentence that English often pre
pre
fers
fers aa verbal construction where other languages might use an adverbial
expression.
expression. Compare the following alternatives:
3a.
3a.
3b.
3b.
4a.
4a.
4b.
4b.

5a.
5a.

5b.
5b.

Possibly he
he will be there tomorrow, but it is far from certain.
Possibly
It is possible
possible that he will be there tomorrow....

Undoubtedly
Undoubtedly there have been huge changes in public awareness
of
o f the environment. Evidently the environment has become
a key concern.
There
There can
can be
be no
no doubt that there have been huge changes in
public
awareness
public awareness of the environment. It is evident / obvious that
the environment has become a key concern.
To
To begin
begin with
with,, the writer discusses new developments in
e-commerce
e-commerce and
and the Internet,
Internet, giving a detailed presentation
of
Next
of the current situation. N
ext he examines how advances
in
in information technology will affect our lives.
The
The writer begins by discussing new developments...
goes on to examine....
He goes

In
In each
each of
of the
the above alternatives, the latter (3b, 4b, 5b) would be widely
considered
considered to be more typical of English idiom.
Sometimes,
however, aa verbal construction and an adverbial expression
Sometimes, however,
are
equally
possible.
Compare the following:
are equally
6a.
6 a. Each
Each lesson
lesson was
was crammed with theory. As a result
students
students attended classes reluctantly.
reluctantly.
6b.
result students were reluctant to attend classes.
6 b. ...As
...As aa result
7a.
new proprietors
proprietors have
have decided to specialise in conferences
7a. The
The new
and
training
and training courses.
courses. Obviously
Obviously they have not forgotten
about
clients,
individual
about individual clients, who will be as welcome as always.
always.
7b.
goes without
7b. ..Jt
.. J t goes
without saying
saying that they have not forgotten about
individual
individual clients....

23

8 a. Our physical surroundings exert a considerable influence on


8a.
our attitudes. Apparently city life is much more attractive
for those who are tired of life in the country.
8 b. ...It would appear that city life is much more attractive for those
8b.
who are tired of life in the country.

in cases where both verbal and adverbial options exist, it is important


emember that the former may well be more appropriate to the particular
itext.

;n
;n

cording to, In accordance with

elated problem involves the excessive use or misuse of the expressions


alternatives,
wording to and in accordance with. Compare the following alternatives,
which the second is preferable by far:
la . According to Catholic dogma the Pope is infallible.
la.
lb . Catholic dogma holds that the Pope is infallible.
lb.
personal experiences I believe that
2a. In accordance with my personal
life in the country can offer many attractions.
personal experiences have taught me that....
Myy personal
2b. M
belief fresh air, forests and fields
3a. In accordance with an old belief
have a positive influence.
belief that fresh air....
3b. It is an old belief
up with a theory according to which dreams mirror
came
Freud
4a.
4a.
subconscious.
the passions which are concealed in the subconscious.
mirror....
4b. Freud came up with a theory which holds that dreams mirror....
4b.

roper Adjectives
frequent error of non-native writers of English is to use proper adjec(European vs Europe, British vs
es where English would prefer nouns {European
itain etc). Contrast the following sentences:
a. ^Blackpool has one of the most magnificent British beaches.
b. Blackpool has one of Britains most magnificent beaches.
o f the most magnificent beaches in Britain.
c. Blackpool has one of

ily b and c are really in accordance with English idiom.


lly

Suggested Exercises (3):

Improve or correct the following


following sentences:
1.
1 . Philadelphia is one of the biggest American cities.
2.
2. The various European cultures have been intermingling for thousands of
years.

3.
generation.
3. Such an observation is certainly true of the Polish young generation.
4.
The
Spencers
are one of the most aristocratic British families.
4.

Of course, there is a place in the English language for proper adjectives,


as in the following examples:
The Chinese economy grew by one percent last month.
The British attitude to tradition is unlike any other.
The strikers have brought the French transportation system to a standstill.

But above all, it simply cannot be taken for granted that a proper adjective
in the native language is to be rendered by the corresponding grammatical
form in English. Since the rules governing use are elusive, the only advice
is to proceed carefully.

Adjectives vs. Prepositional Modifiers


English sometimes uses a prepositional postmodifier where other languages
may prefer an adjectival expression. Compare the following alternatives,
of which only the second (lb)
(lb ) is standard English:
la.
heart,
la . Mary has a golden heart.
lb.
lb . Mary has a heart of gold.

This observation does not, however, imply that the use of an adjective
instead of a prepositional postmodifier is generally less typical of English;
the choice is simply dictated by idiom, on a case-by-case basis. The fol
fol
lowing instances merit attention:
2. The cafe was a meeting place for many literary figures.
3. The Poet Laureate is a renowned man of letters.

25

set phrases. Thus we say


say literary
literary figure
figure
"he above sentences exemplify set
>ut man of letters. By contrast figure
figure of
of letters
letters is
is not
not English,
English, while
while
>ut
best.
at
man is highly informal at
literary man
further illustrated by means of
of the
the following
following altemaaltemaThe point can be further
ive sentences:
of escaping communist
communist reality.
4a. Many Cubans dream of
4b. Many Cubans dream of
of escaping the reality of
of communism.
communism.

n the above alternatives there is no obvious


obvious difference of
of meaning: they
they
vould appear to reflect differing stylistic
stylistic preferences and
and are
are equally
equally
that what
what in
in other
other languages
languages
:orrect. The important thing to remember is that
rendered quite
quite differently
differently in
in
s expressed adjectivally may need to be rendered
inglish.1
inglish.1
Suggested Exercise (4):
(4):

'n the following


alternative:
'n
following sentences choose the most appropriate alternative:
critical words / words of
o f criticism.
criticism.
II.. Such a child will never listen to any critical
embarked upon its
its democratic
democratic path
path //
>.>. That was the moment Eastern Europe embarked
path to democracy.

Frequent
Frequent Problems
Problems with
with Specific
Specific Lexical
Lexical Items
Items

Belong
The
The verb
verb to
to belong
belong is
is frequently
frequently aacause
cause of
of problems.
problems. ItItisis used
used to
toexpress
express
membership
membership of
of aaclearly
clearly defined
defined family,
family, class
class or
orcommunity,
community, as
as in
in the
thefol
fol
lowing
lowing examples:
examples:
Tigers
Tigers belong
belong to
to the
the cat
cat family.
family.
English
English belongs
belongs to
to the
the Germanic
Germanic group
group of
of languages.
languages.
The
The composer
composer belonged
belonged to
to aa secret
secret organisation.
organisation.

Note
tigers, English,
Note how
how in
in each
each of
of these
these examples
examples the
the subject
subject ((tigers,
English, the
the com
com
poser) belongs
is
to
something
that
belongs to something that is grammatically
grammatically singular
singular{the
(the cat
catfam
fa m
ily,
ily, the
the Germanic
Germanic group
group of
o flanguages,
languages, aa secret
secret organisation).
organisation). The
The verb
verbto
to
belong
belong cannot
cannot be
be used
used as
as aa synonym
synonym of
of to
to be
be one
one of.
o f .Consider
Consider the
thefol
fol
lowing
lowing alternatives:
alternatives:
i.i.
ii.
ii.
iii.
iii.
iv.
iv.
v.
v.

*The
*The Habsburgs
Habsburgs belong
belong to
to Europes
Europes most
most ancient
ancient dynasties.
dynasties.
The
The Habsburgs
Habsburgs are
are one
one of
of Europes
Europes most
most ancient
ancient dynasties.
dynasties.
The
The Habsburgs
Habsburgs are
are among
among Europes
Europes most
most ancient
ancient dynasties.
dynasties.
The
The Habsburgs
Habsburgs rank
rank fare
(are to
to be
be ranked)
ranked) among
among etc.
etc.
The
The Habsburgs
Habsburgs are
are to
to he
he numbered
numbered (counted)
(counted) among
among etc.
etc.

Sentence
Sentence ii is
is simply
simply un-English.
un-English.
Suggested
Suggested Exercises
Exercises (5):
(5):

Correct
following sentences,
Correct the
the following
sentences, rephrasing
rephrasing them
them in
in any
any suitable
suitable manner:
manner:
Dunes
Dunes belong
belong to
to the
the characteristic
characteristic features
features of
of the
the Baltic
Baltic littoral.
littoral.
These
These monuments
monuments belong
belong to
to those
those most
most often
often visited
visited by
by lovers
lovers of
ofart.
art.
Frankly,
Frankly, the
the Joneses
Joneses do
do not
not belong
belong to
to those
those people
people who
who have
have fastidious
fastidious tastes.
tastes.
According
latest
the
to
computer-based
According to the latest computer-based analyses
analyses the
the BMJ
B M J belongs
belongs to
to the
the top
top
three
three most
most prestigious
prestigious journals
journals in
in the
the world.
world.
5.
5. Visiting
Visiting the
the poor
poor and
and chairing
chairing various
various charity
charity organisations
organisations belonged
belonged to
to her
her
many
m any duties.
duties.
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

11
of the above
above phenomenon relates to the use of
of proper
proper nouns and
and adjectives
adjectives
One aspect of
(European versus of
of Europe
Europe etc),
etc), discussed above,
above, p. 24f.
(European

26

27
27

o f aa good
good
Sensitivity, intelligence and tolerance also belong to the qualities of
teacher.
teacher.
Health and happiness belong to the most precious things in life.
life.
books
urder m
ysteries of Agatha Christie belong to the most popular books
mysteries
murder
The m
ever written.
longevity.
Diet belongs to the most crucial factors in human longevity.

6. obtain
a. There is no better way than TV of
of getting information on recent events.
b. There is no better way than TV of obtaining information on recent
events.

7. possess
a.
a. Few
Few of the village doctors have got
got adequate medical equipment.
b. Few
Few of the village doctors possess
possess adequate medical equipment.

let
*et
being used
used
et is the most overused verb in the English language, often being
here other verbs are more suitable. In all except informal contexts its
its
/erase generally creates an impression of slovenliness, and its misuse leaves
leaves
/erase
in each
1t impression of illiteracy. Look at the following sentence pairs, in
each
ff which the word get is replaced by an alternative:

.. acquire
got a reputation for corruption.
corruption.
a. Many politicians have got
a reputation for corruption.
have
acquired
b. M
any
politicians
corruption.
Many

.. become
the mind.
mind.
broadens the
a. Getting acquainted with other cultures broadens
a.
mind.
broadens the
b. Becoming
Becoming acquainted with other cultures broadens
the mind.

.. derive
his income.
most of
a. It is from there that he gets most
of his
income.

income.
his income.
b. It is from there that he derives most
most of
o f his

.. grow
hen one considers all these contradictions,
contradictions, one
one simply
simply gets
gets confused.
When
a. W
confused.
grows
simply
contradictions,
one
these
all
b.
W
hen
one
considers
contradictions, one simply grows
b. When
confused.
confused.

.. have
unwelcome
with unwelcome
way of
M y grandmother has got
got a special way
a. My
o f dealing
dealing with
guests.
guests.
unwelcome guests.
with unwelcome
way of dealing
b. My
M y grandmother has a special way
dealing with
guests.
;8

In the above examples each of


of the first sentences (a) is informal or con
con
versational, while each of the second (b) is characteristic of more serious
writing.
Suggested Exercises (6):

following sentences ((in


in some of
Replace get in the following
o f them a verb other than
those listed above may be possible):
possible):
11.. Politicians often try to get access to television-studios.
2.
A good psychologist has got intuition.
2. A

3.
All too
too easily people get lazy and prefer sitting in their armchairs.
3. All
armchairs.
4.
One
gets
the
impression
the
that
world
moving
is
4. One gets
m oving ever faster.

5.
5. Many
Many people desire to get truly educated.
6.
person never
6. A
A mature
mature person
never tries to get out of facing the consequences of
o f his
actions.

7.
paparazzi will
will chase anybody to get some interesting and sensational
7. The
The paparazzi
material.

8.
8 . People
People may
may get anxious because of
o f these economic problems.
9.
9. One
One can
can easily
easily get something interesting for oneself out of the programme
offered.
10.
Ethical standards have got a historical aspect to them.
10. Ethical
111.
1 . The
becomes.
The older
older one
one gets the wiser one becomes.
12.
possible to
to get
12. It
It is
is possible
get aa great deal of
o f satisfaction from reading books.
13.
13. When
When trains
trains are
are delayed
delayed for so
so long people often get furious.

29

Out
Turn Out
-merge,
zmerge, Happen, Occur, Prove, Turn
overlap.
largely overlap.
their meanings largely
since their
Tiese verbs are very often confused, since

. happen
following
The following
fortune. The
and fortune.
chance and
of chance
his verb emphasises the element of
verb:
with
this
entences exemplify various constructions
la. He happens to have the same birthday as myself.
has..)
that he has...)
(= It is an interesting coincidence that
as myself.
same birthday as
It so happens that he has the same
lb. Tt
2.
3.
4.

be.
to be.
happen to
you happen
wherever you
of use to you wherever
This equipment will be of
(= wherever you may be)
of our club.
happens, a member of
He is, as it happens,
that...)
(= It is a remarkable coincidence that...)
down.
system breaks down.
schools heating system
Tt quite often happens that the schools
It

!. occur
each
from each
different from
are very different
that are
"his verb has two principal meanings that
>ther.
tther.
take place)
(= take
1. When did this event occur? (=
1.
friend had
2. It just did not occur to him that his best friend
let him down. (= He did not realise...)

the
with the
of these two meanings is occur interchangeable with
sf.B. In neither of
<.B.
*It
phrase
The
them.
*It
from
phrase
The
out,
from
distinct
quite
being
turn
'erbs prove
and
prove
that... does not exist.
)ccurs that...
tccurs

prove, turn out


1.f. prove,
formore foris more
of register. Prove is
rhese two verbs differ especially in terms of
prove and turn out
interchangeable,
are interchangeable,
out are
nal. In the following sentences prove
of formality:
lepending on the degree of
be) incompetent.
(to be)
a. The new secretary proved (to
be)
(to
that
clear that
became clear
(= Later on itit became
b. That battle proved (to be) decisive. (=

that battle...)
inadequate.
be) inadequate.
(to be)
c. The supplies that they had prepared proved (to

10
50

d.
d.
e.
e.

Sadly
down.
put down.
be put
to be
had to
and had
vicious and
be) vicious
(to be)
proved (to
dog proved
the dog
Sadly the
That
argument
proved
home.
left home.
John left
straw: John
last straw:
the last
be the
to be
That argument proved to
(=
straw.)
last straw.)
the last
been the
had been
argument had
that argument
that that
clearthat
became clear
on itit became
Lateron
(= Later

N.B.
N.B.
After
followed
when followed
(especially when
out (especially
left out
be left
often be
can often
be can
to be
verb to
the verb
prove the
After prove
by
possi
generally possi
notgenerally
omissionisis not
This omission
a-d.). This
examples a-d.).
inexamples
as in
adjective, as
an adjective,
by an
ble
out:
turn out:
with turn
ble with
a.
incompetent.
be incompetent.
to be
out to
turned out
secretary turned
new secretary
The new
a. The
(Not:
incom petent)
out incompetent)
*tumed out
(Not: *tumed
b.
through.
halfway through.
left halfway
we left
and we
awful and
be awful
to be
out to
turned out
film turned
The film
b. The
((proved
proved awful
likely.)
less likely.)
much less
and much
formal and
more formal
is more
awful is
c.
artist.
gifted artist.
he aa gifted
to be
out to
turned out
He turned
c. He
((proved
proved to
formal.)
more formal.)
much more
is much
beis
to be

4.
that...
transpires that...
It transpires
that..., It
emerges that...,
It emerges
that..., It
out that...,
turns out
It turns
4. It
phrases
These
of
first of
The first
that.... The
apparent that....
becomes apparent
It becomes
mean It
generally mean
These phrases generally
the
two:
other two:
the other
than the
common than
more common
much more
is much
three is
the three
a.
reality.
with reality.
do with
to do
little to
have little
dreams have
our dreams
that our
out that
turns out
often turns
a- ItIt often

Transpire
scan
allaascan
above all
secret, above
when aasecret,
especially when
used especially
are used
emerge are
and emerge
Transpire and
dalous
secret,
emerge.
thanemerge.
registerthan
higherregister
ofaahigher
is of
Transpire is
light.Transpire
to light.
comes to
dalous secret, comes
b.
firm isis
thefirm
thatthe
emerges that
chairperson ititemerges
new chairperson
the new
with the
talks with
my talks
From my
b. From
on
bankruptcy.
of bankruptcy.
verge of
the verge
on the
c.
money
embezzling money
been embezzling
has been
director has
the director
that the
transpires that
now transpires
c- ItIt now
for
years.
many years.
for many

Suggested
(7):
Exercises (7):
Suggested Exercises

Fill
sentences:
following sentences:
the following
in the
gaps in
the gaps
Fill the
1.
-fatal.
som etim es--------can sometimes
fatal.
mistakes can
Such mistakes
1 . Such
2.
Yesterday
to meet M
Mrr Jones
Jones at the
the post office.
2. Yesterday II ----------to
office. He had some
amazing
friend.
common friend.
our common
about our
news about
amazing news
3.
incompatible with his daughters.
-to be incompatible
attitude----------to
His attitude
3. His
4.
From
evidence
that
t----------the
lig hto light
come to
newly come
has newly
4. From evidence that has
the Rosenbergs were
indeed
spies.
Soviet spies.
indeed Soviet
5.
be completely maladjusted.
children----------to
such children
-to be
Generally such
5. Generally
maladjusted.

31
31

proportion
allproportion
ofall
outof
plantisisout
nuclearplant
thatnuclear
6 . --------- the
f accidents
accidentsatatthat
numberoof
thenumber
6.
to its size.
size.
climates.
wanner climates.
in warmer
M alaria----------especially
especially in
7. Malaria
more time for
8 . Before TV was discovered family members had more
for each
each other.
other.
8.
TV
favouriteTV
ourfavourite
of our
livesof
thelives
N
ow adays,----------we
interestedininthe
moreinterested
aremore
weare
Nowadays,
characters.
characters.
sitin
in
but sit
dobut
nothingto
todo
wehave
havenothing
w h e n ----------we
9. We all know those evenings when
an armchair and read a book.
thought.
than IIthought.
complicated than
morecomplicated
10. The subject
subject----------more
10.
died
had died
fatherhad
herfather
that her
11.. When she finally did contact her parents it
i t ----------that
11
a few months earlier.

Namely and Related Expressions


phrases, as
as in
in the
the
The adverb namely is generally used to introduce short phrases,
following examples:
nowadays,
1. Let me focus on a key issue facing Europe
Europe nowadays,
1.
namely
nam ely expansion of the
the EU.
EU.
Freud,
2. Let us turn to a problem that so
so fascinated
fascinated Freud,
our
subconscious.
namely
nam
ely the way dreams reflect our subconscious.

involving aa nonnonIn addition namely may be used to introduce aa clause involving


finite verb:

to perform
perform
3. Both parents and teachers have the
the same
same task
task to
generation.
rising
a
educate
namely
to
nam
ely
generation.

5.
5. *Kurt claimed that in life there is something that goes beyond
money
money and fame it is freedom and independence.

In both of the above sentences the word namely should be substituted:


In
4a. ...namely air pollution.
5a. ...namely freedom and independence.

Namely is seldom used to introduce aa sentence, the following passage


Namely
exemplifying a recurrent error:
6.
6 . *Our
*Our language
language has recently been deluged with English borrowings.
borrowings.
Namely a
Namely
a man
man selling drugs is a dealer,
dealer, someone who constructs
new
buildings is aa developer,
new buildings
developer, while McDonalds and Kentucky
Chicken are
are examples of fast
fast foods.

In
In the
the above
above example Namely is impossible and needs to be replaced by
Thus.
Thus.
Other
Other related phrases, include in other words, to be more specific
specific,, and

that
say (often
that is
is to
to say
(often shortened to i.e.).
i.e.). It is important to remember that
namely
is
not
used
very
frequently
in
contemporary English, other options
namely is not used very
being preferred.
Namely and i.e.
i.e.
These
These two
two expressions
expressions differ
differ in one other important respect. While both
aim
clarify,
to
only
namely
aim to clarify, only namely makes the meaning more specific. Compare
the following:
a.
a. This
This summer
summer we
we visited
visited Stonehenge and Avebury, i.e. two prehistoric
prehistoric
sites.
b.
b. This
This summer
summer we
we visited
visited two prehistoric sites, namely
nam ely Stonehenge and
Avebury.

possible instead
1-2, which is is
is also
also possible
instead of
of
In this last example, but not in 1-2,
namely.
namely.
3a. Both parents and teachers have
have the
the same
same task
task to
to perform,
perform,
generation.
rising
a
educate
which is to
a rising generation.

A recurrent error is to write sentences of


of the
the following
following types:
types:
greatest
4. *This paper will be examining
examining one
one of
of the
the greatest
pollution.
modem health hazards, which
which is
is air
air pollution.

32
32

Suggested
Suggested Exercises (8):

How can
following sentences be best completed?
How
can the following
11.. In
In any
business the
primary
any family
family business
the board of
of directors
directors has only one prim
ary goal,
thewellbeing
wellbeingof
of the
thewhole
wholeclan.
clan.
the
2.
Berlin,where
Europespostwar
where Europes
2. There
There is
is one
one city
city in
in Central
Central Europe,
postwar
E urope,----------Berlin,
divisions
divisions have
have been
been most clearly highlighted.

33

M r Jones knows what his daughters interests are, he does not treat
treat
Although Mr
interests,but
but
herinterests,
developher
Amy to
them seriously.
seriously.----------he
help Amy
to develop
nothelp
does not
hedoes
rather tries to project his own ambitions onto her.
way,
The healthiest way to eat fruit is the opposite of the conventional w
a y ,-----one should have it before the main meal, rather than after.
rising
ofrising
thepossibility
possibilityof
Man has another feature that animals lack,
la c k ,----------the
Man
instincts.
above the instincts.
not
Natural aptitude is indispensable for being a good teacher.
teacher.----------itit isis not
enough to possess a knowledge of a particular subject.
subject.
thf
focus on the most important benefit of living in the country,
------- th<
Let us focus
air.
abundance of fresh air.
book
that aabook
notesthat
shenotes
g o ssip.----------she
The Princess also mentions some of the gossip.
fantasy.
extent
great
to
by an erstwhile friend of hers is a
fantasy.
judicious foreign policy,
The Government
Governm ent has always pursued the same judicious
relations.
neighbourlyrelations.
--------- to
goodneighbourly
promotegood
topromote

2c. *Our secret code is possible to decipher.


2d. Our secret code is impossible to decipher.

Most English people would reject 2c as being ungrammatical, whatever


the context; in addition, some would also avoid using 2d in written con
con

texts.
The following variant of this construction is also used,involving
involving
a subject
subjectofofthe
theinfinitival
infinitivalclause
clausebeing
beingintroduced
introducedby
byfor
fo r(sentences
(sentences 3a
3a
and 3b):
3a. It is easy
easy (difficult
(difficult / possible / impossible) foi
for the Enemy
to decipher our secret code.
3b. It is not possible for anyone to achieve this goal.

A typical mistake, if we turn to 3b, is to write a sentence such as the fol


fol
lowing:
3c. *This goal is not possible to achieve by anybody.
anybody.

asy, Difficult, Possible, Impossible


may govern infinitival constructions, but these must be in the
Jive,
tive, not the passive voice:
iese words
tese

orrect:
comprehend,
With the Internet the world has become easier to comprehend.

tcorrect:
icorrect:
With the Internet the world has become easier to be comprehended.

difficult, possible
construc-possible and impossible share one particular construe
asy and difficult,
on involving the infinitive. Compare the following sentences.
code.
secretcode.
oursecret
decipherour
easy/ /difficult
1. ItItisiseasy
impossibletotodecipher
difficult/ /possible
possible/ /impossible
1.
2a. Our secret code is easy to decipher.
decipher.
2b. Our secret code is difficult to decipher.

Suggested Exercises (9):

Construct sentences from


from the following
elements, modifying them where
following elements,
necessary, e.g.:
a. Such information +
+ BE + impossible + to obtain from
book.
from any book.
b. It is impossible to obtain such information from
book.
from any book.
11.. Such prosperity + BE + impossible + to achieve within a few years.
2. If hope + BE + possible + to market, it would have a value higher than
diamonds.

3. The
Thearea
areaisis wet
w etand
and therefore
therefore ++ difficult
difficult++ to
to plough.
plough.
4. These
These things
things are
are priceless
priceless but
but ++ possible
possible ++ to
to obtain
obtain for
for free.
free.
5. These things + BE + not possible + to experience until recently.
recently.
6.
6 . Skiing + BE + almost impossible + anyone + to learn at such an age.
7. Such books BE + not easy + to read.
8.
8 . Such bad memories + BE + impossible + to erase within a short time.

9. Ethnic conflicts are inherently intractable and + impossible + to solve only by


bombing.

35

ralue
ralue

Citizen

(la and 2a):


his word is also often misused, as in the following examples (la

This
This word generally has a very restricted technical meaning, occurring pri
pri
marily in legal contexts:

value, and doctors should stop at


nothing
at nothing
la . *Human life is the greatest value,
la.
to preserve it.
lb . Nothing is more valuable than human life, and doctors should
lb.
preserve it.
it.
stop at nothing to preserve

m ost important
2a. *We underestimate many values in our lives. The most
any
o f mind, cannot be purchased at any
ones, like health and peace of
price.
price.
things in our
many things
our lives.
Wee underestimate the importance of many
2b. W
price.
at any
cannot
mind
of
peace
any price.
and
purchased
be
Those like health

1.
8 or over have the right to vote.
vote.
British citizens aged 118
All British
1. All

Citizen
sen
city dweller, as in the following sen
also has the meaning of city
Citizen also
tence:
2.
of Philadelphia have a wide variety of cultural events
Citizens of
2. Citizens
to choose from.

This
This second example would, however, strike many, if not most English
people as very stiff
stiff and formal, and needs rewriting:

lb
lb and 2b the word value has been replaced by a paraphrase, while in
senfollowing senb the paraphrasing has even necessitated rewriting the following
;nce.
jnce.
Often, thus, the use of value is either unnecessary or inappropriate.
benefit
blessing, benefit
)ther expressions (e.g. thing, element, aspect, quality, blessing,
tc.) or even paraphrases should also be considered.

Thus,
lo
can very often be circumvented by such expressions as lo
citizens can
Thus, citizens
cal
people, people
inhabitants, townsfolk,
people who live in that place, inhabitants,
cal people,
the
people etc.
ordinary people
the general public, ordinary

iuggested Exercises (10):

Suggested
Suggested Exercises (11):

para
sentences, para
following sentences,
7ind better alternatives to the word value in the following
7ind
phrasing wherever appropriate:
phrasing

Paraphrasing where
find
l
d better alternatives to citizen in the fo
fol
necessary, fin
where necessary,
Paraphrasing
lowing
sentences,
lowing sentences, in which the word is typically misused:

TV?
on TV?
shown on
those shown
all those
among all
. Are we really able to find any positive values among
replaced.
be replaced.
that cannot
values that
Literature still has a number of values
cannot be
values of
preserve the most
culture,
of culture,
important values
m ost important
i. Our ancestors were able to preserve
wars and calamities.
despite all the wars
calamities.
peace.
and peace.
freedom and
as freedom
LL People often have fight for such priceless values as
which
>.
values which
eternal values
are eternal
art are
and art
literature and
music, legends, literature
i. Europes traditional music,
people.
are respected by all cultured people.
life.
value in
in life.
important value
most important
the most
3. For many a clear conscience is the

11..

i
i

36

People in
in Philadelphia have a wide variety of cultural events
People
from.
to choose from.

Country
villagers.
citizens who feel superior to villagers.
despised by citizens
often despised
is often
life is
Country life
2.
This
question
is
of
interest
both
to
specialists
and
average
to
citizens.
citizens.
2. This question is of interest
3.
was revered and American citizens did not subject
memory was
JFK s memory
long JFKs
For long
3. For
his
lifestyle to close scrutiny.
his lifestyle
4.
The
o f citizens as much as the telephone,
the lives of
change the
could change
Internet could
4. The Internet

the
radio and the TV have done.
the radio
5.
An hours
hours walk
walk in
the open
will guarantee a satisfactory level of
o f fitness for
open will
in the
5. An
the
citizen.
average adult citizen.
the average

37

5. An
communicating
An Englishman in Amsterdam will have little difficulty in communicating
5.
citizens.
with the local citizens.
as they
they do
do
7. These old traditions strike us as being increasingly exotic, just as
western citizens.
citizens.
8 . Politicians should be role models for ordinary citizens.
citizens.
8.
during
elsewhere
live
of
Rome
9.
M
any
o
f
the
citizens
o
f
Rom
e
the summer
summer months.
months.
9. Many of
known and
widely known
was widely
and spoken
spoken
Hundreds of years ago the Latin language was
0. Hundreds
o f our country.
country.
among educated citizens of

Selected Structural Peculiarities

Appositions (I)
An apposition
An
apposition (literally placing
placing at) occurs, for example, in the following
sentence:
Maijorie,
Maijorie, my nephews wife, runs a boutique.

The
The noun
noun phrase
phrase my
my nephews wife
wife is in apposition to Marjorie.
Marjorie. In
other
words,
an
apposition
is when a descriptive word or phrase is con
other words,
con
nected to
the word or phrase that it describes without the use of conjunc
nected
to the
conjunc
tions
prepositions. Appositions do, unfortunately, tend to be a thorn in
tions or
or prepositions.
the
flesh
many non-native writers of English, since meaning, punctua
the flesh for
for many
punctua
tion,
the
tion, and
and the use
use of
of the article all come into play. Let us consider the fol
fol
lowing sentence:
When
la.
the cup
was held between two arch-rivals.
la . W
hen the
cup final
final was
Celtic
Celtic and
and Rangers,
Rangers, many people expected trouble.
trouble.

In
phrase Celtic and Rangers is obviously in apposition
the phrase
In sentence
sentence la
la the
to
the
phrase two
to the phrase
two arch-rivals.
arch-rivals. The sentences structure could be made much

clearer
clearer by inserting the word namely.
namely.
When
the cup
was held between two arch-rivals,
W
hen the
cup final
final was
namely
namely Celtic
Celtic and
and Rangers,
Rangers, many
many people expected trouble.
trouble.

The
The following
following (lb)
(lb ) is an alternative formulation:
lb.
the cup
was held
held between the two arch-rivals
lb . When
W hen the
cup final
final was
Celtic
Celtic and
and Rangers,
Rangers, many
many people expected trouble.

39

punctuation
the punctuation
and the
added and
(the) has been added
thing is that an article (the)
is been reduced (one comma has disappeared).
is
sigfears, there is aa sigabout peoples fears,
primarily about
lb are primarily
and lb
la and
While both la
Celtic
of
existence
the
us
about
Celtic
of
existence
la informs
ficant difference in nuance: la
that
(thus implying that
that time (thus
at that
id Rangers, and that they were arch-rivals at
e might not necessarily have known).
about the readers knowllb
lb,, by contrast, makes no such implication about
(the
arch-rivals),
lb
imply
not imply
does not
lb does
two
Ige. Although the article is used (the two
have
other have
on the other
Celtic and Rangers on
ox Celtic
iiat
at arch-rivals on the one hand or
reviously been mentioned.
folhardly be folcan hardly
two arch-rivals can
la the phrase two
Note that in sentence la
typical
are two
than two commas. Here are
>wed by any punctuation other than
>wed
of punctuation:
~rors of
Tors
le crucial
le

i. with dashes:

arch-rivals
lc . *When the cup final was held between two arch-rivals
lc.
- Celtic and Rangers - many people expected trouble.
-

in
only in
acceptable only
is acceptable
of lc is
/hile not absolutely wrong, the punctuation of
ighly informal contexts.

ii. with colon:


*When the cup final was held between two arch-rivals:
Id. *When
ID.
Celtic and Rangers, many people expected trouble.

Celtic
apposition Celtic
far worse because the apposition
Tie mistake exemplified by Id is far
subordinate
separates the subordinate
and separates
of a sentence and
nd Rangers is in the middle of
many people...). Thus
colon
the colon
Thus the
(When...) from the main clause ((many
lause (When...)
clause,
and
1)
an
2) an
subordinate clause, and 2)
ffectively chops the sentence up into 1) aa subordinate
pposition + main clause.
pattern as la-b:
The next example conforms to the same pattern
sometimes regarded
S 0 ren Kierkegaard, is sometimes
2a. A Danish thinker, Spren
of existentialism.
as a forerunner of
sometimes regarded
S 0ren Kierkegaard is sometimes
2b. The Danish thinker Spren
of existentialism.
as a forerunner of

2a
discerned: 2a
again be discerned:
of nuance may again
n these two sentences aa difference of
of
heard of
so likely to have heard
uggests that the reader is perhaps not so
2b
is
expository;
is
or expository;
strongly didactic or
Cierkegaard, and hence the tone is strongly

10
K)

altogether
level
readers level
the readers
about the
assumptions about
no assumptions
making no
neutral, making
more neutral,
altogether more
of
education.
of education.
A
same:
the same:
essentially the
is essentially
example is
further example
A further
3a.
Gwent,
counties: Gwent,
Welsh counties:
three Welsh
by three
west by
the west
on the
bounded on
is bounded
England is
3a. England
Powys,
Clywd.
and Cly
Powys, and
wd.
3b.
(of)
counties (of)
W elsh counties
three Welsh
the three
by the
west by
the west
on the
bounded on
is bounded
England is
3b. England
Gwent,
Clywd.
and Clywd.
Powys, and
Gwent, Powys,

Again
Gwent,
that Gwent,
known that
have known
not have
may not
reader may
the reader
that the
assumes that
3a assumes
Again 3a
Powys,
and
Clywd
were
markedly
is markedly
tone is
the tone
hence the
and hence
counties, and
Welsh counties,
Powys, and Clywd were Welsh
didactic.
the
aboutthe
assumptionsabout
no assumptions
makes no
didactic: itit makes
not didactic:
is not
3b is
contrast, 3b
By contrast,
didactic. By
persons
has
colon has
2a: aa colon
and 2a:
la and
from la
different from
slightly different
is slightly
3a is
knowledge.13a
persons knowledge.1
been
is
apposition is
theapposition
thatthe
is that
this is
forthis
reasonfor
The reason
comma. The
thecomma.
for the
substitutedfor
been substituted
not
sandwiched
sentence.
the sentence.
concludes the
instead concludes
but instead
clauses, but
two clauses,
between two
not sandwiched between
Finally
structures
favourstructures
tofavour
journalism, to
ofjournalism,
typical of
tendency, typical
one tendency,
is one
there is
Finally there
exemplified
the::
article the
initial article
the initial
without the
but without
3b, but
and 3b,
2b and
lb , 2b
by lb,
exemplified by
4.
doubt
no doubt
in no
was in
Shea was
Jaimie Shea
spokesman Jaimie
4. NATO spokesman
where
placed.
be placed.
to be
was to
incident was
the incident
for the
blame for
real blame
the real
where the

The
gram
any gram
than any
rather than
usage, rather
of usage,
patterns of
to patterns
point to
examples point
above examples
The above
matical
subjec
onsubjec
depending on
widely depending
varies widely
usage varies
course, usage
Ofcourse,
such. Of
as such.
rules as
matical rules
tive
and
(a and
types (a
both types
practice both
in practice
and in
right, and
feelsright,
what feels
of what
considerations of
tive considerations
b)
of
difference of
obvious difference
any obvious
without any
interchangeably, without
used interchangeably,
be used
often be
may often
b) may
nuance.
The
have
however, have
does, however,
sentences does,
type bb sentences
the type
in the
illustrated in
pattern illustrated
nuance. The pattern
one
hence
and hence
punctuation, and
no punctuation,
or no
little or
involves little
advantage: itit involves
important advantage:
one important
might
elegant.
more elegant.
considered more
be considered
might be
Note:
Additional
Additional Note:

Consider
appo
one-word appo
involving aaone-word
sentences, involving
alternative sentences,
following alternative
the following
Consider the
sition
pronoun:
to aa pronoun:
sition to
a.
a.
b.
b.
c.
c.

This
remember.
always remember.
will always
Britons, will
we, Britons,
that we,
event that
an event
is an
This is
This
remember.
always remember.
will always
Britons -- will
we-- Britons
that we
event that
an event
is an
This is
This
remember.
always remember.
will always
Britons will
we Britons
that we
event that
an event
is an
This is

Only
below,
also below,
(Cf. also
punctuation. (Cf.
English punctuation.
of English
typical of
is typical
sentence is
final sentence
the final
Only the
pp.
165f).
165f).
pp.
already
have already
counties have
Welsh counties
that Welsh
imply that
three...) imply
(the three...)
article (the
the article
of the
use of
the use
does the
Nor does
' Nor
been
mentioned.
been mentioned.

41
41

Suggested Exercises (12):

form, making all necessary


Rewrite the following
following sentences in their optimal form,
(punctuation, word order, articles etc):
etc):
changes (punctuation,
Polkadot.
11.. Our company owns a/the Dutch publishing house Polkadot.
2. Benjamin Disraeli a/the British PM played a crucial role in the crisis.
3. The book describes the relationship between Humbert Humber a/the writer
teenager.
and a precocious teenager.
4. Mikhail Gorbatchev a/the Soviet politician also describes these events.
5. From my window I have a spectacular view of an/the extinct volcano
Shavnabada, which forms part of the central mountain range.
6 . The above journals are complemented by a/the monthly bulletin Forthcoming
6.
Publications.
Publications.
pirate.
7. Viking comes from an/the old Nordic word vikingr meaning pirate.
8.
8 . The Peasants
P easants Revolt was led by a/the man of humble origins Wat
W at Tyler.
9. Using e-mail I can communicate with Richard, my Australian friend, within
seconds.
a few seconds.
10. A poll conducted by Newsweek an/the American magazine also gave the
10.
results.
same results.
11.
Juvenal
a/the Roman poet once said that the supreme good is a healthy
.
11
mind in a healthy body.
12.
12. Taking a/the double name John Paul II, he soon established a reputation for
him self as a defender of
o f freedom, offering great moral support for a/the trade
himself
union Solidarity.
13.
13. Not only does the President face a charge of sexual harassment by Paula
form er Arkansas State employee, but he has also had an
Jones a/the former
M onica Lewinsky a/the 21
21-year-old
-year-old White House
extramarital affair with Monica
intern..
intern
14. A/The name Iron Curtain was given to the Elbe frontier.
frontier.
14.
15. Orphee, conceived and directed by Jean Cocteau a/the great French
15.
playwright, is a case in point.
16. Today demonstrations will be taking place across Serbia in the framework of
16.
movement.
Alliance for Change a/the mass movement.
17. Spiritual regeneration is a recurrent theme in nineteenth-century literature.
17.
Thus the protagonist (Raskolnikov) of a/the novel by Dostoyevsky Crime
rebirth.
and Punishment undergoes something of a spiritual rebirth.
18.
18. I would like to quote the words of a song by Iron Maiden, a/the British
heavy-metal band.

42

The Pope
John Paul
19.
has tried
tried to
continue the
of John
work of
to continue
19. The
II has
XXIII a/the
Pope John
Paul II
John XXIII
the work
a/the
great reformer and an/the enlightened conservative Paul VI.

Appositions (II):
Appositions vs. Prepositional Structures
A special type of de
de facto apposition
apposition is used for towns, cities, districts,
landmarks, islands etc. It is typically expressed by the pattern the...of.
Compare the following alternatives:
a. The Cotswolds area has many picturesque towns. One charming spa,
Cheltenham, is especially worth visiting.
b. ...The charming spa of Cheltenham is especially worth visiting.

Both a and b have the same meaning. In the first alternative, Cheltenham
spa. The second alternative
is technically in apposition to One charming spa.
idiom,
conforming to a well-established
is especially typical of English
pattern that is found with various categories of proper nouns:
I. Towns
Towns and
and Villages:
Villages:
1.
1. The city of Rome is situated on the Tiber.
2. The town of Monmouth is the gateway to Wales.

3. The village of Tintagel is associated with King Arthur.


4. Today the Pope is visiting the Baltic port of Szczecin.

pat
All the above sentences contain nominal phrases characterised by the pat
tern the...of...
the...of... In each instance two nouns are linked by of
of to form a whole:

thus in 1 the phrase the


the city
city would be incomplete without of Rome
Rome
(the sentence refers to all of Rome, not just to one part);1
part);1 similarly in
4 the
the Baltic port
port and Szczecin
Szczecin are identical
the phrase does not imply
any distinction between, say, a port of Szczecin and the rest of that city.
1
like like
the city
1 Phrases
Phrases
the city
o f Rome
are not
be confused
the phrase
the City
o f Lon
of Rome
are not
the phrase
withwith
the City
to betoconfused
of Lon
don,
don, which means one particular part of London - the ancient heart of the city where the
Bank of England, the Tower, and St Pauls Cathedral are to be found.

43
43

t is impossible
im p o s s ib le to
to leave
le a v e the
t h e of
o f out
o u t and
a n d to
to write
w r ite **the
**the city Rome, **the
**the
own Monmouth etc.
Let us look at the following alternatives:
a. The next conference will take place in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Aberdeen.
b. The next conference will take place in the Scottish city of Aberdeen.

lan
The difference between a and b is one of register: a is typical of the lan
jourforms,
of
typical
is
b
while
b
guage of official circulars and application
lalism and more general contexts.
talism
Edinburgh
b implies that Aberdeen is not a capital city. Were E
dinburgh
Sentence b
o be
be substituted
substitutedfor
for Aberdeen,
A berdeen, aadifferent
differentconstruction
construction would
wouldbe
be necessary
necessary::
Edinburgh.
c. The next conference will take place in the Scottish capital Edinburgh.
Edinburgh .1
d. The next conference will take place in Scotlands capital Edinburgh.1

ThisThis
n other words, the Scottish capital of
of Edinburgh
Edinburgh isis impossible.
impossible.
b-d,
to the
applicable to
listinction,
iistinction, exemplified by sentences b - d , isis generally
generally applicable
the
;ities and capitals of other countries.
Duchies:
Kingdoms, Duchies:
a. Counties,
II. a.
Counties, Kingdoms,
1.
1. The County of Gwent was formed from several smaller counties.2
counties .2
2. The kingdom of Wessex was the focus of resistance to the Vikings.
Vikings.
powerful.
3. Long ago the Duchy of Burgundy was very powerful.

Confer also the following sentence:


3. The conference will take place Under the patronage
of the Tourist Board of the Province of Pomerania.
(not: **the
**the Pomeranian Province)

III. Landmarks, Monuments etc.:


etc.:

Here again it is a question of established usage:


1.
1. The Dungeness headland can be seen for miles.
(not: **The
**The headland Dungeness....)
2. The Gower peninsula lies SW of Swansea.
3.
3. The Dartmoor National Park continues to attract many tourists.

Islands:
Here usage is divided:
The island of
o f Iona; the island of Elba etc.
The Isle of
o f Lewis, the Isle of
o f Wight, the Isle of
o f Man etc.
but: Bardsey Island, Long Island, Lundy Island.

Roads:
Again usage tends to vary from case to case:
1.
1. London is connected to Birmingham by the Ml
M l motorway.
(preferable to: the motorway Ml)
M l)

tn 1 the County
C o u n ty of
o f Gwent
G w en t forms a whole: the
the county
county would be incomIn
Dlete without of Gwent;
Gwent; the same goes for the kkingdom
in g d o m of
o f Wessex
W essex and
alete
fhe D
'he
u c h y of
o fB
u rg u n d y etc.
Duchy
Burgundy

2. The Berlin-Hanover autobahn is one of the busiest in Europe.


(preferable to: The autobahn Berlin-Hanover)
3.
3. He was the designer and constructor of the Callao-La Oroya
railway line.
(not:
(not: **the railway line Callao-La Oroya)

b. Provinces and Federal States:


States:

to case:
case:
Here usage tends to vary from case to
1. The
f Texas
especially prosperous.
prosperous.
1.
Texasisis especially
stateoof
Americanstate
TheAmerican
(not: **The
**The American state Texas)
Texas)
majority.
2a. The province of Kosovo has a Moslem majority.
Kosovo)
province Kosovo)
(not: **the
**the province
province.
Also: 2b. Elections have been held in Yugoslavias troubled Kosovo province.
1 Note how commas have been left out between capital and Edinburgh. (Many native
writers of English would consider them clumsy and unnatural.)
2
2 But: Marlborough County,
County, Orange County - American usage.

Contrast:
The city is served by the international highways E75 and E71.

Hotels:
In Britain Hotel generally comes at the end of the name:
The Savoy Hotel is in London.1
London .1

44

1 Hotel
Hotel Savoy
Savoy sounds Continental.

45

f. Dates:
f.
Dates:

ere again usage is divided:


Wall. Wall,
Berlin
theof
1. The year
The 1989
year saw
1989the
sawfall
theoffall
the Berlin
1.
at:
of May is especially beautiful.
ut: 2. The month of

..

Miscellaneous:

In
In each
each of
o f the
th e above
ab o v e pairs,
p a irs, however,
h o w e v e r, the
th e latter
la tte r (b)
(b) isis more
m o re formal.
fo rm al.
One
O ne special
sp ec ia l case
c a se concerns
co n c e rn s brothers:
brothers:
1.
1. The
The Brothers
Brothers Karamazov
Karamazov was
was Dostoyevskys
Dostoyevskyslast
last work.
work.
2.
2. The
The brothers
brothers Grimm
Grimm were
were philologists
philologists and
and collectors
collectors of
offairy
fairy tales.
tales,
but:
b u t: 3.
3. Did
Did you
you ever
ever meet
meet the
the Marx
Marx brothers?
brothers?

VI.
VI. Epithets:
Epithets:

of items:
ook at the following list of
T he Watergate
W atergate Affair
A ffair led to Nixons
N ixons resignation.
1. The
T h e Dreyfus Case had a sensational outcome.
outcome.
2. The
Sumal
PE2 minireader.
m inireader.
3. The results were deciphered on aa Sum al PE2
4. Our department is currently planning aa NL/UK study
study tour.
tour.
L O T Polish Airlines operates regular flights
flights to London.
London.
5. LOT

Tie phrases emphasised in


in heavy print
print have one pattern
pattern in
in common:
common: the
the
he
seccomes
element
specific
the
less
first
and
lore
specific
and
specific element comes secelement comes
tore
favour: **the
**the Affair Watergate,
Watergate, **the
**the
nd. Thus English idiom does not favour:
olish
ase Dreyfus,
**a minireader Sumal PE2, **a
**a study tour
tour NL/UK
NL/UK,,**P
**Polish
Dreyfus,**a
'.ase
drlines LOT, etc.
sentence:
Consider too the following sentence:
6 . Our promotional material, presently available
available on
on the
the off-line
off-line system,
system ,
6.
system.
will soon be available on the on-line system.
**the system off-line etc.)
(not: **the

is not
not consistent. In
In the followfollowDespite the above pattern (1-6), usage is
ng examples there are two possibilities:
a. The Windows
Windows 2000 computer system
system is aa great
great advance
advance on
on previous ones.
ones.
system Windows
Windows 2000 is aa great
great advance
advance on
on previous ones.
ones.
b. The computer system
a. Today an international consortium unveiled the Mars 2000 project.
project Mars 2000.
b. Today an international consortium unveiled the project
BBC s Panorama programme.
a. He appeared on BBCs
b. He appeared on BBCs programme Panorama.
a. The signal originates from the M31 Galaxy.
Galaxy.
1.
from Galaxy M3
M31.
b. The signal originates from
a. The astronauts plan to link up with the Discovery space
space shuttle.
shuttle.
space shuttle
shuttle Discovery.
b. The astronauts plan to link up with the space

16
16

Peter
Peter the
the Great,
Great, Ivan
Ivan the
the Terrible,
Terrible, Charles
Charles the
the Fat,
Fat, Ethelred
Ethelred the
the Unready
Unready etc.
etc.
Zorba
Zorba the
the Greek,
Greek, Vlad
Vlad the
the Impaler,
Impaler, Edward
Edward the
the Confessor,
Confessor, Dolly
Dolly the
the Sheep
Sheep
etc.
etc.

Suggested
Suggested Exercises
Exercises (13):
(13):

Select
Select the
the most
most appropriate
appropriate alternatives:
alternatives:
11.. Our
Our company
company operates
operates in
in accordance
accordance with
with the
the IRCA
IRCA Code
Code of
ofConduct
Conduct// the
the
Code
Code of
of Conduct
Conduct IRCA.
IRCA.
2.
2. Our
Our firm
firm plans
plans to
to incorporate
incorporate the
the ISO
ISO 9000
9000 series
series // the
the series
series ISO
ISO 9000.
9000.
3.
3. The
The textbook
textbook conforms
conforms to
to the
the requirements
requirements of
of the
the EUREKA
EUREKA programme
programme // the
the
programme
programme EUREKA.
EUREKA.
4.
4. The
The conference
conference will
will be
be held
held at
at the
the Holiday
Holiday Inn
Inn hotel
hotel // the
the hotel
hotel Holiday
Holiday Inn.
Inn.
5.
5. Roderick
Roderick drives
drives an
an E-type
E-type Jaguar
Jaguar // aa Jaguar
Jaguar E-type
E-type // aa Jaguar
Jaguar type
type E.
E.
6.
6 . The
The network
network is
is fully
fully integrated
integrated with
with the
the Pas
P asTel
system // the
the system
system PasTel.
P asTel.
Tel system
7.
7. The
The doctor
doctor discovered
discovered unusual
unusual T-cells
T-cells // cells
cells T.
T.
8.
8 . The
The consortium
consortium is
is modernising
modernising the
the Paris-Berlin
Paris-Berlin line
line // the
the line
line Paris-Berlin.
Paris-Berlin.
9.
9. The
The Niagara
Niagara Falls
Falls // The
The Falls
Falls Niagara
Niagara are
are the
the highest
highest in
in the
the world.
world.
10.
St Bruno
The St
BrunoFoundation
The Foundation
Foundation //The
Foundation St
10. The
St Bruno
Bruno enjoys
enjoys great
great prestige.
prestige.

Because in
in Negative
Negative Sentences
Sentences
Negative
Negative sentences
sentences with
with because
because are
are often
often aasource
source of
ofconfusion,
confusion, the
the rea
rea
son
son being
being that
that they
they fall
fall into
into two
two totally
totally different
different categories.
categories.

47
47

Type I:
l a . I did not invite M
Mrr Fortune because he is a bank manager.
la.
him because I genuinely like him.)
(I invited him

In this first type the speaker denies an imputed motive for his action,
action, while
In
often possi
is
it
cases
such
In
giving
what
he
claims
be
real
reason.
possi
the
to
giving
would
then
order
word
the
ble
ble to rewrite the sentence as follows (although

If, however, the sentence is type II, then its clarity would be much en
en
hanced by changing because into since:
since:
3c. ...The teacher should not be strict with such pupils,
since their personalities are slow to
to mature....1
mature ....1

Another option is a reformulation which dispenses with the becauseclause and turns it into an independent sentence:

be unusual):

3d. ...The teacher should not be strict with such pupils.


After all,
all, their personalities are slow to mature....

lb . I invited Mr
M r Fortune not because he is a bank manager....
lb.

In other words, the &ecawse-clause is dependent upon not, instead of upon


In
the previous clause.

This, however, does not exhaust the possible options for cases of type
II. Let us look at a modification of an earlier example:
4. A: Why
Why didnt you invite Mr
M r Fortune?
Fortune?
B: I
I didnt invite him for the simple
simple reason that he was
going away for the weekend.
weekend.

Type II:
Fortune?
Mrr Fortune?
2. A: Why didnt you invite M
B: I didnt invite him because he was going away for the weekend.
weekend.

clause,
because-clause explains the whole preceding clause,
This second type of because-clause
and is not really dependent upon any one word. Here is another way of
writing the sentence:
The reason II didnt invite him was that he was going away for the weekend.
The

In fact, the phrase fo


forr the simple reason that and its more formal variant
the reason being that are useful especially in such contexts, where it is
necessary to avoid ambiguity.
In sentences of type II one other useful construction is also possible in
some cases. Compare the following alternatives:
5a. *The EU does not promote conformity because it appreciates
the unique features of each nation.
5b. The EU does not promote conformity, appreciating as it does
the unique features of each nation.

la-b Mr Fortune was invited, while in 2 he was not.


In sentences la-b
Now let us look at the following example:
3a. *Some children are, of course, especially difficult. The teacher
should not be strict with such pupils because their personalities
are slow to mature.
m ature.

Any experienced teacher of English would immediately recognise such


writing, for the simple reason that the second sentence is ambiguous. Is the
sentence an example of type I or type II?
Let us interpret the sentence in question as being type I:

Unlike 5a, sentence 5b is unambiguous; in addition it is much more in


keeping with English idiom and more elegant than 5a.
Additional Note:
Note:
A typical source of the infelicity or ambiguity described above is when
clause and the preceding clause are negative. Compare
both the becausebecause-clause
the following alternatives:

3b. ...The teacher should not be strict with such pupils just
iust because
their personalities are slow to mature.... (i.e. the teacher should
be strict with them for some other reason.)

Note how the insertion of ju


s t makes the meaning of the sentence much
just
clearer.

48

6a.
6 a. *People do not socialise any more because they do not have the time.
6b.
6 b. People do not socialise any more for the simple reason that
they do not have the time.
1

1 Note also the addition of a comma.

49

7a. *We city-dwellers cannot take a breath of fresh air


because there is no fresh air in the cities.
cities.
7b. We city-dwellers cannot take a breath of fresh air
cities.
simply because there is no fresh air in the cities.
7c. We city-dwellers cannot take a breath of fresh air,
cities.
for there is no fresh air in the cities.

Sentence 6b is preferable to 6a, while 7b-c are preferable to 7a.1


7a.1

Suggested Exercises (14):

Find a better alternative to because in the following


following sentences:
1.
1. Dolphins do not have a language
language in the real sense of the word, because
a language is more than just a collection of sounds.
sounds.
2. The media do not create culture as such, because their only goal is to make
maximum profits.
3. Films are easier to watch than books to read. They do not require our imagina
imagina
tion because everything is shown us.

4. In the twenty-first century there is no place for schools that teach only
academic knowledge, because it is not enough. Schools must have other
objectives as well.

Being and Having


When they are present participles, the words being and having nearly
always express a causal relationship. Look at the following sentences:
la.
la . Being
Being old and tired, Arthur decided it was time to resign.
2a. Having
Having these unique advantages, Oxford and Cambridge will surely
appeal to many tourists.

la Being has the meaning of Since he was, Seeing that he


In sentence la
was, As he was
was etc, while in 2a H
aving has the meaning Since they
Having
have, Seeing
Seeing that they have, As they have
have etc.
1

1 If sentences 7b-c were spoken, heavy stress would be placed on the word is.
is.

50

sen
The point at issue becomes clearer if one compares the following sen
tences:
3a.
3b.
3c.
4a.

*Cumbria, being a region of mountains and lakes, lies south of Carlisle.


Cumbria, which is a region of mountains and lakes, lies south of Carlisle.
Cumbria, a region of mountains and lakes, lies south of Carlisle.

*Shivering and having a temperature I went to the party.


party.
4b. Although I was shivering and had a temperature, I went to the party.

The participles being and having should express a causal relationship, yet
having );
(being') nor in 4a ((having)',
it is obvious that this is the case neither in 3a {being)
it is not possible to rewrite the sentences so:
*Cumbria, since it is a region of mountains and lakes, lies south of Carlisle.
Seeing
Seeing that I was shivering and had a temperature, I went to the party.

Thus, only 3b-c and 4b render the presumed meaning. By contrast, 3a and
4a, are not even English.
of
The same pattern emerges if we compare the following alternatives, of
which only options 5b-d are correct:
5a. *School is a formative time for most of us. Being at school,
we meet many interesting people.
people.

people.
...While being at school we meet many interesting people.
5b. ...While
5c. ...While at school we meet many interesting people.
5d. .....While
people.
.While we are at school we meet many interesting people.

In other words the being of 5a needs to be converted into clauses with


while (5b-d).
And finally compare the following alternatives, of which only option
6b is correct:
6a. *At Ascot you will see men having lots of money accompanied
by beautiful and glamorous escorts.
escorts.
6b. At Ascot you will see men with lots of money accompanied
by beautiful and glamorous escorts.
escorts.

with.
Thus having has been replaced by the preposition with.

Suggested Exercises (15):

Replace the participles


rear
following sentences, rear
participles being and having in the following
ranging them where necessary:

51

TV set.
11.. Nowadays it is difficult to find anybody not having a TV
2. Young people being in love have been the subject of many works of literature.
3. Cheltenham has long been known as a spa having a distinctive microclimate.

4. In the course of the years the duchesss smile, being initially warm and
natural, froze into a studied, official one.
Pennines.
5. A range of
o f hills being of
o f pivotal importance is the Pennines.
was
6 . Having enormous wealth Hughes had no one who truly loved him and he was
6.
miserable.
generally miserable.
arrest.
7. Being 70 Mann crossed the Pyrenees on foot to escape arrest.
having a hostile
by
people
Charles
affair
8 . She was frequently told about Charles
8.
her.
towards
attitude
being aa member
member of
of
9. It is simply incredible that the government of a country being
Right.
the EU could be taken over by a party of the Far Right.
woman.
10. Marilyn
M arilyn Monroe
M onroe died being a young attractive woman.
10.
cope.
111.
1. Having few resources and poor equipment, our farmers are still able to cope.
person
happy person
was not aa happy
12. Being intelligent and good-looking, the deceased was
12.
tensions.
owing to family tensions.
need.
13. Mother
M other Teresa visited many people being in need.
13.
talent for
14. Having no formal education, Albert possessed a remarkable talent
for
14.
teaching.
teaching.
being
15. Such lack of
o f self-confidence as the princes is not unusual for
for aa person
person being
15.
position.
so young and having a high social position.
yet
universe, man
16. Being
B eing so fragile and small compared to the great universe,
man can
can yet
16.
much.
so
achieve
rescue worker
worker
17. On every shift of the airport fire-brigade there is at least one
one rescue
17.
training.
having a specialised medical training.
use our
right to
18.
18. People being under the influence of alcohol do not have
have the
the right
to use
our
facilities.
facilities.

Additional Note 1:
1:
Compare the following alternatives,
alternatives, which are
are equally correct:
correct:
resign.
was time
lla.
a . Being
Being old and tired,
tired, Arthur decided
decided it was
time to
to resign,
being old
resign, being
was time to
lb.
l b . Arthur decided it was
to resign,
old and
and tired.
tired.

before or
being-clause comes
The construction is the same whether the
the being-clause
comes before
or
after the main clause.
52

Now compare the above with three alternative sentences (all correct),
Now
where the participle having is used:
2a. Having these unique advantages, Oxford and Cambridge
2a,
will surely appeal to many tourists.
2b.
2b. Oxford and Cambridge will surely appeal to many tourists,
having
they do these unique advantages.
having as they
2c.
2c. Oxford and Cambridge will surely appeal to many tourists,
having these unique advantages as they do.

As
As can
can be seen
seen from sentences 2b and 2c, the construction needs to be
modified
slightly
if the fcaving-clause
having-clause comes after the main clause. (For
modified
more
details
about this construction, cf. also p. 97.)
more
Additional Note 2:

The
The above
above remarks do not apply to legal English, which is governed by
conventions of its own, as in the following examples:
i) being
I,
I, Peter
Peter Jones,
Jones, residing at 35 Upper High Street, Manchester,
being of
being
of sound
sound mind and memory, do hereby make, publish
and
and declare
declare this to be my Last Will and Testament.
Testament....
..

While
While sound
sound mind and memory
memory is an indispensable precondition for the
making
will, it is not the reason for the will. The being-clause
making of
of aa valid will,
might
might be paraphrased in non-legal English as:
...who
...who am
am of sound mind and memory....

Alternatively
Alternatively the participle would be left out altogether:
...of
...of sound mind and memory....

ii) having
The
The contract
contract was
was signed
signed on
on 16*
16* February 1999
1999 between
having its seat in London,
Abacus International,
International, having
Abacus
London,
represented by
by Mr
represented
Mr John Evans,
Evans, hereinafter referred to
as
the Employer,
Mary Parsons, hereinafter
as the
Employer, and
and Ms Mary
referred to
referred
to as
as the Employee.
Employee.

53

be expected,
\gain in
in non-legal
expected,
non-legal contexts some other formulation would be
\gain
;.g.:
...between Abacus
Abacus International, which has its seat in London....
London....
...between
)r even:

2c. but
...but still much needs to he
be done.
2d. ...but still much will have to be
he done.

3a. *We are all to benefit from globalisation in many different ways.
ways.
3b. We will all benefit from globalisation in many different ways.

)r

...between the London-based Abacus International....


...between

fhis last
last formulation
formulation ((London-base
London-basedd)) is typical of journalistic contexts.
contexts.
rhis

Be +
+ fo-infinit
ive
fo-infinitive
[n the
the following
+ /u-infinitive
fo-infinitive is generally used for the
following
tense be +
present tense
the present
In
functions:

1. As a command:
1.
You
are to
prepare things
to clean the house and after that prepare
You are
for our
our arrival, (i.e.
(i.e. These are our instructions / orders.)
orders.)
for

Sentence la
la is possible only in a context where the police are actually
being commanded or reprimanded by someone in authority over them. As
for 2a and 3a, it is again difficult to imagine any context where they might
be possible, since neither of
of them appears to involve either a command or
any official arrangement.
Suggested Exercises (16):

Find a better alternative to is or are in the following


following sentences:
11.. In such families money is to compensate for the lack of parental affection.
affection.
2. That is why a politician is to respect the same values whether in private or in
the limelight.

3. Some would argue that censorship is to protect society from destructive


influences.
influences.
4. Nowadays children at school often prefer to watch a film based on the
particular book that they are to read.
read.

2. As an official arrangement:
Norway.
Later
Later this year the Prime Minister is to visit Norway.
scheduled.)
(i.e. This is what has been planned
planned and scheduled.)
(i.e.

Generally
to is
construction may not be used as an alternative to
is ex
ex
Generally this
this construction
pected
to, is intended to,
to, is meant to,
to, is supposed to,
to, is there to,
to, needs
needs to
to
pected to,
etc.

Comment Clauses with As


Comment

A number
number of
of especially typical and frequent mistakes can be illustrated
illustrated
A
by
means
of
sentences:
the
alternative
following
sentences:
by

A frequent source of ambiguity arises from the inappropriate use of com


com
ment clauses like as he claims,
claims, as they remark etc. A typical error is exem
exem
plified by the following passage:

la . *The
*The police
problem.
police are to protect people, and not to add to the problem,
la.
protect people....
lb . The police
police are supposed to protect
lb.
lc
lc.. The police are there to protect people....
Id.
people....
ID. The police exist to protect people....
2a. *The Israeli and Palestinian negotiators have been making
making
2a.
much progress, but still much is to be done.
done.
2b. ...but still much has to be done.

54

la . The teachers at that school have very unorthodox ideas.


la.
Giving complete freedom is the only way, as they
they insist.
insist,
to bring up the young.

If we employ phrases like as he says,


says, as she states,
states, as he argues etc, the
usual implication is that our own standpoint is identical to that of the per-

55

variintention, variour intention,


not our
that is not
If that
or arguing. If
stating or
or stating
on who is speaking or
at hand:
us alternatives are at
only way,
lb . ...Giving complete freedom is the only
lb.
they insist, to bring up the young.
so they
so
only way,
lc . ...Giving complete freedom is the only
1c.
they insist, to bring up the young.
.They insist that giving
freedom
complete freedom
giving complete
Id . .-They
ID.
is the only way to bring up the young.

the
of the
beginning of
the beginning
at the
appears at
clause appears
It is especially when the comment clause
as in the following passage:
entence that it may sow confusion, as
is
lama is
2a. Owing to his numerous journeys the lama
claims,
is. As he claims.
unable to say where his real home is.
his tranquil mind is his most important home.

of
part of
the part
on the
distance on
critical distance
of critical
lack of
of aa lack
Vgain, the wording is suggestive of
the
of the
adherent of
or adherent
of being aa disciple or
he writer, who gives the impression of
ama.
in aa
rephrased in
can be rephrased
sentence can
then here too the sentence
If that is not the case, then
of ways:
variety of
'ariety
home.
important home.
claims, his most important
so he claims,
2b. ...His tranquil mind is, so
home.
important home.
claims, his most important
...His tranquil mind is, he claims,
2c. ...His
home.
important home.
is his most important
...He claims that his tranquil mind is
2d. ...He

that
obvious that
makes itit obvious
context makes
In the following example, by contrast, the context
appropriate:
quite
is
quite
as-clause
an
ii sentence beginning with an
charges.
of the charges.
3. The defendant is clearly innocent of
day.
on that day.
As he says, he was not even in town on

that
and that
day, and
that day,
in town that
not in
that the defendant was not
The sentence implies that
10 one disputes the fact.
to
that
person that
of the person
that of
not identical to that
standpoint is not
our standpoint
To summarise, if our
ye
opinions,
her opinions,
or her
endorse his or
if we do not necessarily endorse
,ye are referring to, if
highly
can be highly
etc. can
insist etc.
they insist
of phrases like as he says, as they
hen the use of
they
Sometimes they
sentence. Sometimes
they begin the sentence.
confusing, and especially when they
all.1
at all.1
any context at
ire hardly English in any
ire
the the
about
us nothing
about
us nothing
it tells
in that
it tells
in that
an exception,
he put(s)
as put(s)
clause
comment
1 TheThe
it isitanisexception,
as he
clause
comment
at
never at
or never
seldom or
mid-sentence, seldom
in mid-sentence,
generally in
is, however, found generally
of the writer. It is,
standpoint of
itandpoint
beginning.
he
1

56

Suggested
(17):
Exercises (17):
Suggested Exercises

Change
following sentences
above.
1-2 above.
in 1-2
exemplified in
manner exemplified
the manner
in the
sentences in
the following
Change the
of
One
changed:
be changed:
cannot be
and cannot
to 33 and
similarto
is similar
them is
One o fthem
11.. As
civilisa
Minoan civilisa
entire Minoan
the entire
destroyed the
cataclysm destroyed
this cataclysm
assumed, this
widely assumed,
is widely
As itit is
tion
day.
single day.
in aa single
tion in
2.
she
As she
felt. As
had felt.
she had
lonely she
how lonely
again how
and again
again and
emphasised again
Princess emphasised
The Princess
2. The
remarked,
it.
isolateit.
to isolate
was to
personality was
dismantle aa personality
to dismantle
way to
best way
the best
remarked, the
3.
all
that all
desire that
the desire
on the
founded on
was founded
state was
mental state
his mental
stressed, his
lama stressed,
the lama
As the
3. As
people
enlightenment.
find enlightenment.
should find
people should
4.
justified.
sometimes justified.
is sometimes
dishonesty is
seems, dishonesty
As itit seems,
4. As

5.
to
assigned to
resources assigned
the resources
report, the
her report,
in her
out in
points out
she points
As she
fair. As
being fair.
not being
You re not
5. Youre
her
inadequate.
quite inadequate.
were quite
her were
6.
appalled
had appalled
Camilla had
and Camilla
husband and
her husband
between her
relationship between
the relationship
it, the
put it,
she put
As she
6 . As
her
beginning.
very beginning.
the very
from the
her from
7.
Then
option. Then
feasible option.
only feasible
the only
is the
energy is
nuclear energy
article, nuclear
your article,
in your
claim in
you claim
As you
7. As
why
true?
say isis true?
you say
whatyou
difficult, ifif what
so difficult,
proving so
waste proving
nuclear waste
of nuclear
disposal of
the disposal
is the
why is
8.
Her
deep
love
of
her
it,
called
she
as she called it,
towards, as
her towards,
inclined her
m entor inclined
spiritual mentor
8 . Her deep love o f her spiritual
free
poor.
the poor.
o f the
poorest of
the poorest
to the
dedication to
wholehearted dedication
and wholehearted
free and
9such aa
for such
young for
too young
was too
assumed, II was
they assumed,
as they
because, as
home because,
at home
stay at
to stay
had to
9. II had
long
long journey.

Complements
Be
To Be
Verb To
the Verb
and the
Complements and
In
sub
thesub
afterthe
comes after
complementcomes
thecomplement
exceptions, the
few exceptions,
very few
with very
English, with
In English,
ject, and
teacherisis
**A teacher
not**A
teacher, not
Mary isis aa teacher,
says Mary
one says
Thus, one
before. Thus,
not before.
and not
Mary
divided
be divided
can be
they can
exceptions, they
the exceptions,
for the
As for
is. As
Mary is.
teacher Mary
**A teacher
or **A
Mary or
into
groups:
two groups:
into two

A
Questions
and Questions
Exclamations and
A Exclamations
What
is! ((Exclamation)
he is!
glutton he
What aa glutton
Exclamation )
What
Fuego? ((Question)
del Fuego?
Tierra del
is Tierra
land is
ofland
kind of
What kind
Question )

B
Order
WordOrder
Expected Word
the Expected
from the
Deviation from
Emphatic Deviation
B Emphatic
57
57

Compare the following:


As I am a dream enthusiast, I find dreams more interesting
Normal word order)
than books or films. ((Normal
Dream enthusiast as I am, I find dreams more interesting
deviation))
than books or films. (Emphatic deviation

Additional Note 1:

In highly informal contexts there is one construction where the verb to be


is occasionally found agreeing with the complement and not with the sub
sub
ject. Compare the following alternatives:
2a. All they want are more job opportunities.
2b. AH
All they want is more job opportunities.

Sentences rarely occur where the complement precedes the grammatical


questions.1
subject, and which are neither exclamations nor questions.1

Just as the complement cannot, except in a very few constructions, come


before the subject, so the verb to be agrees only with the subject and almost
never with the complement. Compare the following sentences:
l a . *Many people often bring up their children far too strictly.
la.
A good illustration of that are my parents.
parents,
lb . ...A good illustration of that is my parents.
lb.

Since in English grammar the subject generally has to come first, it follows
la and lb
lb the grammatical subject is A good illustration of
o f that,
that in la
verb
agree
while my parents
the
complement.
since
be
to
And
the
must
is
parents
with the grammatical subject, it follows that the verb required should be
la is ungrammatical. Sentence lb
lb is gram
gram
singular, not plural, and hence la
parents) is
matically correct, but it is clumsy since the predicate (is my parents)
shorter than the subject, causing the sentence to read abruptly (see below,
p. 103).2
103).2 Hence the best thing is a complete reformulation:
lc . ...A good illustration of that is provided bv my parents.
1c.
Id . ...Mv
...M v parents are a good
good illustration of that.
ID.

Of course, it may be pointed out that in Id the subject is plural while the
Of
awk
complement is singular, and hence the sentence might be considered awk
a
(are
lb,
ward. Even so, Id reads much better than lb , since the predicate
good illustration of
o f that) is longer. Finally there is one other possibility,
which is unproblematic:

3a. What everyone in Jerusalem desires are guarantees of access


to the Holy Sites.
3b. What everyone in Jerusalem desires is guarantees of access
to the Holy Sites.

Sentences 2a and 3a may be found in conversation and informal contexts,


but elsewhere would be considered ungrammatical. By contrast, 2b and
3b, are awkward: they resemble lb
lb in that the grammatical subject is
singular while the complement is plural.1
plural.1 With a little ingenuity, howev
howev
er, the difficulty can be circumvented altogether, perhaps in the following
way:
2c. All they want is to be given
given more job opportunities.
3c. What
W hat everyone in Jerusalem desires is guaranteed
guaranteed access
to the Holy Sites.

Suggested Exercises (18):

Correct the following


following sentences
sentences,, paraphrasing
paraphrasing them when necessary:
11.. The first thing that visitors to Australia notice are the birds.
2. What distinguishes doctors from others are their professional ethics.
3. Yet another sign of the countrys poverty are the beggars who throng the
streets and train stations.
4. Our long-term goal are bilateral relations such as exist between Germany and
France.

le . ...Mv
...M v parents provide a good
good illustration of that.
le.
1 For more examples, cf. English for
Writers and Translators,
Translators, s. Emphasis.
for Writers
2 If, however, the complement were made longer, the sentence would be much less
awkward:
parents , grandparents and more distant relatives.
relatives.
A good illustration of that is my parents
1

58

J For the sake of grammatical clarification 2b might be rewritten as:


All that they want is more job opportunities.
3b may be rewritten as:
That which everyone etc.

59

Some people seek the meaning of life in religious devoteeism. Another group
of people whose aim is to possess wisdom are philosophers.
Another proof of the villas late occupation are the pavements of mosaic and
m arble fragments indiscriminately mixed.
mixed.
marble

Sometimes when the sentence is reformulated, it is necessary to introjce a completely new verb (e.g. lc,
lc , le,
le , 2c). Compare also the following
ace
tree sentences:
4a.
4a.
4b.
4b.
4c.
4d.

sources of information are books.


*One of the principal sources
One of the principal sources of information is books.
Books are one of the principal sources of information.
Books constitute one of the principal sources of information.

sntence 4a is ungrammatical, 4b is grammatical but highly awkward, while


entence
c and 4d are grammatical and read naturally. In other words, the verb
institute functions as an alternative to the verb to be. Obviously the verb
not to be overused.

Constructions with As and Than


Than
I. Absence of
of the pronoun it

The conjunction as may mean either just


just as
as or seeing that, a distinc
distinc
tion which may determine the choice of grammatical construction. A com
com
mon grammatical problem involves sentences like the following (1-3), in
all of which as has the meaning just as:
1.
1. As can easily
easily be noticed by any visitor to London, public transport
leaves much to be desired. (Not:
if can easily be noticed....)
noticed....)
it
2. As was emphasised above,
above, creating a proper atmosphere at home
is vital for a childs wellbeing. (Not: **A,s
**As it
it was emphasised above....)
above....)

The same pattern is also to be found in subordinate clauses that come


after the main clause, as in the following examples:
3a. Euthanasia implies dying with dignity, as is the right of every human
being. (Not: **as
**as it is the right....)

uggested Exercises (19):

(e.g. con
con
following sentences using a suitable alternative (e.g.
eformulate the following
st of, constitute etc.) to the verb to be:
citys greatest attractions and for which you should devote at least
One of the city's
a day in order to see its spectacular displays are the Botanical Gardens.
A nother interesting instance of bad parents are people who are completely
Another
absorbed in their careers.
The whole area is charming, but the greatest attraction are the tall cliffs jutting
straight into the sea.

.dditional
additional Note 2:

3b. Euthanasia implies dying with dignity, as becomes every human being.
(Not: **as
**as it becomes....)
becomes....)

The construction is also sometimes found with as... as....:


4. The Pentagon is not as impregnable as is generally supposed.
(Not: **as
**as it is....)
is....)

The construction is also sometimes found with than:


5.
5. Nowadays more crimes are being committed than was the case
in former times. (Not: **than
**than it was....)
was....)

Here are some more phrases (discussed below at p. 84) which use the same
construction:

'ompare the following alternatives:


5a.
5b.
5c.
5d.

Farm.
*Another example of such literature can be Animal Farm.
Farm.
Another example of such literature is Animal Farm.
Animal Farm is another example of such literature.
Animal Farm may
may serve as another example
example of such literature.

.gain, 5a is unidiomatic, 5b is clumsy (a short predicate after a longer


abject), while 5c-d are optimal.

as can be exemplified, illustrated etc. by....


by....
as can be noticed, observed, seen etc. in....
in....
as is (has been, will be etc.) argued, demonstrated,
proved, shown, suggested etc.
etc.
as is obvious from....
as is/was the case with
....1
with....1
1

1 For this phrase see below, p. 142


142

61

as is the fact that....


as is true of....

.B.
either
structure occurs especially with the verb to be. This verb may be either
he structure
he
auxiliary
the
containing
passives
obvious...)
auxiliary
in
or
form
simple
1
is
as
(e.g.
1 simple form
as
In this latter case the verb to be occurs either on its own (e.g. as
erb to
to be.
be. In
erb
noticed).
(as
be
can
noticed).
as emphasised above) or with modals (<35
as
))
Tie
he phrase as often happens tends to be overused:
discontent.
o f their discontent.
As often happens in family life, money was the cause of
6 . As
6.
case ....)1
(Better: As is often the case....)1

inversion
+ inversion
I. As +

the
with the
just as) occurs with
st. rather
rather similar structure involving as (meaning just
erbs to be and to do. Compare the following alternatives:
7a.
7b.
7b.
7c.
7c.
7d.

most of her
most of her friends.
like friends.
is a smoker,
She like
She is a smoker,
are). are).
her
of
her friends
offriends
most
(as
(as
smoker
most
a
is
She
smoker
She is a
friends.
her friends.
of her
most of
are most
so are
and so
smoker-- and
She isis aa smoker
She
friends.
are most
of her friends.
most
areher
as of
She is aassmoker,
She is a smoker,

8 a.
8a.
8 b.
8b.
8 c.
8c.
8 d.
8d.

friends.
of her like
most of her friends.
smokes,
most
She smokes, likeShe
friends
of
her
friends do).
o f herdo).
ost
m
(as
smokes
She
(as
most
She smokes
of her
her friends.
offriends.
do most
anddosomost
She smokes
- and- so
She smokes
friends.
of her friends.
most
asofdoher
Sheassmokes,
do most
She smokes,

above sentences (7a-d, 8a-d) are different ways of saying virtually the
The above
The
interchange;ame thing. In 7c and 7d the words and so are and as are are interchange;ame
inter
are interan d so do and as do are
ible; similarly, in 8c and 8d the words and
ible;
;hangeable.
changeable.
the
happens... is an entirely different construction. Contrast the
often happens...
phrase as it often
The phrase
1 The
of as in the following two sentences:
neanings of
the most.
of war, the civilians were suffering the
often happens in times of
a. As
As often
a.
happens....)
**As it often happens....')
(Not: **As
under
ingenuity is needed to counteract smuggling, as it often happens under
Great ingenuity
b. Great
b.
cover of darkness.
prosimple pro
is causal, meaning since or seeing that, while it is just aa simple
as is
sentence b,
[n sentence
[n
b, as
smuggling.
noun, referring to smuggling.
roun,
1

62
62

The concluding clauses of 7b-c and 8b-c are especially typical of


of informal
contexts, while 7d and 8d are especially characteristic of sophisticated writ
writ
ten English.

Suggested Exercises (20):

Complete the following


following sentences:
11.. The generals offensive ended in fiasco, as
s ----------his
ato withdraw
attempt to
withdraw
his attempt
his forces.
the
2. As
thepoison
later,the
ascertainedmuch
muchlater,
poisonhad
A s --------- ascertained
administeredtoto the
hadbeen
beenadministered
prince by one of
slaves.
o f his slaves.
3. Ours is a country of contrasts, as
be inferred
landscapes and
s ----------be
ainferredfrom
and
the landscapes
from the
the character of
o f the people.
people.
4. They believed, as
1000,that
people around
year 1000,
theyear
end of
most
ost people
around the
that the
s --------- m
atheend
of
the world was coming.
5. Ethel looked rather the worse for drink, as
there.
people there.
the people
o fthe
mostof
----------- most
a s6.
usually imagined.
s ---------------------ausually imagined.
6 . This phenomenon is not as widespread as
7. As
this
tends
society
society
scandal,
scandal,
become
from
apparent from this sordid
sordid
tends to
tojudge
judge
s ---------become apparent
Aa politician by his or her private life.
life.
8.
events,style
byrecent
styleisiseverything
shownby
andcompetence
recentevents,
s ---------shown
Aeverything and
8 . As
competence
nothing.
---------a s9. In our country religion and church-going are taken very seriously, as
seen on Sundays.
Sundays.
10.
charge.
beenexpected,
----------been
a srefused to
admitthe
to admit
the charge.
10. The judge, as
expected,refused
11.
me,
,----------all
emy
toooften
alltoo
inmy
happensin
oftenhappens
11 . I thought he wanted to mug m
township.
township.
s ---------a12.
12. This strange picture of our country is very widespread in the West, as
W orld
illustrated by the case of an acquaintance of mine from the New World
phones.
who was amazed to see we had cellular phones.
----------common
a s13.
such
common inin such
13. Rick would smoke one cigarette after another, as
circles.
circles.
14.
before,John
yearsbefore,
oncehappened
suddenlycalled
John was
wassuddenly
tenyears
upon
happened ten
A s ----------once
14. As
calledupon
to stand in for his boss.
s ----------noticed
a15.
15. Throughout the world computers seem to be dominant, as
in
noticed in
almost every field of human life.
6. Such a policy can
116.
----------observable
a scam only bring disaster, as
observableininthe
streetsof
the streets
of
our cities.

63

given
expected given
been expected
17. The marriage was a most
m ost splendid affair, as
a s ----------been
17.
the wealth of the two families.
families.
humanly
18. Goering comported him
self with as much dignity as
a s ----------humanly
himself
18.
possible, given the circumstances of the case.
case.
d g e s conviction of the opposition leader is indeed remarkable,
remarkable,
judges
19. The ju
murdered.
been murdered.
have been
witnesses have
defences witnesses
the defences
of the
aass ---------- the
most of
that most
fact that
the fact
Carnival
Ball,
20. The Portuguese president refused the invitation to the Vienna Carnival Ball,
statesmen.
other statesmen.
as ---------- some
some other
as
byby
be illustrated
21.. The patriotic aspect is also very important, as
a s --------------be
illustrated
21
nineteenth-century Polish literature.
argue
pessimists--argue
ofpessimists
typicalof
22. Next
- as
a s --------- typical
Next we have the pessimists who 22.
to worse.
that everything is going from bad to
worse.
authority.
higher authority.
proper,totoaa higher
a s ----------proper,
23. The case was referred, as
teenagers
intention,such
such teenagers
theirintention,
24. Far from becoming more original as
a s ----------their
the Spice
Moss or
or the
Spice Girls.
Girls.
simply end up as cheap copies of Madonna, Kate Moss
travel.
means
of
the
safest
are
of
realised,
one
trains
A s ----------widely
widelyrealised, trains are one of the safest means of travel.
25. As
higher levels
levels of
of
26. Curie discovered that certain of the compounds show higher
supposed.
been supposed.
previously been
radioactivity than
th a n ----------previously

Gerunds
The...
The... of...
of...
of problems. Consider the
the following
following alter
alter
Gerunds are a frequent source of

When the gerund is used, more formal English generally requires that it
be preceded by the definite or indefinite article (a
(a!/ an, the)-, if the gerund
is preceded by an article, it has to be separated from its object by the pre
pre
position of, which is why sentences d and e are ungrammatical. Sentence c
is questionable since it is a mixture, or confusion, of a on the one hand and
f and g on the other.
The construction exemplified by sentence a (i.e. without article + of) is
most often used in informal contexts. If the gerund has a direct object (in
sentence a,
a, ones horizons),
horizons), then the gerund may be qualified by an adverb
((constantly),
constantly ), but not by an adjective (constant),
(constant), which is why b is ungram
ungram
matical.
Some non-native writers of English do, however, have difficulties when
they
they wish
wish to
to make clear who or what is performing the action that is ex
ex
pressed
by
the gerund. Compare the following alternatives:
pressed
a.
a. The
The fact that Slovenia achieved its objective of independence
encouraged
encouraged other republics in Yugoslavia to break away.
b.
b. Slovenias achieving
achieving its objective
objective of independence
encouraged other republics in Yugoslavia to break away.
c.
c. *Achieving bv Slovenia its objective of independence
encouraged other republics in Yugoslavia to break away.
d.
d. *The
*The achieving
achieving bv Slovenia its objective
objective of independence
encouraged other republics in Yugoslavia to break away.
e.
e. The
The achieving
achieving bv Slovenia of its objective of independence
encouraged
encouraged other republics in Yugoslavia to break away.

Sentences
Sentences a and b are correct, while c and d represent a grammatical
mistake
that is
mistake that
is frequently met with. The construction exemplified by sen
sen
tence
tence e is,
is, at the very least, clumsy in the extreme and best avoided.

native sentences:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

broadening ones
Education implies constantly broadening
ones horizons.
horizons.
horizons.
broadening ones
Education implies constant broadening
ones horizons.
**Education
horizons.
broadening of
Education implies constant broadening
of ones
ones horizons.
horizons.
broadening ones
*Education implies the constant broadening
ones horizons.
broadening
horizons.
ones
constant
a
implies
^Education
broadening ones horizons.
broadening of
Education implies the constant broadening
of ones
ones horizons.
horizons.
broadening of
Education implies a constant broadening
of ones
ones horizons.
horizons.

g the most formal.


formal. Sentences
Sentences b,
b,
Sentence a is the least formal and sentence g
d and e are ungrammatical.

64

Suggested
Suggested Exercises (21):

Rewrite the
following sentences in
formal
English, correcting them where
Rewrite
the following
inform
al English,
necessary:
1.
be strict controls on manufacturing such articles.
1. There
There should
should be
articles.
2.
The
Council
tolerate
cannot
killing unarmed civilians by paramilitaries.
2. The Council cannot tolerate killing
A special
3.
3. A
special term
term exists
exists for
for this manipulating public opinion:
opinion: TV diplomacy.
diplomacy.
4.
The
Institute
prompted
the
setting
up
two
research
4. The Institute
stations.
up

65

Most
A recurrent error is to write sentences containing a phrase consisting of the
+ adjective. Consider the following alternatives:
most +
a. Comfort and affluence are most important in life.
b. *Comfort and affluence are the most important in life.
things in life.
important things
c. Comfort and affluence are the most important

Sentence a can have two meanings, depending on the context.


i. Comfort and affluence are extremely important in life.
ii. There is nothing more important in life than comfort and affluence.

Sentence c is entirely unambiguous, having the meaning of ii above.


Sentence b, by contrast, is both ungrammatical and incomprehensible, since
it is a confusion of two different structures.
Suggested Exercises (22):
C orrect the
th e fo
llo w in g sen
te n c e s:
following
Correct
sentences:

frightening is the fact that


11.. Violence is a great problem nowadays. But the most frightening
those who commit the most brutal crimes are often children and teenagers.
2. In such situations we must remember that the most important is not to lose our
heads.
heads.
What is the most
m ost visible for anyone coming
com ing to London is the amount of
3. What
traffic.
traffic.
needs.
4. In friendship the most crucial is to forget your own needs.
What is the most remarkable about these two celebrities is that they live
5. What
lives.
relatively normal lives.
6 . If one is to remain healthy, fresh air and outdoor sports are the most important,
important,
6.
to say nothing of a proper diet.
diet.
7. Work, though very important, should not be the most important for us.
8 . Breaking off diplomatic relations with that country and recalling ambassadors
8.
are the most appropriate at this moment.
moment.

o f young people will be converging


9. In a few days from now many thousands of
on Taize to talk, sing and make new friends. But the most important is that
they all believe in God.
God.

66

Additional Note:
Note:

An analogous error involves best,


best, worst etc. Compare the following sen
sen
tences:
a. People seem to take each other more and more for granted. Worst of all
is that they have grown used to this pattern of
o f behaviour.
b. ...*The worst of all is that they have grown used to this pattern of
behaviour.
behaviour.
c. ...The worst thing
thing of all is that they have grown used to this pattern of
behaviour.
behaviour.

Sentence b is ungrammatical, being again a confusion of a and c.

Many of..., Most of..., Some of... etc.)


Of
Of (i(iMany
A most frequent mistake involves expressions beginning many of, most
of, some of
o f etc.
etc. Compare the following alternatives:
la.
problems.
la . Most countries have similar problems,
lb.
problems.
lb. *Most of countries have similar problems,
lc.
lc . Most of the countries have similar problems.

Sentence la
la is grammatical, but lb
lb is not. lc
l c would also sound un-English
except in very specific contexts, such as the following:
ID.
Id. Among EU member states France, Germany, Italy and Spain have
particularly high rates of
o f unemployment. But most of
o f the countries
problems.
have similar problems.

In the second sentence of Id what the phrase most of


of the countries really
means is most
most of the countries that belong to the EU
EU or most of the coun
coun
tries in the EU. Thus the structure represented by lc
lc is generally possible
only when modified by a further postmodifier (e.g. most of
jn
o f the countries in
EU). or when that postmodifier is understood from the context. Howev
the EU).
Howev
er, it is important to note that even in Id Most countries would also be possi
possi
ble, with the intended meaning most
most of the countries in the EU.1
EU.1
1
the countries
of the
thanthan
rather
other
countries
1 ThatThat
the countries
of EU
the EU
rather
other
countries
are meant,
would
be clear
are meant,
would
be clear
from the context.

67

any,
The above observations also apply to other quantifiers (primarily: any,
2b
is
following
etc.).
alternatives
Of
the
one, several
none,, one,
many, no / none
many,
ungrammatical, while 2a has the best chances of being correct no matter
what the context:
unanswered.
2a. Several questions were left unanswered.
questions were left unanswered.
*Several of questions
2b. *Severa1
unanswered.
questions were left unanswered.
2c. Several of the questions

un
lb and 2b are ungrammatical. Moreover, un
To summarise, sentences lb
less you are very sure about how to use the definite article, it is perhaps
most countries,
countries, several
la and 2a ((most
safest to use the option represented by la
possibilities etc.).
questions,, some people,
people, many possibilities
questions
Suggested Exercises (23):

o f the following
For each of
following sentences choose an option that is most likely to
o f the context:
read correctly irrespective of
o f parts / Some parts / Some of the parts of our brain are much more
11.. Some of
others.
complex than others.
2. None of parents / No parent / None of the parents is / are able to avoid such
mistakes.
mistakes.
poorer. Any of
3. Many years of totalitarianism left peoples lives much the poorer.
o f the human values was / were
human values / Any human values / Any of
system.
destroyed by an inhuman system.
4. One of such organisations / One such organisation is regularly in trouble with
authorities.
the authorities.
5. Hardly any of such children / Hardly any such child stands / stand a chance of
developing in a normal way.
ost of the Americans possesses /
Most
M ost Americans / M
M ost of Americans / Most
6 . Most
6.
guns.
possess guns.
o f the
o f the books of
o f books / one book / one of
7. The story can be found in one of
Bible.
Bible.
M other
8 . She was known to all of people / all people / all of the people as Mother
8.
Teresa.

Problems with Negative Sentences


Negative sentences frequently pose a problem for non-native writers of
English. If we turn an affirmative sentence into a negative one, then the
following modifications are common:

I: Optional

1:
1:
Affirmative:

and
>> or

la.
la . Some people are very smart when it comes to making
a good impression and getting what they want from others.
others.

Negative:
lb.
lb . Some people are not very smart when it comes to making
a good impression or getting what they want from others.
others.

2:
2:

Affirmative:

not to mention
>> to say nothing of

2a. Our colleague enjoys high esteem as a teacher and role-model,


2a.
role-model,
not to mention her long list of scientific publications.
publications.

Negative:
2b. Our colleague does not enjoy high esteem as a teacher or role-model,
role-model,
nothing of her failure to publish anything.
to say
anything.
say nothing

3:
Affirmative:

just as
>> any more than

3a. Our Chief Accountant is very obliging, just as his colleagues are.
are.

Negative:
Negative:
3b. Our Chief Accountant is
any more than his colleagues
is never obliging, anv

are.

68

69

4:

degree
extent / degree
great extent
>> to any great
greatly

Negative:
Negative:
6b.
notice
will notice
Europe, will
W estern Europe,
from Western
all from
ofall
leastof
visitor, least
No visitor,
6 b. No
these
subtleties .1
these subtleties.1

Affirmative:
listeners.
M r Jones greatly impressed his listeners.
4a. Mr

7:
7:

Negative:

as
alone
let alone
as
well as
as well
>> let

degree.
great degree.
any great
M r Jones did not impress his listeners to any
4b. Mr

modifica
and the modifica
about tendencies, and
So far we have been talking only about
obligatory.
way obligatory.
any way
in any
considered in
tions outlined above ought not to be considered
al
also possible, al
is also
sentence is
following sentence
Thus as an alternative to 3b the following
though some would consider it clumsy:
notare not.
colleagues are
as his colleagues
just as
obliging, just
Chief Accountant is never obliging,
3c. Our Chief

Affirmative:
Affirmative:
7a.
Tom.
as Tom.
well as
as well
Peter as
and Peter
John and
seen John
have seen
7a. II have

Negative:
Negative:
7b.
Tom.
alone Tom.
let alone
Peter, let
or Peter,
John or
seen John
not seen
have not
7b. II have

8:
8:
entirely
completely
entirely // completely

following:
And similarly, an obvious alternative to 4b is the following:
listeners.
M r Jones did not greatly impress his listeners.
4c. Mr

Affirmative:
Affirmative:

not
all
at all
not at

8a.
compatible.
entirely compatible.
are entirely
Jill are
and Jill
Jack and
8 a. Jack

II: Non-Optional

Negative:
Negative:

indispensable
generally indispensable
are generally
By contrast, the following modifications are
if English idiom is not to be violated:

5:

> either
as well / too

Affirmative:
function properly.
5a. As our tourist will discover, telephones generally function
well.
as well.
life as
daily life
our daily
of our
feature of
Public transport is an attractive feature
too.
life too.
daily life
our daily
of our
feature of
...Public transport is an attractive feature
5b. ...Public

8b.
all.
at all.
compatible at
not compatible
are not
Jill are
and Jill
Jack and
8 b. Jack
8c.
compatible .2
all compatible.2
at all
not at
are not
Jill are
and Jill
Jack and
8 c. Jack

9:
9:

considerably
to
degree
extent // degree
considerable extent
any considerable
to any
considerably
Affirmative:
Affirmative:
9a.
considerably.
quite considerably.
developments quite
political developments
influenced political
He influenced
9a. He

Negative:
Negative:
9b.
extent
considerableextent
any considerable
to any
developments to
political developments
influence political
not influence
did not
He did
9b. He

Negative:
prop
function prop
generally function
not generally
do not
discover, telephones do
5c. As our tourist will discover,
either.
life either.
daily life
our daily
of our
feature of
attractive feature
an attractive
not an
erly. Public transport is not
1

informal:
highlyinformal:
find itithighly
wouldfind
some would
but some
exists, but
alsoexists,
option also
following option
The following
1 The

6:
6:
Affirmative:

will notice
6 a. Every visitor, especially from Western Europe, will
6a.
these subtleties.

70

6c.
notice
tonotice
fail to
canfail
Europe-- can
Western Europe
from Western
not from
especially not
and especially
visitor-- and
No visitor
6c. No
these
subtleties.
these subtleties.

all
of all
> let alone / least of
especially

Notice
commas.
the commas.
of the
instead of
dashes instead
the dashes
Notice the

meaning:
differentmeaning:
verydifferent
hasaavery
compatiblehas
entirelycompatible
notentirely
arenot
Jillare
andJill
Jack and
sentence Jack
The sentence
2 The
itit implies
compatible.
extent compatible.
some extent
tosome
leastto
at least
are at
they are
that they
implies that
2

71
71

Suggested Exercises (24):

following sentences:
A.
Complete the
the following
sentences:
A. Complete
1. Jack looked worn out, and he was not exactly impeccably dressed
dressed---------1.
clothes,
away
on
or
food
going
like
clothes,----------going away on
2. Many cannot afford basics
holiday.
holiday.
around---------3. He saw that the cell-door was open. There were no warders around
mind.
underestimated,
ated,----------peace
4. The importance of health cannot be underestim
-peaceofof mind.

5. The Firm became increasingly hostile towards her, and she found she could
friend s---------no longer rely on her friends
6.
6 . Such parents fail to realise that buying expensive toys has nothing to do with
understandingof
of
deprived of
are deprived
children are
of any
any understanding
fact that
lo v e,----------the
that their
their children
the fact
love,
means.
what love really means.
seven
her seven
fam ous,----------in
7. She said she never thought she would become famous,
-in her
ties.
8 . Let us think of all those great scientists who came from poor homes and had
8.
-tuition.tuition.
ooks,------------------no money even for bbooks,
9. In the film true love wins, for money has no power over it in this fictional
reality.
inreality.
does in
w o rld----------itit does
world
10 . I dont see things that way, and many other people wouldnt see it that
10.
way
w a y---------happiness.
11
11.. Money
M oney will
willnot
notbuy
buy us
us health,
health,---------happiness.
bees,ceaselessly
collect nectar
which ceaselessly
12.
12. Ants never seem to be tired
tire dbees, which
collect nectar
and pollen.
pollen.
man.
of man.
for an
an ambitious
type of
ambitious type
13. Life
Life there
there cannot
cannot exactly
exactly be
be riveting,
riveting,--------for
13.
14.
14. Arabella loved her fiance dearly, just as her parents did, but was unable to
-her parentsseriously,----------------------------------her p aren ts------take his ideas seriously,
-one
with
115.
W est to do business
this dictator,
dictator,----------one
5. There is no reason for the West
who is accused of such human rights abuses.
he
6. The
The Pope
Pope was
was not
not afraid
afraid of
of waging
waging aa war
war against
against communism,
com m unism,-------------he
116.
hesitates to express his disapproval of capitalism.
several children,
those
with children,
17. Not every family, and
a n dthose with
several
can meetcan
themeet
coststhe costs
17.
of studies.
studies.
18. The authorities cannot even afford to heat existing classrooms in winter,
18.
new ones.
ones.
buildnew
-build

72

B. Turn the following


following sentences into the negative form:
form:
B.
11.. Our new secretary is very hard-working, and she proves to be very competent
as well.
2. The turmoil on the Japanese markets has considerably affected the economic
situation of neighbouring countries.
countries.
3. Joan has a talent for teaching as well as for getting her knowledge across.

Relative Clauses and the Comma


Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Compare these two sentences:
la.
la . The US president, who is in supreme command of Americas
A m ericas armed
forces and nuclear arsenal, is de facto the most powerful man in the
world.

lb.
lb . The US president who made such remarks was Lincoln.

The first sentence refers to US presidents in general. This type of rela


rela
tive clause is often referred to as non-defining or non-restrictive. Com
Com
mas are indispensable with such types of relative clause.
The second by contrast refers only to one US president. The relative
clause tells us which US president is meant. Here commas are
Eire impossible.
This distinction is scrupulously observed by writers of English, and is
one of the most important rules of English punctuation. For those learners
of English who are uncertain which type of relative clause they are dealing
with two tips may prove especially useful.
Tip Number 1: Inserting an apposition
Let us take the following sentence:
2a. *In the seventh century much of Tibet converted to Buddhism
which came from India.

Here it is possible to insert an appositional phrase:


2b. In the seventh century much of Tibet converted to Buddhism,
a religion
religion which came from India.

73
73

The fact that such an insertion is possible shows that the relative clause is
non-restrictive, and that a comma is therefore necessary in 2a:
2c. In the seventh century much of Tibet converted to Buddhism,
which came from India.
India.

Now let us take the following sentence:


3a. *Napoleon was exiled to St Helena where he was to spend
the rest of his life.

Here we see that we can make a similar insertion:


3b. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena, a place where he was
to spend the rest of his life.

Again, the fact that such an insertion is possible shows that the relative
clause is non-restrictive, and that a comma is therefore necessary in 3a:
3c. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena, where he was to spend
the rest of his life.

One last example:


4a. *Roumania is trying to modernise its economy which is
still recovering from long years of neglect.

Here again an insertion is possible:


possible:
4b. Roumania is trying to modernise its economy, one which is
still recovering from long years of neglect.

Again, the fact that such an insertion is possible shows that the relative
clause is non-restrictive, and that a comma is therefore necessary in 4a:
4c. Roumania is trying to modernise its economy, which is
still recovering from long years of
o f neglect.

Tip Number 2: Turning the relative clause into a coordinate clause


Look at the following two sentences:
5a. *My brother has just arrived at Brighton which he finds most agreeable.
5b. My brother has just arrived at a place which he finds most agreeable.

Sentence 5a (but not 5b) can easily be turned into a coordinate clause with
and:
5c. My brother has just arrived at Brighton, and he finds it most agreeable.

74

As in Tip
Tip Number 1
1 the fact that such a rephrasing is possible suggests
that the relative clause in 5a is non-restrictive in character, and hence
requires a comma:
agreeable.
5d. My brother has just arrived at Brighton, which he finds most agreeable.

N.B.
substitut
Only in the defining or restrictive type of sentence can that be substitut
ed for who or which:
which:
lc . The president that made such remarks was Lincoln.
lc.

Suggested Exercises (25):

sometimes
Supply commas and correct the word that wherever necessary ((sometimes
no changes are required):
11.. Tourists may well be charmed by their visit to our country where remarkable
customs are still to be found.
found.
15 members.
members.
2. The most important organisation is the EU that now comprises 15
essay.
3. This is the question that I am going to examine in this
4. The ties between man and nature that were very close until the nineteenth
restored.
century can no longer be restored.
5. The life that our cat leads is one of luxury.
luxury.
6 . Even in the economically most developed countries where it might seem that
6.
low.
everyone lives in affluence there are people whose standard of living is low.
7. The organisation that they belong to will soon be banned.
8 . Those that take themselves too seriously will have a rude awakening.
awakening.
8.
9. There are times in life when we are faced with two simple alternatives.
10. Even now England has a number of old traditions an example of which is
10.
November 5 when children bum a dummy.
dummy.
11.. They were ready to counsel anyone that approached them.
11
12. Europes paparazzi some of whom even disturbed her last moments must
12.
blamee for the princesss death.
take much of the blam
13. China is the country where paper, silk and gunpowder were first manufactured.
m anufactured.
13.
14. Becoming poor is not a punishment:
punishment: it is simply life that is often cruel and
14.
injustices.
full of injustices.
15. Those that were brought up with such attitudes expect the state to provide
15.
everything.
everything.

75

6 . There were a number of factors that aggravated the situation.


6.
7. Everything began in the early 50s when the foundations for the EU were
constructed.
being constructed.
8 . The politicians that I have been discussing are all too typical of our country.
8.
alarming.
9. The situation that faces us is highly alarming.
0. The European Commission to which member-states send delegates meets in

1.
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
6.
7.
8.
8.

Strasbourg.
Strasbourg.
M ost of
o f the unemployed are genuine cases, but everyone knows that there are
Most
also many people that prefer just sitting at home instead of looking for work.
Napoleon that is remembered today as one of Frances greatest men was
actually a Corsican.
Global warming will have especially serious consequences in Central Africa
m alaria already reaps a grim harvest.
harvest.
where malaria
The cultures that I have attempted to describe above declined for reasons that
have yet to be satisfactorily explained.
Their marriage that used to be considered so stable has now come to an end.
Those doctors who went on strike were bitterly criticised by those others
who remained at their posts.
He was one of the paparazzi that were arrested at the scene of the accident.
Paper, silk and gunpowder were first manufactured in China where recorded
history reaches back 5000 years.
years.

Note:
idditional
additional Note:
Ii aasmall
smallnumber
numberofofcases
cases(much
(muchless
lessthan
than55percent)
percent)involving
involvingthe
thedefidefiite article, both types of
of relative clause may be possible without any real
hange of meaning. Compare the following alternatives:

6 a. The Iron Curtain, which once divided Europe, still exists in the minds
6a.
of some.
some.
6b. The Iron Curtain that once divided Europe still exists in the minds of
some.

But a more likely explanation for sentences like 6b is that the pattern the...
the...
(discussed
155f.)
below,
that...
becoming
p.
that...
155f.) is
increasingly fashionable
in British English, not least because it does not involve any punctuation.
6b is more typical of contemporary journalism.

There
There is also a regular source of related problems, since it is used for two
distinct words, each of which has its own distinct functions:
a) as a spatial expression:

taxi? Look, there is our taxi you see it coming?


coming?
Where is our taxi?

b) as an introductory subject of sentences:


There are too many tourists here.
might be a bus later.
There might
There seems to be no alternative.
There is much to be said for this approach.

The following remarks relate only to the latter.1


latter.1
I. Without
Without participles

There occurs with a very limited number of verbs:

1. with the verb to be


There is beautiful weather today. (= The weather is beautiful today.)
There are many explanations for this. (= Many explanations exist for this.)
There have been many attempts to climb that mountain.
(= People have made many attempts to climb that mountain.)

loth 6a and 6b are correct. Some would argue that in 6b the phrase The
vn Curtain has ceased to have the status of a proper noun, as in the second
vn
f the following alternatives:

Sometimes, however, the fhere-construction


/Aere-construction is not the most appropriate
one. Let us look at the following alternative sentences:

7a.
7a. Susan, who lives across the road, is getting married next week.
7b. The Susan that lives across the road is getting married next week.
(i.e. not the Susan that works with me at the office).
office).

'1 Many English people pronounce the two words differently: /6e9(r)/ for the spatial
expression and /6s(r)/
/d9(r)/ for the introductory subject of sentences.

77

la . Sadly, there are two different faces of our country.


country,
la.
lb . Sadly, our country has two different faces.
lb.
2a. There are certain advantages to this style of life.
advantages.
2b. This style of life does have certain advantages.

While sentences la
la and 2a are grammatical, they are uncharacteristic of
//tere-construction should not be used if
sophisticated written English: the tfiere-construction
a more obvious alternative is a simple rephrasing involving the verbs to
possess etc.
have,, to possess
have
2. with modals + the verb to be
There must be a way out of here.
might be numerous reasons for this.
There might
There would have been a disaster if you had done the cooking.
(= A disaster would have happened if...)

3. with to seem or to appear + the verb to be


solution.
There appears to be no obvious solution.
There seem to be few restaurants here.

4. with verbs that describe a state (exist, live, remain etc.), especially in
a formal or literary context.
banned.
i) There exist valid reasons why foxhunting should be banned.
There exist some grounds for optimism that the conflict will soon be
resolved.
resolved.

ii) In this house there had once lived an eccentric millionaire.


iii) There remain two problems that no one seems able to solve.

Notice how in the above examples the underlined construction serves to


focus the readers attention on the actual subject of the sentence (valid
why..., some grounds fo
optimism..., an eccentric millionaire,
millionaire, two
forr optimism...,
reasons why...,
problems
one...). In most of the above examples this subject is
problems that no one...).
foxhunting should be
rather lengthy, containing a postmodifier (...why foxhunting
banned, ...for optimism that the conflict will soon be resolved,
resolved, ...that no
banned,
solve). If
If these postmodifiers were removed, the thereone seems able to solve).
construction would be much less likely, indeed hardly possible. Compare
Eng
the following alternatives, the second of each being much closer to Eng
lish idiom:
78

**There exist valid reasons.


Valid reasons do exist.
**There remain two problems.
Two problems remain.

5. with
with verbs
verbs that
that describe
describe an
an arrival
arrival (appear,
(appear, arise,
arise, arrive,
arrive, come,
come, emerge,
emerge,
follow etc.), especially in a highly formal or literary context.
enter, follow
i) Gradually there appeared some clouds of dark and ominous aspect.
ii) Last week there arose new doubts concerning the veracity of the
document.
document.
iii) One day there arrived a huge parcel from abroad.
iv)

v)
vi)
vii)

may come a time when we will need their help.


There may

Out of the mists there emerged


emerged a band of men wearing balaclavas.
appearance,
Suddenly there entered a clown of the most bizarre appearance.
silence.
There followed a long, painful silence.

As in section 4 all the examples again involve real subjects that consist
of several words, and nearly all contain postmodifiers (...of
(... o f dark and om
om
inous aspect,
aspect, ...
... concerning the veracity of
o f the document,
document, ...from
...from abroad,
abroad,
... when we will need their help,
help, ... wearing balaclavas,
balaclavas, ... of
o f the most bi
bi
zarre appearance).
appearance). The //iere-construction
tfiere-construction serves to focus the readers at
at
tention on the actual subject of the sentence (some clouds of
o f dark and om
om
inous aspect,
aspect, new doubts concerning the veracity of
o f the document etc.).
Note that this construction generally occurs only in the simple present
or simple past. The following sentences are hardly possible:
** There are arising new doubts....
** There has arrived a huge parcel....
** There has emerged a band of men....

Suggested Exercises (26):

Make the following


idiomatic, rephrasing them in whatever
following sentences more idiomatic,
way seems necessary:
11.. Most
Most of
of us
are more
wonder whether
whether there
there are
positive or
us wonder
or negative
more positive
negative aspects
aspects of
watching TV.

79

W hen people of different nations meet, there may develop a discourse


2. When
between them.
3. Owing to this there prevails a maritime climate in our part of the world.
4. There must have been a cause of such a situation.
W hen there appeared this slanderous article, he was absolutely speechless.
5. When
6 . There often occur serious problems if proper precautions are not taken.
taken.
6.
7. They do not realise that there exists such a problem.
8 . Recently there has emerged a debate on this particular issue.
8.
W hile there are many adherents of the traditional method of learning, open
9. While
and distance learning are becoming more fashionable.
10. If these two problems can be overcome, there will appear possibilities of
10.
development.
real development.
11. In the last few years there have also arisen doubts about the benefits of
11.
genetically modified crops.
12. One should stress that there are numerous pros and cons of this reform.
reform.
12.
13. Asa
As a result of the changes we see that there is no longer free education. Of
13.
course some will argue that there are good aspects of paying for education.
education.
14. Doctors have no right to harm society in this way, for there are already too
14.
many victims of this strike.
15. Obviously, there are sometimes arbitrary or unjust redundancies.
redundancies.
15.
6. These examples show that there are actually positive role models for
116.
thousands of young people.
17. As we approach the new millennium, it seems obvious that there have
17.
appeared significant changes and improvements in the way we live.
18. Those years were crucial for music. There emerged reggae, heavy metal,
18.
rap.
techno and rap.
participles
II. With participles

There + the verb to be + subject + participle


Look at the following alternative sentences:
la . Theres a storm approaching.
la.
lb . A storm is approaching.
lb.
2a. Last night there was a nightingale singing in the garden.
2b. Last night a nightingale was singing in the garden.
roads.
3a. There have been many people killed on our roads.
3b. Many people have been killed on our roads.

80

4a. At present there are thousands of people emigrating


emigrating to the States.
4b. At present thousands of people are emigrating to the States.

In each of the above alternatives the first is much more informal than the
second. Note in sentences 2a, 3a and 4a the lengthy subject, containing
a postmodifier consisting of a participle + prepositional phrase (...a
(... a night
night
ingale singing in the garden.
garden. ...
... many people
... thou
thou
people killed on our mads. ...
).
emigrating
people
sands of
States'
to
the
o f people
States'l. It is precisely this lengthy and
composite subject that tends to characterise the construction, la
la being
an exception.
III. There +
+ passive verb +
+ subject
Let us look at the following passage, which exemplifies a frequent mis
mis
take:
la.
la . *The chapter examines the latest advances in physiotherapy.
There are also discussed the various methods of treatment currently
available.

The second sentence is ungrammatical, since it is a confusion of two dif


dif
ferent words: there meaning in that place
intro
place and there as a kind of intro
ductory subject in sentences beginning there is,
is, there are, there seems etc.
The sentence needs to be corrected, one possibility being:
lb.
lb . The chapter examines the latest advances in physiotherapy,
as well as the various methods of treatment currently available.

In fact the passive


passive construction
construction is generally only found with verbs of
seeing, observing etc., and then only in formal or literary contexts:
2. Strange portents had preceded the disaster. Indeed, there had been seen
hosts joining battle in the skies....
skies....

The above example may at least convey some idea of how rare the con
con
struction in question actually is.
Suggested Exercises (27):

following sentences,
Improve or correct the following
sentences, rephrasing them in whatever
way seems necessary:
11.. There have been planned no more staff meetings for the foreseeable future.
future.

81

2 . I am going to consider whether there should be established any limits to such


2.
interference in private affairs.
thing.
3. There has even been coined a special term for this kind of thing.
4. The conclusion is inescapable: there ought to be formed organisations
devoted to the needs of such social groups.
5. There have been found no written accounts of this event in the records of
other civilisations.
6. Every year there are murdered innocent people, their only crime being an
6.
life.
inappropriate appearance or unacceptable views on life.
7. Fortunately, there are being invented more and more ways of dealing with
such problems.
problems.

4. On the western edge of the Nile delta there is the city of Alexandria.
5. At a right angles to the square there is the tow
ns most famous monument.
towns

What
What,, Which
Which etc.
These words tend to give rise to a number of recurrent problems among
foreign users of English (below, Types A-D):
A-D):

location)
expressionsof
(withexpressions
IV. Omission
oflocation)
tffiere(with
Omissionof
offthere

Type
T y p e A:

unneces
After a composite adverbial expression of place there is often unneces
sary, even clumsy, as in the following alternatives:

Incorrect:

la . Next to the school there is a chapel dating from Victorian times.


la.
lb . Next to the school is a chapel dating from Victorian times.
times.
lb.

The omission of there is especially typical when we are describing a


location, and for which we use not only to be but also other verbs (to lie
lie,, to
found, to be situated etc.). Here is another
rise,
rise, to stand,
tower, to be found,
stand, to tower,
example:
example:
2a. To the left, only a few metres away from me, there stood the National
Gallery, while over to my right there towered Nelsons Column.
2b. To my left, only a few metres away from me, stood the National
Gallery, while over to my right towered Nelsons Column.

a. **Hay-on-Wye is surrounded by hills, what gives rise to a special


microclimate.

Correct:
b. Hay-on-Wye is surrounded by hills, and this gives rise to a special
microclimate.
microclimate.

c. Hay-on-Wye is surrounded by hills, which gives rise to a special


microclimate.
microclimate.
d. Hay-on-Wye is surrounded by hills, a circumstance that gives rise to a
special microclimate.

In sentence d other nouns are, of course, possible instead of circumstance,


circumstance,
e.g. feature,
feature, peculiarity
peculiarity etc. (This structure is also discussed below, p. 98.)

Again, 2b is preferable to 2a.


Suggested Exercises (29):
Suggested Exercises (28):

Try to improve the following


following sentences in the same way:
11.. Beyond the picturesque town of Penzance there is the westernmost point of
Great Britain.
Britain.
2. Adjacent to the Grand Hotel there is the Sopot pier, extending 512 metres.
3. Ahead of them, clearly discernible on the horizon, there were the Pillars of
Hercules.
Hercules.

82

Rewrite the following


above. Example:
following sentences in a way exemplified in d above.
a) She shook the Queens hand without waiting to be addressed.
addressed.
This speaks volumes about her manners.
manners.
b) She shook the Queens hand without waiting to be addressed,
addressed,
manners.
behaviour which speaks volumes about her manners.
11.. Mr
M r Jones is an avid football-fan, and that is often a cause of
o f arguments.
2. They watch soap operas every day, and that is certainly a waste of time.

83

3. John said he would fight for custody of the children. This he justified by
mother.
saying that Jane was unsuited as a mother.
4. The Joneses have different social backgrounds. That seems to influence
the relations between Mrs Joness parents and their own son-in-law.

Type B:
B:
Sometimes, however, different structures are needed from the ones pre
pre
sented above. This is especially the case when certain verbs are involved.

These may be classified as:


i) verbs of illustrating, exemplifying etc.
ii) verbs of seeing, noticing, observing etc.
ii) verbs of arguing, establishing, proving, showing etc.:
i. Even when natural ability is absent, hard work can often produce results,
as can be illustrated (exemplified) by the case of Mr
M r X, my maths
teacher.

illustrated would hardly be English;


In the above sentence *what can be illustrated
which can be illustrated, though not exactly wrong, would be considered
clumsy by many.
ii. Many Americans are enthusiastic churchgoers, as can be seen (observed,
noticed) on Sundays.

In the above sentence *what can be seen


seen would hardly be English; which
which
can be seen, though not exactly wrong, is best avoided. For more details
of this as-construction, cf. p. 6 If.
iii. Wales has a great tourist potential, as I am going to show in this essay.

show would hardly be Eng


Eng
In the above sentence *what I am going to show
avoid
lish; which I am going to show, though not exactly wrong, is best avoid
ed.

2. People in our country tend to be very hospitable - this is something that


visitors will easily notice.
3. In extreme cases love may demand the sacrifice of life. This was the case with
Romeo and Juliet.
Juliet.
4. The government does not attach much importance to the teaching profession.
This is obvious from the teachers
teachers wages.
5. Life expectancy and life style are closely related. This has been established
beyond all doubt by an immense num
ber of scientific studies.
studies.
number

Type C:
This type involves phrases containing evaluative adjectives like impor
impor
tant, significant, worse etc.

Incorrect:
a. *A teacher needs three qualities:
qualities: a positive attitude to others, an ability
to empathise, and - what is important - a certain degree of intelligence.

Correct:
b. A teacher needs three qualities: a positive attitude to others, an ability to
empathise, and - more importantly - a certain degree of intelligence.
c. A teacher needs three qualities: a positive attitude to others, an ability to
empathise, and above all a certain degree of intelligence.
intelligence.

Incorrect
*what is (more) important
*what is (more) interesting
*what is (more) obvious
*what is significant
*what is more worrying
*what makes matters worse

Correct

more importantly
interestingly (enough)
(more) obviously
significantly
more worry
worryingly
in gly
making matters worse

Suggested Exercises (30):

N.B.
The phrase what is worse is often used in an inappropriate manner.

Rewrite the following


following sentences in the way suggested above:

Clumsy:

11.. Dreams are closely related to reality. This can be illustrated by the fact that we
know.
often dream about people and places we know.

84

There
*There are people who buy such magazines and, what is worse, believe
the things they read there.

85

*What is even more depressing,


*What is most ironic,
*What is remarkable,
*What is striking,
mentioning,1
,1
*What is worth mentioning
*What needs to be emphasised,

Better:
There are people who buy such magazines and, worse still, believe
the things they read there.

In reality, phrases like worse still, even worse or making matters worse
are much more common.

N.B.
Suggested Exercises (31):

In the following
following sentences supply the gaps in the way indicated above:
11.. Such people live in their own little world, blind to what is happening all
express their emotions.
to express
unable to
emotions.
a n d,--------- , unable
around them and,
do
, these
these people
people can do
poverty.2. Pensioners are faced with extreme poverty.----------,
predicament.
nothing about their predicament.
a n d,----------,, not a
3. This suggests that she was not a conscientious teacher and,
successful one.
is no longer free of
e n d;----------,, it is
4. Education has become a means to an end;
charge.
charge.
we rarely
it.
rarely realise
a n d,----------,, we
realise it.
5. TV often monopolises our lives and,

follows expressing a logical relationship is rare in the


The phrase what follows
extreme. Compare the following alternatives:
Incorrect:
la.
la . *They will be more able to cope with their disabilities and,
what follows,
follows, to lead happier lives.

Correct:
lb.
lb . They will be more able to cope with their disabilities and,
consequently, to lead happier lives.
lives,
lc . ...and, bv implication, to lead happier lives.
lives.
lc.

Incorrect:
2a. *Nowadays it is fashionable to call human wickedness a kind of
illness. What follows,
follows, the criminal is essentially absolved from
his actions, requiring a doctor rather than a prison warder.
warder.

Type D:
This type of mistake is similar to type C, but the structures required for its
correction are to some extent different:

Correct:
2b. ...It follows from this that the criminal is essentially absolved from
his actions, requiring a doctor rather than a prison warder.

Incorrect:
*M ans activities are ruining our ecosystem. What is especially
a. *Mans
alarming,
alarming, not even huge oceans are completely safe.

Suggested Exercises (32):

Correct:
b.
c.
d.
e.

W hat is especially alarming


alarming is that not even huge oceans etc.
What
alarming that not even huge oceans etc.
etc.
It is especially alarming
alarming fact that etc.
etc.
It is an especially alarming
alarming thing is that etc.
etc.
The most alarming

fol
Here are some other examples of such incorrect phrases (all typically fol
lowed by commas):
*What is astonishing,
*What is curious,

86

Complete the following


following sentences using the words in block capitals:
1. IRONIC the Party was abolished by the man whom it had once expelled in
1.
disgrace.
2. The defendant stands accused of the aforementioned charges. STRIKING
he does not consider his actions to be at all criminal.
criminal.
1

1 Of course the problem can also be circumvented by the use of discourse markers such

as curiously
curiously,, ironically
ironically,, remarkably
remarkably,, sadly etc.

87

W ORTH MENTIONING George always put other people first and him
self
himself
3. WORTH
last.
REM ARKABLE they do not overestimate their financial situation.
situation.
4. REMARKABLE
5. CURIOUS
CURIOUS people often behave in an irrational way when confronted by
TV-cameras.
TV-cameras.
6.
6 . IMPORTANT
IM PORTANT dreams reveal the stresses with which people are not able to
reality.
cope in reality.
7. STRIKING many companies claim that it is impossible to sell their products
without resorting to such methods.
8.
8 . EXTRAORDINARY no more than a century ago the extended family was the
rule rather than the exception in most of Europe.

Stylistic Devices

Cleft Sentences with the Pronoun It


This construction is widely used in emphasising the importance of certain
words. Compare the two following sentences:
la . Knowledge of a foreign language broadens ones mental horizons.
horizons,
la.
lb . It is knowledge of a foreign language that broadens ones mental
lb.
horizons.
horizons.

lb resembles a defining relative clause.


As can be seen, the second clause of lb
Before the word that it is not possible to insert a comma.
One advantage of using this construction is that it enables a distinction
to be brought out with considerable clarity:
lc.
lc . Reading things in translation has only a very limited value.
value.
It is knowledge of
o f a foreign
foreign language that truly broadens
ones mental horizons.

lc (but not la)


la ) is virtually an implied negative:
In fact lc
(not reading things in translation)
It is knowledge of a foreign language (not
that truly broadens....

Another advantage of the cleft construction is that the emphasis or focus


can easily be shifted in accordance with what the writer considers to be
lb has focussed on knowledge of
of
especially important. Thus sentence lb
foreign language
language,, but aa different focus
focus is also possible:
a foreign
Id. It is ones mental horizons that knowledge
of a foreign language broadens.

89

lb and Id focus on differing elements of


of la
la and in effect inter
inter
In other words, lb
pret the sentence in different ways. The construction enables us to change the
focus of the sentence in accordance with what we consider to be important.
expres
Moreover the construction can also be used not only with nominal expres
of a foreign
language, mental horizons etc.) but also with
knowledge of
foreign language,
sions ((knowledge
prepositional or adverbial ones, as in the following alternative sentences:
1945.
2a. George Orwell wrote Animal Farm in 1945.
1945 that George
George Orwell wrote Animal Farm.
Farm.
2b. It was in 1945
recently.
3a. Paula married a film star quite recently.
recently that Paula married a film star.
3b. It was quite recently

As can be seen from Id, the construction can also be used unchanged with
a plural expression. Compare the following alternatives:
4a. Not only Liverpudlians are proud of the Beatles: the fact is that Paul,
John, George and Ringo were a peculiarly British phenomenon.
proud....
only Liverpudlians that are proud....
4b. It is not only

N.B.
i)
that-clause agrees with Liverpudlians and
In sentence 4b the verb of the i/tai-clause
{are)
not with it: i.e. the verb (are) is in the plural.
ii)
With sentences like 2, 3 and 4, where the focus is on people, who is possi
possi
ble instead of that:
2c. It was George Orwell who wrote Animal Farm in 1945.
1945.
2c.
3c. It was Paula who married a film star quite recently.
4c. It is not only Liverpudlians who are proud of the Beatles....

iii)
This type of cleft sentence cannot be used to focus on the complement of
a verb:
Salman Rushdie is a controversial figure.
figure that Salman Rushdie is.
N
ot: **It
**It is a controversial figure
is.
Not:

iv)
When the sentence refers to the past, then it is is likely to change into
it was:

90

5a. In 1825
1825 Sopot became a spa. But above all the interwar period left its
mark on the towns appearance.
5b. ...But it was above all the interwar period that left its mark on the
tow ns appearance.
towns

Suggested Exercises (33):

following sentences in the same way (italics have been given


Convert the following
forr guidance).
guidance). Example:
fo
foundations o/our
o f our childhood memories we build
a. On the foundations
all the subsequent stages.
b. It is on the foundations of our childhood memories that we build
all the subsequent stages.
things.
11. Owing to his highly developed brain man is able to learn many difficult things.
2. The psychiatrist explained that while he was always careful to listen to each
patient carefully, the body language told him most.
o f a common threat cemented the military alliance.
3. The existence of
1998 the courses in investment banking were especially popular, but in
4. In 1998
1999 the courses in derivative instruments drew the most participants.
1999
personal contacts and not ones abilities
5. During those years of tyranny personal
brought success in many spheres of life.
private life makes a politician worthy of
6 . Impeccable behaviour in private
o f the respect
6.
and trust of others.
forr some time one may begin to think uncon
uncon
7. Especially while being abroad fo
sciously in the language of the foreign country. I had the opportunity to learn
the local traditions of Andalusia, and language made it possible.
possible.
Not
8. N
ot until the publication of his book was this theory called into question.
9. Some people identify wisdom with the knowledge that comes from books.
from personal
experience.
For others true wisdom may stem only from
personal experience.
Unfortunatelythe
all,we
10. Unfortunately
aspectsofofschool
forgotten.After
goodaspects
areoften
10.
we
oftenforgotten.
Afterall,
thegood
schoolare
remember most the moments of
o f horror before maths and the attempts to keep
lessons.
our eyes open during biology lessons.
Note:
Additional Note:

Two rather similar structures are to be found with a number of widely


used phrases, especially typical of formal contexts (speeches, addresses
etc.):
etc.):

91
91

A:

that..
It is... that...
la . We hope that this conference will be a great success.
success,
la.
...
lb . It is our hope that.
that....
lb.
2a. I am / We are convinced that this conference will be a great success.
2b. It is mv / our conviction that....
that....
3a. We are deeply sad to announce the death of....
announce....
3b. It is with deep sadness that we must announce....
W e heartily approve of and admire your endeavours....
endeavours....
4a. We
4b. It is with heartfelt approval and admiration that we have been observing
your endeavours....

B:

It is my / our... to...
la . We have the pleasure to inform you that you have been awarded
la.
Prize,
the Nobel Prize.
lb . It is our pleasure to....
lb.
to....
2a. I have the honour to welcome you to....
2b. It is my honour to....

3.

and pleasure to....


It is our great honour and

Emphatic Word Order (Fronting)

of
In each pair the second alternative is more emphatic, making use of
the less likely syntactical pattern; it is also of a higher register. Note how
the word order has been inverted {we
(we did
>>did we, one may
one).
>>may one).
The structures exemplified above involve above all the following expres
expres
sions:

I. Those with a negative or restrictive significance:


significance:
at no time

hardly {also:
(also: hardly ever; hardly... when..., hardly... before...)
in no way
little (usually with verbs of knowing etc.,
e.g. little does she know,
know, little did he realise etc.)
neither... nor...
never again, never before, never-once
no sooner... than...
(also: not even once, not until etc.)
not {also:
not only... but also (cf. also below p.l 13,
13, Coordination III)
nowhere
(also: only after, only if, only then, only when etc.)
only {also:
on no account
rarely
scarcely
seldom
under no circumstances

II. Others:
Others:
so
such

I: Hardly, Only, Rarely, Scarcely etc.


When used sparingly, emphatic word order is a valuable tool for any writer
of English, both creating syntactic variety and broadening the range
of expressive possibilities. One very important syntactic pattern involves
a group of words and phrases, often with a negative or restrictive meaning.
Compare the following sentence pairs:
la . We
W e did not realise what had happened until later.
later,
la.
lb . Not until later did we realise what had happened.
happened.
lb.
2a. One may master this craft only through painstaking effort.
effort.
2b. Only through painstaking effort may one master this craft.
craft.

92

(For further details of this construction, see Part II of English fo


Writers
forr Writers
and Translators, Emphasis.)
Emphasis.)

Suggested Exercises (34):

following sentences more emphatic (in some of


Make the following
o f them words have
been italicised where the new sentence is to begin):
E.g. Such a complex organism has never before existed.
E.g.
existed.
Never before has such a complex organism existed.
1.
1 . II had
had seldom
seldom before
before seen
seen such
such an
an expressive
expressive face.
face.

93

2. Every one of us can derive such wisdom from reading books. (Such is...)
3. Such enormous progress in medicine has never before been achieved.
4. A real relationship can be established only by communicating in this way.
5. Such couples very rarely get married because they love each other.

match etc. are


taking part in a foxhunt, *Never will I go to a football match
English.1
British
English.1
virtually impossible in contemporary

6 . A teacher can vary his lessons and make them worth attending only by using
6.
his inborn creativity.
7. The level of soccer violence in Argentina is such that a judge there has
recently banned all games for a month.
month.

II: With As and Though

8.
8 . In the worst scenario communication is abandoned and parents devote their
entire energies to attaining common material goals. (In the worst scenario not

though.
Another frequently used structure involves the conjunctions as and though.
Compare the following alternatives:

only... )

9. One can appreciate the talent and writing skill of the author only by reading
original.
his book or poem in the original.
10.
10. She was so imaginative and creative that every class with her was different.
different.
11
11.. This knowledge not only imbues one with confidence but also helps one in
getting to know other cultures.
cultures.
12.
Talent
be
12.
accompanied by hard work, and it yields results only then.
must
3. There are grounds for saying that the pen is mightier
113.
m ightier than the sword. (Not
without reason...)
14.
14. The fans are so enthralled by their idol that they will follow him to the ends
of the earth.
earth.

15.
15. Literature should serve useful
useful purposes
purposes under no circumstances.
circumstances.
16.
16. This scandal had no sooner been forgotten than another appeared.
17.
17. The traces of
o f the First World War
W ar are nowhere more visible than in Northern
France.
France.

18.
18. You will be allowed to join our gathering only when your manners improve.
improve.
19.
19. He stopped to think about the consequences of his deed hardly for a single

truth,
la. Even though it may seem amazing, it is the simple truth.
may seem,
Amazing though
though it may
seem , it is the simple truth.
truth,
lb. Amazing
Amazing as it may
may seem,
seem, it is the simple truth.
lc. Amazing

lb and lc
lc the word order has been modified, with the predicative adjec
adjec
In lb
lc the conjunction as is used
tive amazing made to begin the sentence. In lc
instead of though, with little or no discernible change of meaning (as is
though). This modification of the usual word or
or
here the equivalent of though).
der is typical of a literary or formal register.
In addition there is an important variant, exemplified by the last of the
following series (2c):
2a.
2b.
2c.

The pattern with much as generally involves verbs of liking and disliking
or other verbs of emotion:
they dislike the situation, they must
m ust confront it somehow.
3. Much as they
4. Much as we fear the consequences, we are determined to accomplish
our plan.

moment. (Hardly for...)


moment.

20. The princess had no idea of the terrible fate that awaited her. (Little did...)
21
21.. The explosion was of such force that several people were killed instantly.
(Such was...)

Additional Note:
Note:

In the above construction the words hardly and never are usually part of a
more composite expression (e.g. Hardly ever does the Prime Minister put
put
aside her mask of
o f hypocrisy). Thus sentences like *Hardly would I enjoy
94

Though I like Amsterdam very much, I have no wish to live there.


However much I like Amsterdam, I have no wish to live there.
Much as I like Amsterdam, I have no wish to live there.
there.

1 There are very few exceptions:


i: The pattern never... again:
Never were the two lovers to see each other again.
again.

ii: Rarely encountered rhetorical utterances:


Never was a greater fuss made about any man than about Lord Byron.

95

lc may, however, also convey a causal


The construction exemplified by lc
relationship (seeing that, since),
since), as in the following alternatives:
asleep.
5a. Since I was tired, I soon fell asleep.
5b. Tired as I was. I soon fell asleep.

It may, of course, be legitimately asked how such a construction does


not give rise to confusion, since the conjunction as is capable of replacing
both since and though. The answer is simply that such ambiguity would be
dispelled by the context, or else by the insertion of additional words:
asleep.
5c. Tired as I was, I still could not fall asleep.

In 5c the adverb still makes it obvious that the first clause is concessive
Seeing that).
(Even though), and not causative (Since, Seeing
If we set aside the examples with much as and concentrate on the other
Amazing
(1 and 5), we will see that they involve the verb to seem ((Amazing
sentences (1
was).
)
(
be
with
to
is
It
though it may seem)
or
the
verb
(Tired
I
was).
precisely
as
Tired
seem
these two verbs that the emphatic construction most frequently occurs.
Very occasionally a noun phrase may be brought to the front, in which
case it generally appears without any article. Compare the following ex
ex
amples:
6a. As I am a dream enthusiast, I confess I find dreams more interesting
than books or films.
6b. Dream enthusiast as I am, I confess I find dreams more interesting
than books or films. (Not:
(Not: **A dream enthusiast...)

NB:
The construction(s) described above tend to be reserved for clauses which
have the same grammatical subject as the main clause:
Amazing as it may seem, it is the simple truth.
truth.
Tired as I was, I still could not fall asleep.

Thus sentences such as the following sometimes read badly:


*Tired as I was, John insisted on seeing me.
Tired

Suggested Exercises (35):

following sentences using the structures outlined,


Rewrite the following
outlined above.
above.
1.
1. Though the countess was angry, she was tempted to laugh.
2. Since they are fascinated by these characters, children want to be like them.
3. Though most people might be unwilling to admit the fact, the world today is
ruled by the power of money.
4. Though this may seem cruel, the ability to speak a foreign language is
indispensable for any well-paid job.
job.
5. Though he may be well prepared and competent, such a person will never
reach the level of the healer that has true vocation.
vocation.
6.
6 . Though there may be different sources of the tragedy, poverty has one face
for those who have experienced it.
7. There is a widespread belief that most things can be obtained for money.
Though this may seem sad, it is a fact that parents have a tendency to regard
love as a financial transaction.
8.
8 . Being a good general, Hannibal made the most careful dispositions.
dispositions.
9. Since they are spoilt, such children cannot cope with the real world.
world.
10. Nowadays people dream of living like the characters in Dynasty.
Dynasty . Despite
10.
their being inane, such soap operas flood our TV channels.
channels.
11.. Though it might seem incomprehensible to us, the reclusive way of life is not
11
devoid of experience.
12.
12. Though Moriarty was cunning, he was outwitted by the superior guile of
Holmes.
Sherlock Holmes.

Ass with Fronted Transitive Verbs


A

A related construction involves the modification of an as-clause where


part of the verb, usually a transitive one, is brought to the front:
7a. As the President has many enemies, he seldom sleeps
in the same bed two nights in a row.
many enemies as he does,
7b. Having
Having many
does, the President seldom sleeps
in the same bed two nights in a row.
row.

In sentences of
of this type (7b) the meaning is invariably seeing that
that or since,
and never even
even though. Generally the construction involves a verb which
takes a direct object (e.g. have). The as-clause and the main clause tend to
have the same grammatical subject. (For more details, cf. p. 53.)
96

97

Suggested Exercises (36):

Rewrite the following


above.
following sentences using the structure outlined above.
11.. As he has the most highly developed brain functions, man seems to be
2.
3.
4.

5.

primates.
completely different from the other primates.
Since it takes up so much time, television can be detrimental to family relations.
It will not be difficult for the twenty-first century to seem like an age of gold, as
it has such a terrible and bloody predecessor.
TV, which operates by means of visual images, is much more communicative
and fascinating than radio.
The publication constitutes an invaluable source of information, since it includes
many crucial discoveries.

Apposition
Relative Clauses in Apposition
An earlier section (pp. 73-77) discussed the difference between defining
and non-defining relative clauses. In particular it was stressed that one of
the ways of distinguishing the latter from the former was by being able to
insert an apposition or appositional phrase. Thus, at the cost of repetition,
let us take the following sentence:
la.*N apoIeon was exiled to St Helena where he was to spend
la.*Napoleon
the rest of his life.

The fact that it is possible to insert an appositional phrase


lb. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena, a place where he was to spend the
rest of his life.

la ((where
o f his
where he was to spend the rest of
shows that the relative clause of la
)
comma.
a
life
life) is non-defining, and therefore needs to be preceded by
of an apposition remains a very useful technique when we
This insertion of
are dealing with non-defining relative clauses that conclude the sentence.
Let us take the following example:
2a. Englands culture is the product of its long years of history, which
have included several invasions and religious upheavals.
upheavals.

98

While sentence 2a is not incorrect, the relative clause might easily be recast
as a coordinate clause:
2b. Englands culture is the product of its long years of
o f history,
years have included several invasions and religious upheavals.
and these years
upheavals.

In other words the relative clause of 2a is almost as important as the main


clause. In such cases, the insertion of an apposition is often an excellent
way of formulating your meaning:
2c. Englands culture is the product of
o f its long years of history,
years which have included several invasions and religious upheavals.
upheavals.

The advantage of such an insertion is that it endows the whole sentence


with a certain poise by allowing the second clause to counterbalance the
first more effectively.
Similarly, if we look at the following sentence
3a. He succeeded in deciphering three of
o f archaeologys most perplexing
secrets, which had remained unsolved for ages.

we see that the relative clause could also be reformulated as a coordinate


clause:
3b. He succeeded in deciphering three of archaeologys most
m ost perplexing
secrets (these secrets had remained unsolved for ages).
ages).

Again, it can be greatly improved by means of the same appositional structure:


3c. He succeeded in deciphering three of archaeologys most
m ost perplexing
secrets, ones that had remained unsolved for ages.

An alternative would be:


3d. He succeeded in deciphering three of
most
o f archaeologys m
ost perplexing
ages.
secrets, secrets that had remained unsolved for ages.

or even:
ost perplexing
3e. He succeeded in deciphering three of archaeologys m
most
rem ained unsolved for ages.
ages.
secrets, enigmas that had remained

Mastering this trick will make your writing easier and more pleasant to
read, as well as eliminating potential ambiguities. This is especially impor
impor
tant when the relative clause has an unclear antecedent, as in the following
sentence:

99

4a. The sacked deputy prime minister rejects the accusations of perjury,
isconduct and financial impropriety, which he claims to be
misconduct
sexual m
politically motivated.
Presumably the which refers to accusations,
accusations, yet the fact that the two
words are far removed from each other makes the sentence slightly awk
awk
ward to read. It could be greatly improved by the insertion of an appo
appo
sition:
sition:
4b. The sacked deputy prime minister rejects the accusations of perjury,
sexual misconduct and financial impropriety, accusations which he
motivated.
claims to be politically motivated.

or even:
primee minister rejects the accusations of perjury,
4c. The sacked deputy prim
charges which he claims
sexual misconduct and financial impropriety, charges
motivated.
to be politically motivated.

And if we take another, more extreme example


5a.*Freedom has proved to be scary and to demand great responsibility
from our actions, which we are often afraid of.

we will see that which has no antecedent that is obvious at first sight. If,
responsibility, then the following would
as is most likely, which refers to responsibility,
be a great improvement:
5b. Freedom has proved to be scary and to demand great responsibility
5b.
responsibility which we are often afraid of.
from our actions, a responsibility

Notice how besides a repetition of the word responsibility the indefinite


a/an is
article has been added. This preference for the indefinite article alan
typical of the appositional structure that forms the subject of this section.
(Cf. also below, p. 157.)
157.)
If, however, the context of the sentence makes it abundantly obvious
what which refers to, it is still far better to insert an apposition, even if it is
something:
only the word something:
5c. Freedom has proved to be scary and to demand great responsibility
something which we are often afraid of.
from our actions, something

The modified type of apposition shown by 3e and 4c ((enigmas


enigmas instead of
secrets, and charges instead of accusations')
secrets,
accusations) is especially useful when it
comes to the following kind of relative clause:

100

6a. Many are unaware of the history of their country, which also adversely
affects their knowledge of other fields of education.
education.

al
Here which refers not to one word, but to the entire previous clause, al
though that is not immediately obvious. Hence the following reformulation
would be a great improvement:
6b. Many are unaware of the history of their country, a fact which also
adversely affects their knowledge of
o f other fields of education.
education.

Suggested Exercises (37):

sentences, inserting an apposition of


Improve the following
of some kind:
following sentences,
m ost precious gift, which has changed
11.. Susan considers the guide dog to be a most
her life completely.
completely.
2. The plan involves an alternative to spending a prison sentence, which is open
to all women prisoners.
We
3.
do not notice the unique features of our everyday reality and mentality,
first-tim e foreign visitor.
visitor.
which would nonetheless surprise the first-time
4. English people consume enormous quantities of tea, which has become
legendary.
legendary.
5. Fler
Her relationship to Diana was very profound and heartfelt, which might have
been attributable to resemblances of character.
character.
6.
6 . The local roads are extremely bad when compared with those in Western
Europe, which makes it impossible to dispense with trains completely.
completely.
7. The manuscripts reveal a picture of the composer as endowed with
a marvellous lyrical talent, who builds up the emotional climate of the music
by means of the melodic line.
8.
8 . This is a classic example of a family where a father wants to project his own
ambitions onto a child, which in the longer term may and often does prove
fatal.
M other Teresa was known for her loving heart, which did not distinguish
9. Mother
between nations and religions.
10. The face seems to express doggedness and harshness, which is strengthened
10.
by the sinister glint in the eyes.
11.. The vast majority of anaesthetists refused to continue working, which com
com
11
pletely paralysed the health system.
12.
12 . Scholars also propound another theory, which is based on more conventional
argumentation.
argumentation.

101
101

13. They treat old people with respect, which is probably linked to the impor
impor
13.
tance attached to good manners.
14. Mr
M r and Mrs Jones have little job security and poor professional prospects,
14.
may
ay disqualify them as potential foster-parents.
foster-parents.
which m
always
like
is
a
week in a health resort, where all my
15. A visit to the harbour
15.
senses may recuperate from the fumes and traffic of the city.
city.
16. The extended family is not an anachronism. It is a cure for loneliness which
16.
has developed along with humanity and must
m ust be continuously cultivated.
17.
17. Our tourist is likely to stand in queues for hours while'
while'clerks
usually
clerks female
fem ale - are varnishing their nails, reading magazines, drinking coffee,
guzzling cakes and gossiping about their bosss latest hair-do, which they
acquired during their years under the previous political system.
18.
18. Owing to these childhood experiences she is unable to establish any satis
satis
factory relationships with others, which leaves her a very unhappy person.
person.

Clarity and Syntax

Abrupt Sentence Endings


A very common mistake is to end a sentence with an abrupt or otherwise
awkward word or phrase. One especially frequent variant is a very abrupt
predicate, as in the following sentence:
la.*T he problem of how best to divide up the profits arose.
la.*The

of
Here the predicate arose consists of one word, coming after a subject of
many words. Many British people would consider the sentence awkward
and difficult to read. Yet if the predicate were longer, the sentence would
be unobjectionable:
lb . The problem of how best to divide up the profits was discussed by
bv all
lb.
concerned.

follow
Alternatively the sentence can be reorganised, for example in the follow
ing manner:
lc . The problem arose of how best to divide up the profits.
lc.

Now compare the following alternatives:


R ussells most important
im portant contribution to science,
2a.*The following year Russells
o f Mathematics,
Mathematics, appeared.
The Principles of
following year saw the appearance of Russells
R ussells most
m ost important
2b. The following
namely....
contribution to science, namely....

re
appeared) has been avoided by means of a re
Thus an abrupt predicate ((appeared)
phrasing.

103

This technique of rephrasing is especially important for the avoidance


predi
of an interminably long and composite subject preceding an abrupt predi
cate. Compare the following:
3a.*Through the influence of this school the cross-pollination of plants, the
introduction of chemical fertilisers, the concept of growing plants on
a commercial scale, the fundamentals of breeding cattle and horses,
as well as the introduction of professional accounting for agricultural
effectively propagated.
enterprises were effectively
3b.
3b. This school was responsible for the effective propagation of the cross
cross
pollination of plants....
plants....

Most native users of English would find the second alternative incompara
incompara
bly easier to read.
If we look at the following sentence, we will again notice a short pred
pred
icate preceded by a long subject:
4a.*According to scientists, the most important point of dissimilarity
between homo sapiens and the rest of the animal kingdom is speech.

Here the predicate is speech consists of two words, coming after a subject
of many words. The sentence needs reorganising:
4b.
4b. According to scientists, speech is the most important point....1
point....1

An especially common error is to put a short word or phrase at the end


of a list of longer words and phrases:
5.*
5.* Certain qualities are required in order to be successful in this job, e.g.
an ability to get on with people and listen to them, a sense of humour,
imagination,
imagination, charm and wit.

Again the word order requires modification - perhaps by bringing forward


the underlined items and placing them before the longer ones.
A frequent type of related error is ambiguity of the following type:
6.*
6.* Cigarettes, not enough exercise and stress can shorten our lives
considerably.
7.*
7.* The striking farmers decided upon a strategy which consisted of
hampering the distribution of petrol and roadblocks.
1

1 An exception to the above remarks is the following pattern involving the adjective only.
only:
The only
only thing that keeps the two warring factions from each others throats is the UN
presence.

104

Both sentences are ambiguous as well as being clumsy, the short under
under
lined phrases coming abruptly after longer elements. Sentence 6 is am
am
biguous because at first reading it looks as if the meaning is too
too little
exercise and too little stress. Sentence 7 is similarly unsatisfactory. Both
6 and
and7 7need
needtotobeberead
readmore
morethan
thanonce
oncebefore
beforethe
themost
mostlikely
likelymeaning
meaning
emerges.
A related mistake involves one particular type of composite genitive
expression. Contrast the following alternatives:
8a.*Computers have changed not only students but also teachers lives.
8b. Computers have changed the lives of both students and teachers.

Sentence 8a is unsatisfactory because lives is preceded by and part of


a long and composite genitive expression.

Suggested Exercises (38):

following sentences by changing the word order and if


Improve the following
if neces
neces
sary by rephrasing them.
them.
Easter.
our country
is Easter.
keeping local
example of
of keeping
local traditions
traditions in
country is
Another typical
typical example
in our
11.. Another
Urgent action
neces
2. Urgent
is neces
action to
intolerable and
and inexcusable
situation is
improve this
inexcusable situation
this intolerable
to improve
sary.
history of
background that
of
3. ItIt was
of writing
against this
idea of
modem
the idea
that the
odem history
writing aa m
was against
this background
England, highlighting the role of Parliament, emerged.
emerged.
and social
social
4. Documentaries
on some
some aspects
which focus
cultural and
focus on
of m
ans cultural
aspects of
mans
Documentaries which
activities or those which examine the existence of some wild animals in their
natural habitats may broaden our minds.
minds.
5. Opinions as to whether the private lives of politicians should be subject to the
same ethical rules as their public lives may differ.
talks, which
years have
are
6. Many
the famous
Round Table
Many years
which are
famous Round
since the
Table talks,
have passed
passed since
considered to have been the beginning of the end of communist domination,
took place.
7. Observing five-year-olds who can only think about new computer
com puter games and
sad.
who perceive reality only through a monitor screen, is sad.
om m sens contribution
8. From
field of
textual criti
criti
of textual
Th. M
among these
From among
Mommsens
contribution in
these Th.
the field
in the
Sym es work on the significance of
o f the prosopocism and epigraphy, R. Symes
o f the
graphical method, and A.H.M. Joness immense structuralist study of
recognition.
later Roman Empire deserve particular recognition.

105

Note:
Additional Note:

A related error is to put an insignificant word or phrase at the end of


a sentence:
9a. *But it is simply not enough to know ones subject inside out, I suppose.

Such a sentence is impossible except in conversation, and obviously the


underlined phrase should go to the beginning.
9b. But I suppose it is simply not enough to....
to....
9b.

Coordination

3. The decisions that people make and the statements


statem ents that are uttered are often
irrevocable.
irrevocable.
4. Such students devote their whole free time to party activism,
activism , and it is for
fo r
professional hobby
hobby which will later turn into a political career.
them a kind of professional
5. Mother
M other Teresa would give away all the money she had raised and never
count the cost, with public opinion meaning
m eaning nothing to her.
her.
6. It is impossible
im possible for animals to communicate
com m unicate some special circumstances
circum stances
that have never happened before.
before.
7. It is only natural that many countries should adopt cultural importations
im portations
that are perhaps more attractive or convenient for them.
8. Our tourist will have a hard time m
making
aking himself
him self understood in the street and
it will also be a struggle for him to arrange anything in our public institutions.
institutions.
9. Her
H er activities were acknowledged by awarding her the Nobel Prize.
Prize.
10.
10. Should our country join the EU? I do not think so, and an attempt
attem pt will be
made
m ade to explain why.

I: Unjustified Change of
of Subject

11. Man has learned to solve many problem


s, although there are some that have
problems,
11.

A very common error is to change the subject of the sentence when such a
change is unnecessary and even flies in the face of logic. Let us look at the
following example of such an error:

12.
12. The princess gave to beggars what was superfluous to her.
her.
13. When
W hen the average foreigner visits our deserted woods and forests, he m
ight
might
13.
think that we do not like trees or that going for walks is unpopular in our
country.
country.

yet to be overcome.

judgement
ent about other people we should always
a. *When we form a judgem
consider their appearance, but at the same time externals must not
prevail in our assessment.

14.
14. Sometimes in life we must sacrifice something
som ething in order to gain something
som ething
vital for us.
us.

Here the real subject of the sentence is clearly we, and so it is not only
conclud
quite unnecessary but even confusing to switch the subject in the conclud
ing clause. The following improvement suggests itself:

16.
16. A healthy way of life is greatly conducive to longevity, and it would be a
mistake
m istake to think that there are no connections between the two.

judgement
b. When
W hen we form a judgem
ent about other people we should always
being sswaved
waved by externals.
consider their appearance, without however being

Suggested Exercises (39):

Improve the following


following sentences in the way suggested above:
1. We
W e had never before seen such beautiful stars. Hardly a word was spoken
1.
o f us appreciated the wonderful view.
view.
since all of
2. Good teachers are able to admit if any mistake
m istake was made by them.

106
106

15.
meant.
15. Let me
m e focus on the products of
o f human thought, by which culture is m
eant.

17. If anyone examines our history, it will become clear why


w hy we
w e have a deeply
17.
ambiguous attitude to the West.
West.
18. In the old days every child was brought up with a deep respect for m
oral
18.
moral
values, and honesty, keeping ones
o n es word, and respect for ones
o nes elders w
ere
were
the most
m ost highly prized qualities.
qualities.
19. It is easy to convince oneself that everything is preordained and that there
19.
is no point in trying to change it.
M ost people live their lives in the pursuit of
o f pleasure, which is the most
m ost
20. Most
im portant thing for them.
important
21. Americans
Am ericans especially enjoy meeting
m eeting Europeans, and they should not think
twice about coming to the States.

107
107

Additional Note:
Of course, this need for coordination must not be taken to extremes. Some
Some
Of
times sentences read perfectly well even when there is a switch of subject
sen
whose necessity is far from obvious. Let us compare the following sen
tence pairs, the first of which (a) is characterised by a subject switch and
coordination:
the second (b) by coordination:
la . He spent most of his life in the country, where the majority
majority of his
la.
poems were written.
majority
lb . He spent most of his life in the country, where he wrote the majority
lb.
poems.
of his poems.
2a. When we watch comedies we laugh, melodramas make us cry or feel
happy, horrors give rise to fear, and thrillers keep us on the edge of
our seats.
laugh, melodramas
m elodramas make
m ake us cry or feel happy,
2b. Comedies cause us to laugh,
horrors give rise to fear, and thrillers keep us on the edge of our
seats.
seats.

If one compares these sentence pairs, one sees that little if anything has
been gained by making all the clauses of each sentence start with the same
lb represents an improve
improve
subject. In other words, it is doubtful whether lb
on
2a.
la,
ment on la , or 2b an improvement

II: Concord and Gender Bias


Consider the following sentence:
a. A politician should not hesitate to resign if the public is scandalised by
his private life.

Many people would be at the very least unhappy with the language of
the above, since it gives the impression that all politicians are male, an
assumption which is as sexist as it is factually incorrect. One method of
avoiding this implication is to modify the sentence slightly:
b. A politician should not hesitate to resign if the public is scandalised by
his or her private life.

In practice, however, this formulation may also cause problems, as in


the following continuation of b:
108
108

** ...He or she should realise that his or her moral code is not as m
uch
much
his or her own business as he or she might think.
think.

In other words the option exemplified by b may result in language that is


inept to the point of being ridiculous.
In spoken as well as in informal written English, however, the follow
follow
ing construction is gaining acceptance:
c.

A politician should not hesitate to resign if the public is scandalised by


their private life.

Here a phrase containing a plural possessive adjective (their


(their private
life))
private life
refers to a noun which is singular (<a
politician ). This construction will be
(a politician).
rejected by many people on the grounds of grammar, as well as on those of
formal-stylistic propriety (it is ugly). Indirectly, moreover, this construc
construc
tion may give rise to other problems - for example, whether to use life or
lives in the above example.
Yet another alternative is to turn the subject of the main verb into a
plural:
d. Politicians should not hesitate to resign if the public is scandalised by
their private life.

This reads much more naturally, though again one must decide whether
life or lives is preferable.
To repeat, the effort to avoid gender bias (by finding an alternative to a)
often involves problems of its own. Yet with a minimum of ingenuity the
issue can be circumvented, as in the final option:
e. A politician should not hesitate to resign if the public is scandalised by
that persons private life.

Everyone, Anyone, No one, Someone etc.

One special case has to do with the words everyone, everybody, anyone,
anybody, no one, nobody, someone and somebody.
fol
somebody. Let us look at the fol
lowing options:
1.
1.

Everyone
Everyone is allowed to study

2.

Everyone is allowed to study whatever he or she wishes.


wishes.

wishes.
whatever he wishes.

109
109

study whatever
or he
whatever she
he wishes.
she or
wishes.
allowedtoto study
Everyoneisisallowed
3. Everyone
study whatever
whatever s/he
wishes.
Everyoneisisallowed
allowedtoto study
s/he wishes.
4. Everyone
they wish.
study whatever
wish.
whatever they
allowedtoto study
5. Everyone
Everyoneisisallowed
study the
the subject
their choice.
subject of
Everyoneisis allowed
of their
choice.
allowed to
to study
5a. Everyone

1 is grammatically correct, but conservative. If


If the sentence re
re
Option 1
fers to a group of people some of whom are female, it is also characterised
by gender bias.
Option 2 is fairer, though it may give rise to problems in the subsequent
Of course Option 2 is not completely fair, since
discourse (as in b above). Of
she.
it places the male pronoun he before the female pronoun she.

3 is polemical in intent, as well as being stylistically objection


objection
Option 3
able: many would simply stop reading at this point.

Option 4 is possible in contexts that impose very limited stylistic or


formal demands on the writer, but many readers would find it slovenly.
5 and 5a
5 a have gained widespread acceptance, especially in rather
Options 5
informal contexts, and have the advantage of not specifying the sex of the
person or people referred to. In other words, everyone,
everyone, anyone etc. take a
Everyone is...),
singular verb ((Everyone
is...), but may be referred to by means of a plural
pronoun (they
(they wish) or a plural possessive adjective (their
(their favourite
subject). Many, however, would try to avoid using this construction, just
subject).
as they would never allow sentence c above.

One...
One... one...
one...

If one has been used at


An important case concerns the pronoun one. If
the beginning of the sentence, then in formal British English one is used
to refer back to it. Consider the following options:
ankind as
a. If one believes in the evolution of the species, one regards m
mankind
part of the natural world.
b. If one believes in the evolution of the species, he regards mankind as
part of the natural world.
c. If one believes in the evolution of the species, he or she regards
mankind as part of the natural world.
d. If one believes in the evolution of the species, they
they regard mankind
m ankind as
part of the natural world.

110
110

Of
Of the above alternatives only the first (a) is standard British English. The
second is American English. Sensitivities as regards gender bias make the
third (c) and fourth (d) options increasingly attractive to many. To many
ears the repetition one...one of the first option may sound unnatural, even
laboured, and perhaps the best advice is to try to avoid the construction
altogether, for example along the following lines:
e. Belief
B elief in the evolution of the species implies a recognition of mankind
as part of the natural world.

Suggested Exercises (40):


Fill in the missing spaces with one or more words:
11.. A tourist who is in Scotland over Hogmanay should not be surprised if
i f-------invited to a friendly drink.
life,,---------2. Each of us has
own life
h as ----------own
perception
f the
theworld.
perception oof
world.

3. As no one likes to be a mediocrity, everyone tries to be as successful as


a s-----can.
4. To continue ones education
-generallyhas
education----------generally
hastotomove
biggertown
movetotoaabigger
town
city.
or city.

5. How can doctors judge whether someone is seriously ill if they do not have
the time to examine
?
exam ine-------------------?
6. Every human being spends one third of
of ----------life
lifesleeping.
sleeping.
7. Individual academic success depends on the financial resources which each
student has aatt- or more likely
lik ely----------parents
---------- disposal.
parents--has
disposal.
8. If anyone thought this was going to be an easy operation,
operation,----------was
is
-was mmis
taken.

9. What determines whether someone is a good teacher or not is the presence of


qualities that allow
fulfil
-dutysatisfactorily.
tofu
allow----------to
lfil-----------duty
satisfactorily.
10.
10. If everyone is given the opportunity to develop
develop----------talents
and to
realise
torealise
talents and
ambitions,the
wholecountry
countrywill
----------ambitions,
willprosper.
thewhole
prosper.

11. A m
odem constitution guarantees freedom of worship for everyone irres
irres
modem
11.
pective of
of ----------religious
religiousbeliefs.
beliefs.

12.
12. Whoever goes to this film will see things that will disturb
d istu rb----------.
-.
13.
13. A good teacher will always notice someones
som eones effort and will never forget to
draw attention to some good points of
of ----------performance.
performance.

Ill
Ill

granted and
onTV
for granted
and
TV for
14. The average adolescent takes everything
everything----------sees
-sees on
14.
reality.-- does not realise that a person who is kicked
takes fiction for reality.-------or beaten cannot stand up as if nothing had happened.
15. The IMFs
IM Fs policy has always been to help each country to develop
develop---------15.
economic system.
-:: wise, by definition ceases to be wise.
16. Anyone who considers
considers----16.
to
17. The state should not ignore someones
som eones misfortunes or refuse to hhelp
e lp--------to
17.
lot.
im p ro v e-----improve
-lot.
18. It is very important that everyone should have access to nature, no matter
18.
might be.
be.
how bbusy
u s y----------might
19. If doctors go on strike, someone somewhere may be denied help. If
If ---------19.
die(s), then it is the fault of doctors.
beChristian,------------be20. Faith is fundamental for all Christians. If one is a Christian,
Resurrection.
lieve(s) in Jesus and His Resurrection.
dream about
about
if --------- wwant(s)
ant(s)---------dream
21. The average person has to work hard if
a big house to come true.
via the
mevia
forme
the
messagefor
essay,please
pleaseleave
leave aamessage
22. If anyone wishes to see
see ----------essay,
secretary.
secretary.
23. If someone has to choose between a train and, for example a bus, I am quite
thetrain.
sure that
th at----------will
train.
will choose
choosethe
performance.
satisfactoryperformance.
W hen a customer buys a new car,
c a r,----------expects
-expectssatisfactory
24. When
considers
and considers
society
on
of
impact
f ------------- impact on society and
25. As long as a celebrity is aware oyoung
the
actions,
upon
influence
----------responsible
f
o
r
---------actions,-----------influence
upon
the
young
for
responsible
will not be dangerous.
dangerous.
level
appropriatelevel
theappropriate
choosesthe
re a d er----------chooses
26. In using this book of puzzles the reader
of difficulty.
difficulty.
i n---------27. These dangers may make it impossible for an individual to live in
own community.
money.
le n d--------- money.
28. The surest way to lose a friend is to lend

of Parallel Structure
Ill: Absence of
par
Another very common error is to write sentences where the necessary par
most
The
allelism of structure is absent and which hence appear lop-sided.
common manifestation of this kind of error involves the constructions both...
and..., not only... but also..., either... or... and neither... nor.... Here are
a few typical examples:
112
112

both... and....
both...

A:

la.
la . This observation applies both to material objects and spiritual values.
values,
lb.
lb . This observation applies both to material objects and to spiritual values.

While la
la is not exactly wrong, very many native speakers of English would
feel that regularity of structure would require the repeat of the preposition to.
to.

only... but also....


not only...
also....

B:

2a. Politicians are expected not only


only to be outstanding leaders but also
men of unblemished character.
2b. Politicians are expected to be not only
only outstanding leaders but also
men of
o f unblemished character.

In 2a-b the infinitive to be obviously has as its complement both outstand


outstand
ing leaders and men of
of unblemished character.
character. While 2a is not absolutely
wrong, most English people would feel that at least in more formal writing
a clear parallelism of structure should be maintained.
Another recurrent error can best be illustrated by a juxtaposing of the
following alternatives:
3a. *Literature
*Literature is beneficial in a variety of ways. It does not merely
merely
boredom.
instruct us but also preserves us from boredom.
3b. ...It not merely instructs us but also preserves us from boredom.

Sentence 3a would be widely felt to be incorrect, the reason being that the
construction is again lop-sided.1
lop-sided.1
Another very common error involves the fronting of not only.
only. Compare
the following sentence alternatives:
4a. Politicians should not only
only pass laws but also set an example for others.
4b. *Not only should politicians pass laws but also set an example for
others.
4c. Not only
only should politicians pass laws but they
they should also set an ex
ex
ample for others.

Only 4a and 4c are correct. By contrast 4b would feel lop-sided to most


native writers of English.
1 The reader expects the second part of the sentence (preserves...) to be in some kind of
grammatical harmony with the first part (It does not...). If, however, the second part is
coordinated with the first part, that causes problems of its own:
3c. *...It does not merely instruct us but also preserve us from boredom.
Sentence 3c is simply un-English.

113

C:

neither... nor....
nor....
either... or..., neither...
either...
5a. *There are two ways of achieving immortality: either become a hero
or a serial killer.
killer.
5b. ...become
... become either a hero or a serial killer.
6a. *He was neither able to show his feelings nor to love his children.
6b. He was able neither to show his feelings nor to love his children.

15. Some people live so long that they not only have grandchildren but great
great
15.

grandchildren as well.

Parallelism of Structure
an absence of
If we look at the following sentence, we will again notice am
parallelism in the form of a gratuitous repetition of about:
about:

Both correct versions (5b, 6b) are characterised by parallelism of struc


struc
ture. The guiding principle is simply common sense.
Suggested Exercises (41):

following sentences:
sentences:
Improve the following
11.. TV gives us not only the latest news but also tells us about the surrounding
world.
2. The question either has no answer or it could be answered in various ways.
3. Not only do people often bear grudges against one another but also show
hostility to those who differ.
4. These films may not only become a source of nightmares, but they may also
desensitise children to suffering.
suffering.
5. Not only are the young expected to maintain a pleasant home atmosphere but
also to
to attend to increasingly frail parents.
6. A good teacher should not only be a lecturer but also a role model.
7. Not only is m
man
to destroy as well.
an able to create, but to
8. Bringing up children does not only mean providing them with food, clothes
and toys but also giving them attention.
attention.
9. Not only was Mother
M other Teresa widely recognised but also believed to be caring
and compassionate.
10.
10. Let us hope that the new generation of TV-addicts will neither turn into mo
mo
ronic characters from cartoon serials nor into crazed killers.
11
11.. Voters choosing their candidate not only expect him to be a competent poli
poli
tician but also a good man.
12.
12. Life style does not only determine longevity but it also determines the quality
of life.
life.
13.
13. Such teenagers not only are unaware of
o f the evil they do, but they also rain
ruin
what is left of
o f their young lives.
lives.
14.
14. It is difficult to remain philosophical about both the good and bad things that
life brings.
brings.

114

Welsh
elsh traditions,
7. *1 have a cousin in America who never forgets about W
D avids Day, or even about the annual Eisteddfod.
St Davids

The sentence can easily be corrected by removal of the underlined word.'


word.1
mis
The following (8a) is yet another type of frequently occurring mis
take:
8a. *Nobody imagined that TV sets would be found in every house and
millions of people would be able to watch the same pictures.
8b. Nobody imagined that TV sets would be found in every house and that
pictures.
millions of people would be able to watch the same pictures.

Here again common sense would suggest the insertion of that to bring
out the parallelism of structure (8b).

Parallelism of Grammatical Categories


The principle of parallelism can also be brought to bear on the following
sentence:
9a. *These problems are often caused by the rejection of the family or
job.
losing a job.

Here the reader expects the noun rejection to be paralleled by another word
ger
of exactly the same grammatical category. Instead what he gets is the ger
und losing.
losing. The sentence can be greatly improved by changing the gerund
into a straightforward noun:
9b. These problems are often caused by the rejection of the family or the
job.
loss of a job.
1 The logical alternative, namely to repeat about before each nominal phrase, produces
cumbersome:
a sentence that is impossibly cumbersome:

7a. *1 have a cousin in America who never forgets about Welsh traditions, about
St Davids Day, or even about the annual Eisteddfod.

115

Suggested Exercises (42):

parallelism of
Improve the following
sentences, creating parallelism
o f structure where
following sentences,
appropriate:
11.. By introducing a common currency and elimination of international barriers
Of economics,
the countries of Western Europe became integrated in terms of
trade, and to some extent in terms of culture.
wealthy.
2. Democracy does not imply equality or being wealthy.
3. Everyone, whether unabashed atheist or Catholic clergy, speaks with one
voice on this issue.
4. Teachers are often too tired and busy to meet their students, help them, talk
to them, or even sometimes to prepare for lessons.
5. In the course of time they lost their independence, culture and their identity.
6. The question is whether these reforms will exacerbate social divisions and
will they harm the poor.
7. For a miracle to be truly valid, the cure must be immediate, absolute, and
m ust still be effective after ten years.
must
8. Are parents only to blame, or perhaps the fault lies with society as a whole?
M any young people squander their chances of educating themselves, finding
9. Many
b and, most importantly, of enjoying a high standard of living.
a jo
job
10. No conflict threatens the European and w
orlds status quo to such a degree.
degree.
worlds
10.
11. A proper diet, a balanced life style, practising sports and avoiding addictions
11.
are associated with longevity.
12. In America petrol is relatively cheap, and the average American can afford to
12.
buy much more petrol with his salary than the average man in Europe.
13. All things considered, the railway is neither better nor worse than driving a
13.
car or going by bus.
14. She received the Nobel Prize for her research into methods of separation,
14.
purifying and measurement of activity of radioactive elements.
elements.

Note:
Additional Note:
Of course, the desire for coordination should not be taken to extremes.
Of
Obviously if the sentence reads well, that is the most important thing.
Compare the following cases:
l a . There will be an exhibition by artists both from England and from
la.

abroad.
l b . ...from both England and abroad.
abroad.
lb.
lc . ...both
.. .both from England and abroad.
abroad.
lc.

116

2a. This guide will be useful to those who are involved in tourism in all its
forms - whether in the highlands or in the lowlands.
lowlands.
2b.
2b. ...whether in the highlands or lowlands.
lowlands.

While lc
lc and 2b do not conform to the principle of coordination, they
come across as being perfectly natural.

IV: Unjustified Change of


of Person
Another common error is to switch pronouns or possessives without any
justification. Let us look at the following sentence:
a. *One should never ignore ones dreams, since they simply tell you the
truth about vour emotions.

In this particular example, there is no justification for one and ones to be


taken up by you and your. The most obvious improvement is to change you
your.
and your.
b. One should never ignore ones dreams, since they simply tell one the
b.
truth about ones emotions.

The other alternative is to change one and ones:


c. You should never ignore vour dreams, since they simply tell you the
truth about your emotions.

Of
Of the above sentences a is absolutely wrong, but the alternatives b and c en
en
tail problems of their own. In b the repetition of one and ones several times
over sounds awkward and unnatural; in c, by contrast, the use of you and your
is informal and even colloquial. Best therefore to undertake a paraphrase:
d. Dreams should never be ignored, since they simply tell one the truth
about ones emotions.

Suggested Exercises (43):

Correct the following


following sentences,
paraphrasing where necessary:
sentences, paraphrasing
11.. If one has decided to becom
become
e a teacher and is strong enough to face up to
the everyday problem
w orthw hile activity, as the
problemss of school life, it is a worthwhile
process of teaching is enriched by the gaining of experience and educating
yourself.
yourself.

117

2. The things that we dream about seldom come true. Thus, if we dream about
the death of a relative, it does not have to mean anything. Or when you dream
panic.
about failing your exam, there is no need to panic.
3. Transmitted deliberately in the middle of a film, when your mind is stimulated
and very receptive to influence, these ads induce a state of stupefaction and
m
ake us believe in a half-truth that is in fact a lie.
make
W e smoke too many cigarettes or else drink too much coffee or alcohol 4. We
things that we consider to be useful as they help you either to work until late at
night or to defuse the tension after a hard day.
day.
5. One can never fall asleep if you travel alone because either you will wake up
naked and all your baggage will be gone, or else you will not wake up at all.

Dangling Participles
V: Dangling
sub
participle is one that, when referred to its grammatical sub
A dangling participle
ject, makes nonsense. Let us look at the following sentence:
la . *Not knowing British history,
history, the phenomenon of devotion to the
la.
m
onarchy might seem rather anachronistic.
anachronistic.
monarchy

knowing, we will see that its grammatical


If we look at the participle Not knowing,
phenom
subject is none other than the subject of the main verb, namely the phenom
o f devotion to the monarchy,
monarchy, although that was not what the writer
enon of
intended. There are several ways of correcting the sentence, two of the
most obvious being:
l b . To anyone
anyone not knowing British history the phenomenon of devotion to
lb.
the monarchy might seem rather anachronistic.
anachronistic.
lc . Not knowing British history one might find the phenomenon of devo
devo
lc.
tion to the monarchy rather anachronistic.
anachronistic.

A closely related phenomenon involves a special type of clause begin


begin
though::
ning with when, while or though
trying
ber of problems are likely to present themselves while trying
number
2a. *A num
to obtain a British visa.

Again the subject of while trying should be the same as the subject of the
verb.1 The sentence needs reformulating:
main verb.1
1 In conversation, however, such a sentence would be acceptable.

118
118

2b. A num
number
ber of problems are likely to present themselves to anyone
anyone
trying
trying to obtain a British visa.
2c. One is likely
likely to encounter a number of problems while trying to obtain
a British visa.

Suggested Exercises (44):

following sentences in any of


Correct the following
o f the ways suggested above:
11.. Examining the influence of TV one important question arises.
2. When visiting Britains
B ritains former colonies it is still possible to come across
many residences in the neoclassical style.
3. Observing the sheer variety of opinions on the subject, it is hard to see even
the beginnings of any consensus.
4. Having attained such a rank, it is common practice to abuse the power and
status that go with it.
5. Though called an eater
eater of time,
tim e, I would go so far as to claim that TV is a
necessary source of information as well as entertainment.
entertainment.

Of
Of course, there are a number of words and phrases in English that resem
resem
conjunctions
ble participles, but are really
or discourse markers, and to which
the above remarks do not apply - for example: assuming,
assuming, broadly speaking,
speaking,
failing that,
considering,
considering, depending on,
on, failing
that, generally speaking,
including, judg
judg
speaking, including,
ing by,
providing, seeing that,
by, owing to,
to, providing,
that, strictly speaking,
speaking, supposing etc.

Splices
By splice
splice is meant an element in the middle of a sentence whose relation
relation
ship whether to the preceding or subsequent part of the sentence is ob
ob
scure. Example:
a.
a. *Like Mother Teresa, devoting
devoting herself to the poor and dying.
dving.
Lady Diana also made caring for them her principal work.
work.

In this sentence it is unclear whether the subject of the participial clause


poor and dying is Mother Teresa or Lady Diana.
devoting herself
herself to the poor
119
119

If the subject of the clause is Mother Teresa, then the obvious correction is:
herself to the poor and dying,
b. Like Mother Teresa, who devoted herself

Lady Diana also made caring for them her principal work.

And if the subject of the clause is Lady Diana, then the sentence might be
rewritten as follows:
follows:
c. Like Mother Teresa, Lady Diana also made caring for the poor and dying
her principal work, devoting
devoting herself to them.

Otherwise use an alternative conjunction:


c. Sympathy and patience are essential for a prospective teacher,
vet they are not enough to start working at school.
d. While sympathy and patience are essential for a prospective teacher,
they are not enough to start working at school.

Suggested Exercise (46):

Improve the following


following sentences:
Suggested Exercises (45):

Identify the ambiguous elements of


o f the following
following sentences.
sen
sentences. Make the sen
tences less ambiguous:

11.. The only way to make money is to set up a private practice, however, only
some doctors are successful.
2. Many answers have been put forward. The question is a tricky one, however,
in this essay an attempt will be made to examine it.

L
1. People generally have very inconsistent attitudes to sports. While most people
2.

3.

4.

5.

admire
adm ire sportsmen, watching them on TV, they all too rarely move from the
front of the screen.
With
W
ith a freely elected government in office and the free market taking hold, at
long last, the country is looking forward to the kind of prosperity that the West
has long enjoyed.
Although it may at first be difficult to follow the gist, as many masterpieces
often use a very sophisticated language, the fact that you have read one such
work will give you a great deal of
o f satisfaction.
When
W hen the countries of the East started to turn towards democracy, freedom of
speech, press and conscience, the division into eastern and western Europe
still survived in peoples minds.
Anyone who wishes to become a successful practitioner, invests in his
education, never ceases to increase his qualifications, is devoted to all his
patients.
patients.

A related error involves the word however placed between two clauses:
a. *Sympathy and patience are essential for a prospective teacher, however,
however.
they are not enough to start working at school.

The position of however in the above example also sows confusion, since
at a first reading it is not obvious that the word belongs to the second clause.
Best put a full stop after teacher:
b. Sympathy and patience are essential for a prospective teacher. However.
However,
they are not enough to start working at school.
120
120

Unclear Antecedents (I)


A very common error is to use pronouns and possessive adjectives that are
ambiguous because they have no obvious antecedents, as in the following
example:
la. *Teachers should be ready to answer all kinds of questions from the
students. They may sometimes be really strange, but so can the students.

questions, and
Here it is not immediately obvious that they refers to questions,
hence the second sentence is unintentionally amusing. (The sentences need
to be reread for the most likely meaning to emerge.) A slight change of
pronoun makes the antecedent clearer.
lb. ...These may sometimes be really strange, but so can the students.
lb.
Alternatively, the word questions
questions may be repeated:
.. .These questions may sometimes be really strange....
lc. ...These

Careless use of the possessive adjectives its and their may also give
rise to confusion:
121
121

2a. *Responsibility involves patience and an appropriate attitude to


students and their abilities. Unfortunately not every teacher is aware of
their existence.

Here it is unclear whether the phrase their existence refers to students, stu
stu
abilities,
even
or
patience
and
dents
an appropriate attitude. Better would
dents
patience
be to rewrite the second sentence so as to make the antecedent explicit:
2b. ...Unfortunately not every teacher is aware of the existence of those
abilities.

A particularly widespread error is the use of the pronouns this and that
in a manner that may cause confusion, as in the following example:
3a. *
Apart from providing recreation, books are a stimulus to our
*Apart
imagination and creativity. W
Wee cannot underestimate this.

Suggested Exercises (47):

following sentences:
Identify and eliminate the ambiguities in the following
justified?
M any people think that everything can be bought for money. Is this justified?
11.. Many
Or are the most important things in life outside the realm of money?
Wee do not always remember that it is a great blessing when everyone in our
2. W
W e should appreciate this.
this.
family feels all right. We
3. Commuter trains that link various suburbs seem to be the pet aversion of
countless multitudes. People complain that they are late, overcrowded and
dirty; in winter the windows leak, while in summer they are jammed.
4. Some may claim that our lives are governed by forces outside our control, but
this is simply not true.
5. We
W e often speak disparagingly of
o f people by comparing them to pigs, even
cleanliness.
though they are known for their love of cleanliness.

Here it is far from clear what this refers to. If


If we go for the most likely
interpretation, then the following would be an improvement:
3b. ...We cannot underestimate this basic truth.'
truth.1

In 3b the pronoun this has been turned into a phrase that is both explicit
and appropriately sententious.

Unclear Antecedents (II). The Pronoun It.

Another frequently encountered error is when the pronouns that and


this are used in a manner that is not so much obscure as clumsy, as in the
following example:

A frequent mistake is to use pronouns, especially it, without any clear an


an
tecedent. The result of such a mistake is to make the language ambiguous
and even unintelligible. Let us look at the following example:

4a. *Many well-to-do people are simply too lazy to study, or else regard
that as unimportant for their lives.

In 4a what that refers to is not immediately obvious, and hence needs to be


replaced by a more explicit expression, e.g. such an activity or the like:
4b.
4b. Many well-to-do people are simply too lazy to study, or else regard
such an activity
activity as unim
portant for their lives.
unimportant

Of
Of course the above examples are far from exhausting the possible ways of
circumventing such problems. Often it is only a matter of common sense
and developing a feel
feel for language. Cf. also p. 123
123 (The Pronoun It),
It),
below.
1

fact is equally possible.


1 The phrase this basic fact

122
122

1. *To the southwest of Snowdonia National Park the mountainous terrain


1.
gradually gives way to a hilly coastal belt, ending in the Lleyn
Promontory, which juts out into Cardigan Bay for some 20 miles.
I t is an area of remarkable scenic diversity.
diversity.
It

pro
The meaning of the second sentence can only be guessed at. Does the pro
noun it refer to Snowdonia National Park, the hilly coastal belt, the Lleyn
Promontory, or even Cardigan Bay? All these interpretations are possible.
Hence, it is necessary to rephrase the sentence by spelling out the real
subject:
la.
lb.
lc .
lc.

The coastal belt is an area of remarkable scenic diversity.


The Lleyn Promontory is an area of remarkable scenic diversity.
The whole area is characterised by a remarkable scenic diversity.

lc , a paraphrase has been used.


In the last of the above alternatives, lc,
123
123

Yet even when the antecedent is perfectly clear, English very often avoids
alter
it in favour of this, that, or some paraphrase. Compare the following alter
natives:
2a. Many long for a lasting peace settlement in the Middle East, but
whether it is feasible or not is a different matter.
matter.
2b. ...but whether that is feasible or not is a different matter.
matter.
2b.
2c. ...but whether such a thing
thing / scenario is feasible or not is a different
matter.
matter.

In the last of the above alternatives, 2c, a paraphrase has again been used,
a stylistic preference that is very typical of more formal written English.

11. So far we have mentioned the Tower of


o f London, Buckingham Palace, the
11.
Millennium Dome and the churches and museums. Impressive as it may
seem, it does not exhaust Londons attractions.
attractions.
12. Rubbish is seldom collected and there are some forlorn buildings between the
12.
castle and the main square. It is an eyesore, and not only for tourists.
13. Amy did not even try to understand her father or to point out what was
13.
wrong. It could have given new life to their relationship.
relationship.
obliging
introduced
firms to set aside some of
14.
Legal
regulations
should
be
14.
their profits for the further training of employees. It would make employers
more aware of
o f the importance of professional development.
development.
are
few
ready
but
to admit it.
15. Many people are prejudiced,
15.
16. Parents imagine their child will be following their example. Unfortunately it
16.
happens very rarely, as youngsters generally choose other people to imitate.

Suggested Exercises (48):

Notes:
Additional Notes:

Can the pronoun


pronoun it be replaced by something better in the following
following sen
sen
tences? Occasionally a paraphrase
paraphrase of
o f several words may be necessary.
necessary.

i.
A most frequent error is to use the phrase do it as a paraphrase of some
previous verb, as in the following instance:

11.. Fewer and fewer schools pay attention to artistic subjects, such as art, music
and craft. It is mainly because schools lack the most basic resources.
2. Most
M ost of
o f the Teutonic castles lie within 30km of each other. It is supposed to
have something to do with the way the Teutonic Order communicated.
3. People often lose their heads when they are in large groups. It can also be
observed in many other species of the animal kingdom.
kingdom.
4. Ms Prithworthy had no talent for teaching, as her classes were dull and
boring. It made many students play truant.
truant.
5. By his own account, Mr
M r Jones remembers his daughter as being nicest at the
age of four. It speaks volumes about his possessive attitude.
6. Putting lives at risk is simply unacceptable, no matter whether a strike is
legal or not. Those doctors who forget about it should ask themselves
whether they have chosen the right profession.
7. Whether
W hether we lose our traditions in the face of Americanization depends on us.
But as far as I am able to judge, it is just impossible.
8. Our headmaster did not like boys looking like hippies, and he showed it on
every possible occasion.

9. People spend much of their lives in front of the TV, and there seems to be
nothing abnormal in it.
0. Peter
110.
Petertravels
travelsaround
aroundthe
theworld
worldatatleast
leasttwice
twiceaayear,
year,but
seemtoto
notseem
butititdoes
doesnot
tire him.
him.

124
124

way.
*TV informs, but it does not always do it in an objective way.

so.
In the above sentence it needs to change into so.
ii.
The phrases It is so and Is it so? are hardly typical of formal written English:
Compare the following alternatives:
^Parents are no longer role models for their children. Why
W hy is it so?
a. *Parents
b.

...Why
...Why

is that the case?

In written English the second alternative is infinitely preferable to the first.


iii.
*it is so because, *it
*it is so since, *it
*it happens so because, and
The phrases *it
Compare
*it happens so since are hardly English.
the following alternatives:
*it
a. *Our first-time foreign visitor is likely to have many surprises when he
crosses the border. It is so because our country was for many years
isolated from others.
b. ...This is because our country was....
c. ...the reason being that our country was....

Only b and c are correct.

125
125

IV.

*it means that is hardly English. Compare the following sen


sen
The phrase *it
tences:
a. *Dreams should be interpreted as signifying the opposite of what they
appear to signify. It means that if one dreams about winning money,
one will end up poor.
b. This means that.
that.
c. What this means is that....

Of these alternatives, a is impossible.


Of

Un-English Syntax
I: Verb and Object
Generally English tries not to place any words between verb and object.
Compare the following alternatives:
la.
l a . *We see very
very often such sights.
sights,
l b . We
W e very often see such sights.
sights.
lb.

lb reads like English.


Only lb

Suggested Exercises (49):

Improve the following


following sentences:
11.. Such eyesores represent generally the tasteless architecture of the past.
2. Few politicians enjoy in reality any privacy.
privacy.
3. The young generation does have role models that influence profoundly
teenagers.
teenagers.
4. Those are the boys who killed in cold blood a two-year-old child.
5. A good teacher can make you adore for example physics, even if you loathed
the subject sincerely before.
6. They want for their children the best.

126

7. The news is full of various conflicts tormenting now that continent.


8. A friend whom Diana had trusted made out of publishing untrue or half-true
stories about her a small fortune.
exhibits.
9. One may see here many interesting exhibits.
10.
10. He says that while he likes the USA, he can do in Central and Eastern Europe
much more.
more.
11.
11. TV affects tremendously our lives.
12. Man
M an usually considers himself
him self superior, calling himself
him self conceitedly homo
homo
12.
sapiens.
13.
13. John realises perfectly well this fact.
14. If you were to ask such people, they would probably put after a m
om ents
moments
hesitation money at the top of their list of priorities.
15.
15. We have improved considerably our safety precautions.
precautions.

II: Main and Subordinate Clauses


When the main clause of a sentence is preceded by a subordinate clause, it
is not likely to begin with anything other than the subject of the main verb.
sentences:
Let us compare the following alternative sentences:
la . *Now that the bureaucratic problems have been overcome, this spring
la.
married,
theyll be getting married.
lb.
lb . Now that the bureaucratic problems have been overcome, theyll be
getting married this spring.

Now that the bu


la
la is hardly English, since an initial subordinate clause ((Now
bu
reaucratic hurdles have been overcome) and the subject of the main verb
{they)
(they) are separated by the phrase this spring.
re
spring. If, however, we were to re
move the first clause, the second clause of la
la could remain unchanged:
This spring theyll be getting married.
married.

The same remarks might be made of the following alternative sentences:


m ost cases it is
2a. *Though we are aware that appearances can lie, in most
difficult not to judge by them.
2b. Though we are aware that appearances can lie, it is difficult in most
cases not to judge by them.

(it)
In 2a an initial subordinate clause and the subject of the main verb (it)
are separated by the phrase in most cases.
cases. If, however, we were to re-

127

clause, the second clause of 2a could remain un


move the thoughthough-clause,
un
changed:
changed:
them.
In most cases it is difficult not to judge by them.

3a. *However eager


eager our foreigner
foreigner mav have been to visit our country, after
using anv means of public transport he will want to go back home.
using

Here the sentence is improved by changing the position of the second sub
sub
ordinate clause:
3b. However eager our foreigner may have been to visit our country, he
using anv means of public transport, want to go back home.
will, after using
home.

Suggested Exercises (50):

Improve the following


following sentences in the same way:
1. Although the RSC is perceived as exclusively producing Shakespeare, in fact
1.
periods.
their programme includes classical theatre of all periods.

2. As we grow up and face more and more moral dilemmas, no longer can we
condemn such behaviour.
com
3. Had it not been for such events, perhaps we would now be living in a com
pletely different reality.
W hen we cross the threshold of parenthood, simultaneously we cross the
4. When
threshold of the generation gap.
W hile in the initial stages training was focussed mainly on traditional
5. While
banking, gradually the course came to include other areas.
6. Although the majority of people have chosen to live in small units, in some
regions there is still a tendency towards preserving extended families.
7. As I am not a music lover, frequently my dislike of concerts has led to
serious quarrels between us both.
12 countries in Washington
W ashington in 1949,
1949, initially NATO was a mili
mili
8. Founded by 12
tary alliance against the USSR.
9. As most would agree, to a certain extent it depends on ourselves in what way
we are influenced by the mass media.
media.
10. If a child is deprived of the possibility of imitating grown-ups, as an adult he
10.
or she will probably find it difficult to perform the role of parent.
11. Although he offers a plausible theory, unfortunately he sometimes borders on
11.
fantasy.
12. When
W hen it comes to politics, after many years of unbridled capitalism our
12.
country seems finally to have established its own middle way.
way.
13. Sad as it may seem, so far nothing has been done to eliminate this problem.
13.

Suggested Exercise (51):


following sentences:
Improve the following
1.
1. Despite the fact that we had spent fifty years in a prison, when the walls
finally came down it turned out that the dream of instant paradise on earth had
not come true for everyone.
2. Although a dog may be cheerful and wag its tail, however much it tries it will
never laugh at our jokes or understand us.

Additional Note:
Note:

The problems discussed in this section are especially frequent with sen
sen
tences beginning with although. Sometimes such a sentence may benefit
from a complete rephrasal. Compare the following alternatives:
a. *The Wettins are among Europes oldest dynastic families.
families.
Although the end of their rule came with the revolution of 1918,
1918, despite
their dethronement the family continued to live in Saxony until 11945.
945.
b. ...The end of their rule came with the revolution of 1918,
1918, yet despite
their dethronement the family continued to live in Saxony until 1945.
1945.

Ill: Composite Attributive Expressions


One particularly common error involves a composite expression being made
to function as a kind of attributive adjective, as in the following:
la . **The universitys tennis courts are part of the campus, while the
la.
leaving
leaving

much to be desired swimming


swimming pool is situated near the city

centre.
centre.

A main clause preceded by two subordinate clauses should be avoided


wherever possible:
128

Here the phrase leaving much to be desired must go elsewhere, and the
sentence needs to be rephrased in accordance with English idiom:
129

lb . The universitys tennis courts are part of the campus, while the
lb.
swimming pool, one that sadly
sadlv leaves much to be desired, is situated
near the city centre.
centre.

The mistake exemplified by la


l a leaves at the very least an impression that the
writer is incompetent in English; at worst such writing becomes unintelligible.

increas
3b. ...Young and hungry for knowledge, students are becoming increas
teachers.
ingly critical of their teachers.

In 3b the sentence has become left-handed.1


left-handed.1
Suggested Exercises (52):

Generally speaking, composite adjectives in the attributive position con


con
form to very few types, above all the following:
1.
1. set phrase containing one or more nouns often linked by hyphens:
state-of-the-art technology
tongue-in-cheek
ton
gue-in-cheek humour
a larger-than-life portrayal

2. adjective or participle preceded and modified by an adverb:


environmentally
environmentally friendly
friendly technology
falling rate of inflation
a rapidly falling

{but
(but not: **a falling rapidly rate of inflation).

Whether a composite expression is acceptable is determined primarily


by usage. Thus, for example, we may say that an artists portrayal of his
subject is
is larger than life, and we may say that it is full of life. Yet
while it is correct to speak of a
a larger-than-life portrayal, it is hardly
possible to speak of **a full-of-life portrayal.
Thus, while many composite expressions may be perfectly acceptable
in the predicative position, they may be impossible in the attributive one.
Compare the following alternatives:
2a. *This is not only a controversial but also a difficult to define phenom
phenom
enon.
2b. This is a phenomenon that is not only controversial but also difficult
to define.

Only the second sentence, with difficult to define in the predicative posi
posi
tion, is grammatical.
Syntactic errors involving composite attributive expressions can some
some
times be avoided by the addition of punctuation:
3a. *On our campuses things are beginning to change. Young and hungry
knowledge students are becoming increasingly critical of their
for knowledge
teachers.

130
130

following sentences that violate English syntactic


Identify the words in the following
English:
patterns;
patterns; rewrite the sentences in correct English:
1. The famous, surrounded by parks Grand Hotel usually hosts international
1.
pop-stars.
2. Development is hampered by the dominant everywhere bureaucracy.
3. The Popes remarkable and impossible
im possible to characterise personality works
dignitaries.
wonders with various foreign dignitaries.
4. In our country such improving their qualifications teachers are very unique.
5. The Internet can be used to disseminate forbidden and often harmful in some
way material.
individual.
6. John was a sensitive, very easy to hurt individual.
7. This reasonable in its assumptions economic policy led to widespread
impoverishment..
impoverishment
8. Many city dwellers dream of living in a quiet, close to nature village with
landscapes.
fields, meadows and unspoilt by civilisation landscapes.
9. In their eyes Maureen is still a perfect, obedient to her parents daughter.
10. The located there Toyota factory is a principal source of employment.
10.
11. Such immature idealists will one day become callous, egotistic and loving
11.
only themselves people.
might
12. Looking at the littered with rubbish lawns and dilapidated houses, one m
ight
12.
suppose that our town has no future.
birds.
13. Winter
W inter is presaged by swarms of leaving for warmer climes birds.
13.
misery.
14. The mentioned above history teacher was always making our lives a misery.
14.
15. This scintillating and skilfully m
anipulating the mass media man
m an is the
manipulating
15.
ultimate politician.
16. Parents often find it difficult to accept the growing with age independence of
16.
children.
their children.
technology.
17.
factories are full of obsolete, imported from the former USSR technology.
Many
17.
for Writers
1 This construction is dealt with in some detail in Part II of my English for
Writers and
Left- and Right-Handed Sentences).
Translators (cf. Left-

131
131

18. To make matters worse, there have been complaints from dissatisfied with
their low salaries railwaymen, who are threatening to go on strike.
19. He was famous for performing the first in Britain heart transplant.

Additional Note:
Note:

opin
Sometimes syntax may be violated by a common phrase like in my opin
ion.
ion. Compare the following alternatives:
4a. *Let me now turn to in mv opinion the most disturbing mistake made
by parents.
4b. Let me now turn to what is. in mv opinion, the most disturbing
mistake made by parents.
4c. Let me now turn to what is perhaps the most disturbing mistake made
by parents.

consid
4a is wrong, while 4b and 4c are correct. In practice, 4c might be consid
ered a more idiomatic and natural alternative to 4b.

IV: Parallel Expressions


English does not generally express emphasis by juxtaposing two parallel
expressions which are unlinked by any conjunction and separated by a
comma. Compare the following alternatives:
la.
l a . *We hate to tell our parents about our problems,
problem s, difficulties.
Wee hate to tell our parents about our problems and difficulties.
lb.
lb . W

Sentence la
la completely violates English idiom, while lb
lb is correct.
The most frequent form of stylistic error is that exemplified by la, i.e.
with two nominal expressions, but the error may also involve two predi
predi
cate adjectives. Compare the following alternatives:
2a. *Feeling useless, helpless as she did severely undermined
the princesss mental health.
2b. Feeling useless and helpless as she did severely undermined
princess s mental health.
the princesss

Again, only 2b is correct.


But English idiom also generally avoids parallel expressions that con
con
sist of two clauses, as in the following:
following:

132

3a. *Literature often illustrates certain basic truths,


truths, reveals important
mysteries.
mysteries.

3b. Literature often illustrates certain basic truths and reveals important
mysteries.

Again it is only 3b that is in conformity with English idiom.


When three expressions are brought together, the last of the three is
generally linked by and or or (X, Y and Z). An especially frequent error
among non-native writers of English is to confuse this structure with the
one exemplified by la:
4a. *Literature communicates feelings,
feelings, experiences, and provides
important evidence of human thought.
4b. Literature communicates feelings and experiences, and provides
important evidence of human thought.

Of the above alternatives only 4b is correct.


Of
There are few significant exceptions to the above remarks, cases where
it is sometimes possible to juxtapose two parallel expressions without
a conjunction. One is when the parallel relationship is underlined by means
of anaphora (rhetorical repetition). Compare the following alternatives:
5a. *Cumbria with its beautiful mountains, picturesque landscapes, has
long been a mecca for tourists.
5b. Cumbria with its beautiful mountains and picturesque landscapes has
long been a mecca for tourists.
5c. Cumbria with its beautiful mountains, its picturesque landscapes, has
long been a mecca for tourists.

pictur
beautiful mountains, pictur
Sentence 5a juxtaposes two parallel phrases ((beautiful
)
way
in la.
esque landscapes
exemplified
same
already
landscapes) in the
unidiomatic
Sentence 5b, which like lb
lb uses the conjunction and, is a more obvious
sole
formulation. Sentence 5c, by contrast, joins the same parallel phrases sole
ly by means of rhetorical repetition of its. Yet while 5c is correct, it differs
from 5a and 5b by being of a far higher register, which narrows the range
of suitable contexts.
- that are virtually
brief ones Another case involves clauses generally brief
self-contained sentences, and where some counterpoise is intended:

6. I travelled there by bus, Susan arrived by taxi.

In the above sentence a semicolon is, of course, equally possible.

133

Suggested Exercises (53):

following sentences:
Correct the following
11.. TV influences our feelings, emotions, changes our social attitudes.
2. There must be a good atmosphere in class, so that students can take part in
discussions, express their opinions on the subject.
subject.
M edical advances have saved countless lives. It is enough to mention the
3. Medical
transplantation of organs, the invention of the artificial heart.
M any people would prefer to lie, be dishonest, in order to avoid an unpleas
unpleas
4. Many
ant situation.
o f the TV causes headaches, backaches, and is bad for the eyes.
5. Sitting in front of
6. I am going to discuss the features of a perfect teacher, explain which of them
inbom and which acquired.
acquired.
are inborn
7. Our
O ur world will soon become more cohesive, standardised, and will be
governed by omnipresent commercial forces.
Fam ily life helps people to appreciate such things as love, friendship;
8. Family
it teaches people how to respect others.
others.
We m
ust face these problems, try to understand them.
must
9. We
10. The Internet informs us about the present as well as the past, gives us a clear
10.
world.
idea of what is going on in the world.
1. The roads here are narrow, full of holes, and are constantly undergoing
111.
repair.
repair.
12. Each day the minister
m inister has meetings, consultations, he sends letters and faxes.
12.
13. It is impossible to improve the world without any profound changes in the
13.
way we perceive, understand, and in the way we are educated.
14.
14. The situation of complete misunderstanding, non-communication, leads to
deadlock.
15. Often
O ften readers identify with literary characters, share their emotions. Indeed,
15.
behaviour.
they sometimes even imitate them, copy their behaviour.
16. We
W e have similar views, interests; we listen to the same kinds of music, watch
16.
Hollywood blockbusters.
blockbusters.
17. There is seldom any clear rule, direction that we must take in life.
17.

V: Active vs. Passive


In English syntax sentences seldom begin with the direct object, the few
following:
exceptions being exemplified by the following:
134
134

Relatives are given us by God. Friends we can choose for ourselves.


John loves Renaissance music. Baroque he absolutely
absolutely hates.

In these exceptions, however, the direct object ((Friends


re
Friends and Baroque re
spectively) is immediately followed by the subject (we and he).
he). Contrast
com
this with the following alternative sentences, the first of each being com
pletely un-English:
la.
la . **A great influence on Polish society has the Church.
Church,
lb .
lb.
The Church has a great influence on Polish society.

2a. **The directors childhood experiences reflects his latest film.


2b.
The directors childhood experiences are reflected in his latest film.
3a. **His literary talents ruined
mined alcohol and drugs.
mined bv alcohol and dmgs.
3b.
His literary talents were ruined
drugs.
4a. **King Philips political objectives realised his son Alexander the Great.
King Philips political objectives were realised bv his son Alexan
4b.
Alexan
der the Great.

In lb
lb grammar is restored by bringing the subject forward to the beginning
(The Church),
Church), the word order being subject + verb + object (a great influ
influ
ence).
ence).
In 2b, 3b and 4b a different method is used: the word order remains essen
essen
tially unchanged, but the verb-form has changed from active into passive
voice (are reflected,
reflected, were ruined,
ruined, were realised)-, what was the object (The
director
politi
directorss childhood experiences,
experiences, His literary talents,
talents, King Philips
Philip s politi
cal objectives) has now become the subject of the verb.

Suggested Exercises (54):

following sentences so as to make them English:


Rewrite the following
11.. The high academic level of the book guarantee specialists of
o f international
standing, who are the authors of the respective sections.
sections.
2. The eastern edge of the Vistula delta form the Elbl^g
Elblqg Highlands and the
Lowlands of Warmia.
3. The material illustrates a set of twelve diagrams.
diagrams.
4. The decision to
Quodvultdeus.
to build the basilica made Abbot Quodvultdeus.
55.. At the Olympic Games each country may represent only one man and one woman.

135
135

1
2a. Most
M ost would dread such an outcome. On the other hand,
hand, some would
welcome it.
M ost would dread such an outcome. Nonetheless, some would
2b. Most
welcome it.

Rhetorical Enhancers:
Conjunctions and Discourse Markers

- but not a comma - can be substituted for


In both 2a and 2b a semicolon the full stop.
Now compare these sentences with the following (2c-d), where although
is used:
Although some would welcome it.
2c. ** Most would dread such an outcome. Although
2d.
Most would dread such an outcome, although
although some would welcome it.
it;

Concession and Contrast

2c is ungrammatical, since although is made to function there as an adverb


intro
introducing a self-contained sentence instead of as a conjunction intro
possible.
ducing a subordinate clause. In neither 2c nor 2d is a semicolon possible.

The following words and expressions are widely confused:

B:

although / though
Example:

A:

although / though

though we were utterly exhausted.


3a. We finally reached the summit, though
3b. We finally reached the summit, albeit we were utterly exhausted.
3c. We finally reached the summit, albeit in a state of utter exhaustion.

but, nevertheless, yet


yet etc.
etc.

Example:
la.
l a . Though
Though it was raining cats and dogs, we decided to set out.
lb.
l b . It was raining cats and dogs, though we decided to set out.
The conjunctions though and although are used to qualify the main utter
utter
ance of the sentence, which is generally the main clause. Thus in sentence
la
la the focus is on the second clause {we
(we decided to set out),
out), and in sentence
lb
lb the focus is on the first clause {It
(It was mining
raining cats and dogs).
dogs).
Yet is a stronger version of but:
but:

lc.
lc . It was raining cats and dogs, yet we decided to set out.

Here, the second clause (yet we decided to set out) has received more em
em
phasis than the first clause.
A frequent grammar mistake is to make although function as an adver
adver
bial link, as if it were like nonetheless, nevertheless, on the other hand
etc. Compare the following sentences (2a-b):

136
136

albeit

II

Strictly speaking, each of the above sentences is grammatically correct.


contem
However, the structure exemplified by 3b is seldom met with in contem
though.
porary British English. Albeit is much more formal than though.
Albeit serves to weaken the force of a preceding utterance. Compare
sentences:
the following two sentences:
4a. This category of teachers, albeit small, is exceptionally harmful.
though small, is exceptionally harmful.
4b. This category of teachers, though

The second alternative is to be preferred to the first, since in 4a albeit does


words. 1
not qualify the preceding words.1
1 By the same token while albeit may begin a clause, it hardly ever begins a sentence:
sentence:
3d. ** Albeit we were utterly exhausted, we finally reached the summit.
summit.
summit.
3e. Albeit in a state of utter exhaustion, we finally reached the summit.
unusual.
Sentence 3d is un-English and 3e most unusual.

137

7. While many people have good job prospects, many more do not.
7.
8. While John is helpful, Peter is not at all helpful.

C:
whereas / while

by contrast

Look at the following sentences (5a-d), whose meaning and emphasis are
much the same:
5a.
5a.
5b.
5c.
5d.
5d.

John is helpful, w
hile/w
/whereas
while
hereas Peter is not at all helpful.
helpful.
John is helpful. BY
Bv contrast. Peter is not at all helpful.
by contrast,
John is helpful. Peter, bv
contrast, is not at all helpful.
helpful.
by contrast is not at all helpful.
While
W hile John is helpful, Peter bv
helpful.

5a-d all express a contrast between two equivalent ideas. The adverbial
by contrast is generally preceded by a full stop or semicolon, as in 5b
and 5c above. It can be sandwiched within the clause or sentence, as in 5c
and 5d.
A frequent grammatical mistake is to make while / whereas function as
an adverb:
5e. **John is helpful. Whereas Peter is not at all helpful.

The above mistake is similar to that exemplified by 2c (with although).


although).

D:
while

whereas

There is sometimes a difference in nuance between these two conjunc


conjunc
tions, which are widely regarded as interchangeable. Both can introduce
contrasts, but while is less emphatic, often meaning little more than and.
Compare the following alternatives:
6a. Lady Diana died in a car crash on 31 August, while Mother
M other Teresa
died of natural causes a few days later. The former dressed like a film
Star,
star, whereas the latter preferred a white sari to smart clothes.
6b. Lady Diana died in a car crash on 31 August, and Mother
M other Teresa died
of natural causes a few days later. The former dressed like a film star;
by contrast the latter preferred a white sari to smart clothes.1
bv
clothes.1

Except in legal contexts whereas does not generally begin the sentence in
contemporary English:
1

1 Of
Of course, in 6a whereas is possible instead of while
while,, and while is possible instead of
whereas,, but they are not optimal.
whereas

138
138

While is
In these two examples, whereas would be highly untypical. While
weaker than (although.
(al)though.
E:

despite

irrespective of

Example:
clemency.
9. He was finally executed despite pleas for clemency.
sex.
everyone
of age
10. The soldiers
The soldiers
irrespective
everyone
killedkilled
irrespective
ofor
age
or sex.
10.

Despite means notwithstanding. Irrespective of


of means without
without regard
for.
Suggested Exercises (55):

paying especial attention to


Supply the words in the following
following sentences,
sentences, paying
punctuation:
punctuation:
had totowait
for
waitfor
-othershad
operations,----------others
11.. Only emergency cases underwent operations,
the strike to end.
end.
are
humansare
d o,----------humans
2. Animals simply do what their nature tells them to do,
able to curb their instincts, to think prior to acting.
3. Anyone will agree that there is some truth in the saying that the best things in
free need
forfree
life and
and for
need to
to
fre e,----------the
the terms
thingsin
in life
terms best
best things
life are for free,
be defined.
defined.
only states
not only
states
M andela as a very wise man.
m a n.----------not
4. Thus I regard Nelson Mandela
pre
men and public figures need to display wisdom. This quality is also a pre
requisite for many other walks of life.
sterile.----------we
-we
5. Without families and friends life seems incomparably sterile.
relationships.
often need to sacrifice a part of ourselves for the sake of relationships.
country has
every country
6. its
----------more
English,every
arelearning
learningEnglish,
has its
people are
morepeople
moreand
and more
unlikely.
own distinctive culture and traditions, which makes total integration unlikely.
never
changes.
----------the
politiciansthe
ofofthethepoor
thelotlot
poor
never
changes.
politicians
intentions ofof
the good
good intentions
7. ----------the
been scrupulous
about about
minister
has always
has always
been scrupulous
prime minister
outgoing prime
8.the outgoing
style.
maintaining appearances, the new one is known for his highly abrasive style.
contrast
by
9. ----------all
stay
the
girls
had
to
be
back
home
by
ten,
Peter
Peter
by
ten,
could
be
contrast
could
stay
back home by
all the girls had to
wanted.
out as long as he wanted.

139

thought-patterns propagated by the media,


10. We
W e acquire thought-pattems
m edia,---------10.

unconsciously.
unconsciously.
11.. Ms K. urged me to apply for the Academy,
A cadem y,----------Mr
-MrZ.
me
Z.congratulated
congratulatedme
11
university.
on passing the entrance exams to university.
12. Recently there has been some rapprochement between the two presidents,
12.
tentative.
tentative.
-the others
13.
13. Some of the unemployed showed real initiative,
initiative,----------the
no
did no
others did
thing but complain and wait for the state to help them.
them.
14.
14. It is possible for very elderly people to remain mentally alert
alert----------------age.
-age.
15.
15. To conclude, our society would certainly not like to become completely
-there are
Americanized,
aresome
somepeople
amongus
peopleamong
A m ericanized,----------there
uswho
likethat
whowould
would like
that
to happen.
16.
16. A silly Venezuelan series depicts the melodramatic and unreal lifestyle
desired by most frustrated housewives.
, the
housew ives.---------the young
generation seeks
young generation
seeks
role models in the positively awful Beverley
Beverley Hills 90210.
-the
17.
17. The poor are often unable to break out of this vicious circle,
circle,----------the rich
rich
them.
do not seem to be willing to help them.
18.
18. Frequent and bloody battles are to be found in both environments.
environm ents.----------it
-it
is worth noting that animal conflicts do not take as heavy a toll as those
between human beings.
19. Children may even kill themselves trying to imitate Superman.
Superm an.----------tobe
be
19.
-to
quite fair, not all TV programmes for kids are so terrible.
terrible.
20. In causing the deaths of several patients,
-unintentionally,the
patients,----------unintentionally,
the doctors
doctors
went beyond the limits of
o f legal protest.
protest.
21.. Women
W omen are often banned from participating in politics,----------unofficially.
21
politics,-unofficially.
22. ----------not
avoided,making
mistakesmay
be avoided,
not all
allmistakes
maybe
makingup
upfor
forthem
themisisessential.
essential.

23. Her
H er Majesty
M ajesty is not an intellectual and she avoids discussions that get too
abstract.
sheisisbeyond
beyond aadoubt
doubtaahighly
ab stract.--------she
highlyintelligent
intelligentwoman
andvery
very
woman and
knowledgeable at that.
24. Some people appear to be extremely intelligent,
intelligent,----------others
-othersonly
onlyaspire
aspiretoto
be highly esteemed for possessing such characteristics.
characteristics.
-the
25. Western
W estern Europe was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church,
C hurch,------------the
East was under the influence of the Orthodox Church.
-little.
26. In twenty countries some polio transmission has been recorded,
recorded,----------little.
27. Such stories,
-theythrow
stories,----------they
nolight
onthe
throwno
light on
Hinduism,do
thesublimity
sublimityof
ofHinduism,
do
give an idea of the colourful background.
background.
28. The Church has compensated some of the victims of priestly abuse,
ab use,---------in return for a promise of silence.

140
140

Similarity and Contrast


The following are various words and phrases which may come in useful
for expressing similarities and differences:

1. as and like
1.
When we wish to say that something is similar to something else, we may
use as and like depending on the grammar of the sentence. Like resembles
a preposition and is followed by a noun or pronoun:
1. There will never be another singer like Elvis.
1.
2. Like John, Peter has also been to Cambridge.
Cambridge.

As is a conjunction; it introduces a clause, with a subject and a verb.


3. Julian loves going to the opera, as his father once did.
4. Jack emigrated to America, as his brother had done years before.

3 and 4 the use of


of like instead of as would be considered informal or
In 3
sub-standard by many.
2. as in, as with, as against

As is also used with nominal phrases, especially those introduced by the


prepositions in and with:
5. In cinema, as in literature, we can come across masterpieces.
masterpieces.
5.
1917, as in 1789,
1789, a revolution was to change Europe.
6. In 1917,

As with often means just as I / you / we etc. have done with:


7. With this option, as with the other one, we must proceed very carefully.
8. As with the previous essays, this one is to be handed in by Friday morning.

As against means compared with:


with:
9. John swam six lengths as against Peters twelve.

was) the case with


3. as in the case of..., as is ((was)
These expressions have very similar meanings and functions. As in the

141
141

16.
16. Hitherto my discussion has focussed on healthy economies. Let me
bv wav of contrast turn to one that is in deep trouble....

myself
and I myself
o f means for example, but with the special nuance and
case of
can think of one instance of this happening, namely....:
10. Tourists are sometimes attacked in our public places, as in the case of
10.
a visiting American delegate who was robbed at the airport.

o f :
as is (was) true of:
As is (was) the case with means as

7. ju
just
so...
st as... so...
This construction is used to illustrate the parallel nature of two things. Just
as and so each begin a clause:

11. Many people left the concert feeling very disappointed, as was the
11.
case with my neighbour, who says he has never seen such a bad
performance.1
ance.1
perform

17.
17. Just as the Serbs once made life miserable for the Albanians, so
the Albanians are now making life miserable for many Serbs.

In neither sentence 10 nor sentence 11 is as with possible.

8. if...
then...
if... then...

4. in contrast to and unlike

This construction is often used to juxtapose two things in order to empha


empha
sise the latter:

These expressions are almost interchangeable. In contrast to is more formal:


12a. Unlike Peter, John loves the idea of travelling.
12a.
- unlike Peter.
12b. John loves the idea of travelling 12b.
travelling.
13a. John in contrast to Peter loves the idea of travelling.
13a.
- in contrast to Peter.
13b. John loves the idea of travelling 13b.

18.
M arys essay is good, then Johns is absolutely excellent.
18. If Marys

9. by the same token


This means for
con
for the same reason. It is used especially in making a con
sciously logical deduction:

5. on the contrary and by contrast

19.
19. You say you have nothing against people enjoying a glass of wine.
Then bv the same token you must tolerate others who prefer marijuana.
marijuana.

These expressions are regularly confused.

By contrast expresses a contrast between two things or people:

10. Similarly means in


in the same way:
20. The President was greeted by huge crowds of
o f people on his arrival in
Tel Aviv, where thousands waved American flags. Similarly
Similarly when he
landed in Kuwait on the second leg of his tour he was met
m et by
enthusiastic multitudes.

by contrast,
contrast, loves
14. Peter likes jogging but hates swimming. John, by
14.
jogging.
swimming but hates jogging.

On the contrary means but in reality, and is often used to contradict a


widespread opinion:
contrary, he is
15. So you consider our chairman honest, do you? On the contrary,
15.

a liar and a cheat.


cheat.

o f contrast
6. by way of
This phrase is used especially in transitions from one subject to another:
(E. Partridge,
tautology
for like
(E. Partridge,
for like
tautology
as an
intolerable
intolerable
as an
phrase
phrase
describes
authority
this this
authority
describes
'1 OneOne
Usage and Abusage, Penguin Books, 3rd ed.1999, p. 38). The present author begs to differ.
Usage
In the above example substituting like for as was the case with would make the sentence
awkward in the extreme.

142
142

N.B.
The phrase similarly to does not exist in standard English.
Suggested Exercises (56):

Using
fill in the gaps in the following
phrases fill
Using the above words and phrases
following sen
sen
tences:
1.
d u n es,---------in
by dunes,
sheltered by
beaches sheltered
are beaches
there are
Pomerania there
In Pomerania
otherareas
1. In
areasof
of
-in other
the Baltic coast.

143
143

guests, Grandmother
Grandmotherused
same technique
used the
the same
----------previous
technique to
unwelcome guests,
to
2.previous unwelcome
get rid of this one.
resorts,has
-somany
verycheerful
atmosphere.
many coastal
cheerfulatmosphere.
B righton,----------so
coastalresorts,
hasaavery
3. Brighton,
usto
to
a n d----------helps
helpsus
4. Literature gives us a deeper understanding of life and
mature.
mature.
may receive
neverbuy.
which people
buy.
giftwhich
receivebut
but never
5.----------friendship,
love isis aagift
people may
friendship, love
are very
very
ignored.---------,, they are
6. I am not saying that these things should be ignored.
important, but others are even more so.
7. A person who is given both the translation and the original enjoys a far
ofthis
thepresent
author.
thisclassic
presentedition
broader perspective,----------in
editionof
classicauthor.
perspective,-inthe
are
global village,-------------------the
its
itsinhabitants
inhabitantsare
hasbecome
becomeaaglobal
village,worldhas
the world
8.becoming uniform.
frustrations,----------their
-their
9. Unemployed people will increasingly vent their frustrations,
forbears in the Industrial Revolution.
destinations,isissimply
unforgettable.
simply unforgettable.
10. The Kashmir,
K ashm ir,--------most
touristdestinations,
mosttourist
10.
-a a
11.. Some people are completely manipulated by TV commercials,
com m ercials,------------11
friend of mine who buys all the cosmetics advertised.
12. A wise man never displays a contemptuous attitude towards any people or
12.
an inclination
ev en ts,----------pseudo-intellectuals,
whohave
have an
despise
inclination to
to despise
-pseudo-intellectuals, who
events,
everything around them.
13. The genuine article is unimaginably expensive, and
a n d----------forgeries
forgeries abound.
abound.
13.
14. A child that is loved and appreciated will find it easier to do as much for
14.
child deprived
these things
may have
things may
prob
have prob
life.-----------,, aa child
deprived of these
others later in life.
lems in having successful relationships with others.
15. Nowadays more and more serious crimes are being committed by youngsters,
15.
from my
another girl.
my home
girl.
whomurdered
murdered another
hometown
the
girlsfrom
threeteenage
town who
teenagegirls
thethree
the focus
is often
the Pope
controversy.
focus of
of controversy.
often the
16. ---------- many
Pope is
many famous
people, the
famous people,
16.
17. So far we have been examining recent developments in cinema. Let us now
17.
focus
on literature.
literature.
focus on
many
leader,-------------many
spiritual
spiritual
118.
-thethe
8. People in Tibet have only one spiritual leader,
authorities of the West.
19. Young people often take life too seriously,
seriously,----------Goetheshero
heroWerther.
Werther.
-Goethes
19.
beings.
suffer----------human
20. Animals can feel pain and suffer
-humanbeings.
21..---------- people
increasingly on
on TV
for their
entertainment,TV for
their entertainment,---------depend increasingly
21
people depend
they are ever more influenced by what they see there.
a n d --------- he
he
22. So far he has never given any money back that he borrowed, and
is unlikely to be trustworthy with this larger sum.
oneby
by
m ountains--------23. Peter stressed the advantages of a holiday in the mountains
-one
the sea.

144
144

think Paris
you think
24.trafficproblem
Parishas
hastraffic
--------- you
s,-----------you
problems,
seeRome.
should see
Rome.
-youshould
25. In our country there are no legal regulations that prescribe continuous
training of personnel in a given ppost.
o st.----------there
noregulations
areno
-there are
regulationsstating
stating
that part of a companys budget must be set aside for such purposes.
purposes.

Therefore
Therefore and Related Expressions
Therefore is a rather formal word and is greatly overused by many non
non
native writers of English. In many cases a drastic curtailment (perhaps by
as much as 90%) is recommended, to be replaced by less formal and less
functionally restricted alternatives, such as that is why, as a result etc.
Therefore has more than one nuance that makes it inappropriate in certain
contexts.
i) Firstly it sometimes occurs in contexts where a logical deduction is
explicitly made, as in the following:
I think; therefore I am.

ii) In addition to this, therefore often points to a conclusion that is tanta


tanta
mount to a suggestion, as in the following sentence:
Mr Milosevics
M ilosevics proposals do not guarantee the safe return
of
of refugees and are therefore to be rejected.

While other expressions (thus, hence, consequently, accordingly ) are pos


pos
sible, they would be arguably less forceful.
Hi) Closely linked to this is the nuance of arbitrary decision:
iii)
This situation cannot go on for much longer and therefore
I have decided to call an emergency meeting.

Therefore is not as common as is widely supposed, even in case ti above;


En
in many contexts other words are more appropriate. Many teachers of En
glish would be familiar with sentences such as the following:
following:
* Nowadays it is very fashionable to have a career.

145
145

Therefore many people spend most of


of their time at
at work
and sometimes forget they are parents.

Therefore is inappropriate in the above example, since


since its
its purpose
purpose there
is merely to explain; neither does itit make aa consciously logical deduction
deduction
on the one hand, nor does it introduce aa suggestion
suggestion or
or arbitrary
arbitrary decision
decision on
on
the other. Better would be some other discourse marker, such
such as
as the
the follow
follow
ing alternatives:
why many people....
...That is why
...As a result many people....

There are many words and


and phrases which have meanings that
that are
are rather
rather
similar to therefore:

follows that...
2:
2: It
It follows
that...
This expression
expression is
is highly
highly formal
formal and
and occurs
occurs in
in the
the context
context of
of consciously
consciously
This
logical argumentation,
argumentation, where
where aa key
key implication
implication needs
needs to
to be
be brought
broughtout:
out:
logical
If we
we accept
accept that
that every
every criminal
criminal is
is merely
merely sick,
sick, itit follows
follows that
that he
he cannot
cannot be
be
If
held morally
morally responsible
responsible for
for his
his actions.
actions.
held

3:
3: That
That is
is why...,
why..., which
which is
is why...
why...

That is
is why
why is
is most
most widely
widely used,
used, whether
whether the
the context
context isis formal
formal or
or infor
infor
That
why....
is
mal. Which
Which is
is why
why also
also exists
exists as
as aa variant,
variant, meaning
meaning and
and that
that is why....
mal.
Her father
father has
has been
been taken
taken ill,
ill, which
which is
is why
why she
she will
will be
be unable
unable to
to attend.
attend.
Her

1: Thus, Hence, Consequently


Consequently

These are all formal, but are subtly different


different from
from therefore.
la:: Thus often means in
la
in this way:
way:
Pablo was in London at the time of
of the coup and thus was able
able
to escape arrest.
aiTest.

Thus can often mean as


as you can see:
see:
This model is much more reliable and cost-effective than the other
other and
and thus
thus
is to be preferred.

lb:
lb : Hence means because
because of
of this
this and
and is less forceful than
than therefore:
therefore:
Ms
M s Jones wishes to apologise for her absence. Her father
father has been taken
taken ill
ill
and hence she will be unable to attend.
attend.

Another way of
of saying this is:
...As her father has been taken ill,
ill, she
she will be unable to
to attend.
attend.

lc: Consequently means as


as a consequence;
consequence; itit often
often occurs
occurs in
in official
official
or authoritarian
authoritarian contexts:
The school generator has broken down and consequently all
all further
further classes
classes
have been cancelled for today.

Another way of
of saying this is:
As the school generator has broken down, all further classes
classes have been
cancelled for today.

146
146

Suggested
Suggested Exercises
Exercises (57):
(57):

Fill the
the gaps
gaps in
in the
the following
sentences using
using any
any of
o fthe
the above
above expressions
expressions
following sentences
Fill
):
(including
(including therefore
therefore):

1. A
A language
language represents
represents the
the contributions
contributions of
of countless
countless generations.
generations.-----------the
the
1.
ones
inner
enrich
learning
of
a
foreign
language can
can only
only enrich ones inner life.
life.
learning of a foreign language
2. So
So far
far the
the Government
Government has
has not
not kept
kept any
any of
of its
its undertakings.
undertakings. We
W e can
c an ---------2.
deduce that
that itit is
is unlikely
unlikely to
to abide
abide by
by its
its latest
latest one.
deduce
one.
3. When
When aa man
man becomes
becomes aa politician,
politician, he
he should
should be
be aware
aware of
of the
the good
good and
and bad
bad
3.
figure, he
features of
become a public figure,
to become
of the
the job.
jo b.----------when
intends to
man intends
when aa man
features
must be
be able
able to
to control
control himself.
himself.
must
4. But
But there
there are
are two
two sides
sides to
to every
every story,
story ,-----------11feel
feelobliged
obligedtotomention
mentionaa
4.
number
number of
of things.
things.
5. If
If you
you want
want decent
decent medical
medical treatment
treatment in
in our
our country,
country, you
you have
have to
to bribe
bribe the
the
5.
maintain.
they officially maintain.
doctor.--------as they
small as
not as
as small
are not
earnings are
their earnings
doctor.
-their
6. John
John was
was forced
forced by
by his
his father
father to
to study
study law,
law, aa subject
subject for
for which
which he
he has
has no
no
6.
real predisposition; on
on the
the contrary
contrary he
he was
was aa talented
talented painter
painter who
who wanted
wanted
real
to make
m ake his
his living
living as
as an
an artist.
artist. Nowadays
Nowadays John
John is
is neither
neither aa lawyer
law yer nor
nor
to
his parents
satisfying his
life, ju
just
an artist
artist and
and ----------has
his life,
st satisfying
half of his
wasted half
has wasted
an
expectations.
expectations.
7. Olympic
Olympic athletes
athletes generally
generally consume
consume huge
huge amounts
amounts of
of energy.
energy. They
T h ey ---------7.
require diets
diets that
that are
are especially
especially rich
rich in
in calories.
calories.
require
8. If
If all
all people
people are
are equal
equal in
in the
the eyes
eyes of
of God,
G o d,-----------no
noone
onehas
hasthe
theright
righttotofeel
feel
8.
superior to
to others
others or
or to
to kill.
kill.
superior

147
147

9. The
Thestrong
strongconviction
convictionthat
thatcertain
certainjobs
jobsdemand
demanddevotion
devotionororeven
evensacrifice
sacrifice
entered our culture in the nineteenth century. The doctors profession is one
-when aa doctor
interests,
gives priority
priority to
doctor gives
his own
own economic
o f them.
th em .----------when
economic interests,
tohis
of
he can expect criticism.
decidedto
toput
a n d----------decided
put an
an
10. In 1961 he discovered that he was terminally ill and
end to it all.
-it is
impossible for
isimpossible
forthe
eclectic.----------it
the
111.
1 . The culture has become somewhat eclectic.
younger generation to find any one single moral authority.
-do
coating.----------do
12. The cooking plates are covered with a delicate, non-stick coating.
not allow sharp or abrasive objects to come into contact with the surface of the
plates.
13. If a company cannot generate profits, it will never be able to develop its
-- our railway network will
investm ents.-------infrastructure or make new investments.
inevitably collapse unless it receives state subsidies or undergoes drastic
restructuring.

...
In My Opinion
Opinion...
In
A frequent error is to obtrude ones viewpoint in a rather clumsy manner
using phrases like in my opinion, 1I believe etc, when English people often
tend to prefer other ways of expressing themselves. Various alternatives
are given below, grouped according to function:

Intuition:
My feeling is that...
My impression is that...
My intuition tells me that...
first to say this, but I am probably
probably
I suspect that... (= I know I am the first
..y
right...y
right.
that...2
I have a hunch that...2
1
1 Suspect does not always refer to something bad. One can also suspect something that
is neutral or positive:
When John retires, I suspect that they will give him a golden handshake.
handshake.
2
2 This phrase is highly informal.

148

Contention:
provide
Arguably (= This is my opinion and if I had the time, I/ could provide
some good arguments in support of
o f it)1
it)1
Surely (= You must agree with me when /I say that...)
that...)
that...)
It is my contention that... (= /I wish to argue that...)
It is my (firm / strong) conviction that... (= I am convinced that...)
that...)
It needs to be pointed out that...
shocked,
I would even go so far as to say that...
that... (= // know you may be shocked,
firmly
but /I firm
ly believe that...)
that...)
I beg to differ. (= /I am afraid that I disagree.)

Self-Evident Truth:
A moments reflection shows that... (= Even an idiot would agree
A
that...)
that...)
Closer observation suggests that... (= IIff you stopped and examined
forr a while, you would probably
probably agree with me that...)
this fo
that...2
It goes without saying that...2
that...)
It is a sad truth that... (= It is my sad observation that...)
It is common knowledge that...
It is no secret that...
Inescapable Conclusion:
probably right in concluding that...)
It would seem that... (= I am probably
that...)
The conclusion seems inescapable that...
The fact of the matter is that... (= I am
am simply right in saying that...)
that...)
The fact remains that... (= There is simply no way one can deny that...)
The only conclusion that would suggest itself
itself is that...
There are no two ways about the fact that...3
that...3
person would
There is no escaping the fact that... (= Any reasonable person
agree with me when /I say that...)
that...)

1 Arguably tends to occur in mid-position, rather than at the beginning of the sen
sen
tence.
2
2 This phrase is highly informal.
3
3 This phrase is rather informal.
1

149

Suggested Exercises (58):

find
In the following
d alternatives to the words in italics:
following sentences fin
generation.
11.. The older generation should set a good example to the younger generation.
I/ know I am right when I say that when family members are thieves and
drunks, the children will imitate them.
them.
2. Some claim that animals are intelligent since they can be taught certain
am of
o f a different opinion.
opinion. Animals do learn,
leam , but only by experience,
things. I/ am
mind.
and never by any linking of information in the mind.
3. Parents often forget how important it is to talk to a child. You must agree with
under
me that lack of communication between these two generations makes under
standing more difficult. I honestly believe that a heart-to-heart conversation
with a child will make it possible for parents to comprehend their childs
problems.
4. So what is wisdom? In my opinion being truly wise means possessing some
real insight into human action and its consequences.
5. Thus the only conclusion that I can draw is that man is indeed very different
from other species.
communi
6. Language should not be considered merely as a device enabling communi
cation. Indeed, in my opinion the ability to speak a foreign language makes
cation.
some people better equipped for life. In my opinion a person who has a knack
of learning foreign languages simply has a better chance of surviving in this
world.
world.
M an acts for the sake of future advantage. I am well informed when I say that
7. Mem
todays young people are impatient
im patient to succeed as quickly as possible.
opinion,, in
8. The West turned away from the true path a long time ago. In my opinion
our spiritually impoverished world the Dalai Lama represents something very
important.
important.
9. Everyone will agree with me when I say that such a conversation is more
sincere and straightforward than one that requires an interpreter.
probably right when I say that the question admits of
10. To conclude, I am probably
o f no
10.
straightforward answer.
1 . Many people in our country believe that they will benefit a lot from m
em
mem
111.
point out that they give little thought to the
bership of the EU. Yet I must point
identity.
consequences in terms of national identity.
12. Wisdom
W isdom has always been an aspect of the male stereotype. /I am not saying
12.
anything controversial when I say that in the course of history women have
been generally deprived of the right to express their thoughts freely, excluded
as they were from most intellectual occupations.
occupations.

150
150

13.
13. Many peace initiatives were undertaken. A
ny reasonable person
Any
person would agree
that military action in that conflict was a necessary evil, an evil that had to
occur in order to preempt a far greater one.
/
14.
14. I believe that instead of industrial action it is rather patience and determina
determ ina
tion that this country needs now.
15.
15. While
W hile it is true that bringing up a child requires a great deal of love, the
excessive permissiveness of parents is - you must agree with me - doing

16.
16.

17.
17.

18.
18.

19.
19.

more harm than good.


It is impossible to reach any consensus as regards the nature of dreams. In my
my
opinion
opinion,, however, there is always a grain of truth in any dream, as it comes
straight from our subconscious.
You only have to think fo
forr aa moment and you will realise that nowadays one
can hardly lift a finger without encountering high-tech devices.
No one can deny that since we have been using computers they have been
affecting almost every sphere of our lives. It seems fa
ir to conclude that
fair
in the near future computers will become indispensable.
Some argue that censorship and art are mutually hostile. I am absolutely
convinced,
convinced, however, that censorship may actually strengthen the position
art.
of art.

Additional Note:
Note:

In the context of more formal writing (esp. scientific publications) phra


phra
ses containing the first person (I, my etc) are used very sparingly. Among
the various ways of avoiding the first person the use of the passive de
de
serves special mention. Compare the following sentences:
a. In this essay I will try
try to consider the various arguments.
arguments.
b. In this essay an attempt will be made to consider the various arguments
arguments..

Of
Of course, overuse of the passive also entails the disadvantage of the lan
lan
guage becoming excessively impersonal, even to the point of its seeming
unnatural.

You had better call an ambulance. (Any ambulance will do.)


How can we best evaluate a politician? (any politician)

a / an is nothing (zero)
3. The plural of a!

Articles: A Few Tips


For the non-native speaker of English complete mastery of the articles
a II an and the generally comes last of all. Nonetheless, the great majority
of mistakes could be avoided by keeping in mind a few basic points. Some
of the following will be more familiar than others:
1. Countables and Uncountables

a. Is the word countable? If it is countable, it generally takes an


article when the word is in the singular:

Compare the following alternative sentences:


gifted sportsman may be compared to an artist.
a. A gifted
b. Gifted sportsmen may be compared to artists.

The plurals of a gifted sportsman and an artist are gifted sportsmen and
artists respectively. Each of the sentences represents one way of saying
essentially the same thing, i.e. of making a generalising remark.
4. Generalisations
The plural with zero article ((Bom
Bom sportsmen in sentence b of the previous
catego
section) is more frequently used for making generalisations about catego
ries. Consider the following alternatives:
l a . A portable telephone is within everyones reach.
reach,
la.
l b . Portable telephones are within everyones reach.
lb.
2a. A small child is very impressionable.

The cat was asleep on the mat.


A cat was asleep on a mat.

Here both cat and mat are countable.

b. If the word is uncountable, it generally cannot be used with the


indefinite article.
Honesty and decency are rare these days.

The words honesty and decency are uncountable, and have no plural. Ex
Ex
cept in very special contexts (see below, point 13),
13), we cannot say an hon
hon
esty, a
a decency
decency etc.
A good dictionary should tell you whether a word is countable or un
un
countable.

2
2.. A / an has the nuance of one
one or any.
(an y\
i)

aat I an
anone
one

2b. Small children are very impressionable.

Of each of these alternatives the second is more likely to occur, especially


Of
since the singular may sound highly sententious.
Sometimes, however, sentences of the second type (lb, 2b) are the only
way of making generalisations:
3. Westerners have such strange ideas often.
4. Football fans tend to be very loud.

In neither 3 nor 4 is the singular really possible.1


possible.1In sentence 3 Westerners
Westerners
fans means
football fans
means Westerners in general, while in sentence 4 football
football fans in general. In cases of doubt it is best to use the plural (with
zero article).

When
W
hen I went out, I saw a lady walking a huge dog.
1 The singular would require a reformulation: The average Westerner has such strange
ideas
ideas etc.
1

ii)
152
152

any
an == any
aa//an

153
153

Back-pointing the
5. Back-pointing
The often takes up what has already been mentioned:
When
W hen I went out, I saw a lady walking a huge dog. The lady was frail
and elderly and the dog seemed very much in charge.
charge.

6. The often means this


this or that.
that.
Mr
M r Jones was a brilliant maths teacher. He was able to make the subject
really come alive.
alive.
A few years ago our economy was in crisis. Since then, however,
the situation has much improved.

In the above sentences the subject really means that subject (i.e. maths),
while the situation really means that situation.
situation.

7. The sometimes implies all


all the, especially when we are talking
about populations or collectives:
Compare the following two sentences:
Vikings lived in Scandinavia.
a. At that time the Vikings
AD North America was discovered by Vikings.
b. Around 1000
1000 AD

The first sentence refers to the Vikings as a whole, i.e. collectively.


The second refers only to some of the Vikings.1
Vikings.1

8. The...
The... of...
of...
If the word of
o f occurs anywhere, then there is an especially great likelihood
that it will be preceded by the
the::
Contrast the following sentences:
la.
la .
lb.
lb .
2a.
2b.

Reality is often depressing.


The reality of
o f daily life is often depressing.
Success generally requires much effort.
The success of
o f the enterprise depends on you.

1 Of course it is also possible to say discovered


discovered by the Vikings, i.e. giving the credit
collectively for what only a few achieved.
1

154
154

3a. British history spans many centuries.


centuries.
3b. The history of Britain spans many centuries.
centuries.

This pattern may also extend to proper nouns:


4a. Rome is built on seven hills.
hills.
4b. The Rome of the Caesars was built of marble.
marble.
5a. Alexander died at the age of 32.
5b. The Alexander of mediaeval legend is very different
from the historical Alexander.
Alexander.

While this is only a pattern or tendency and not a rule, being aware of it
will help non-native speakers to avoid many mistakes.

9. Defining Relative Clauses


Defining relative clauses are mostly preceded by the. This pattern is found
sen
with both countable and uncountable nouns. Compare the following sen
tence pairs:

With a countable noun:


la . Cigars are expensive nowadays.
nowadays.
la.
lb . The cigars that I smoke come from Havana.
Havana.
lb.

With an uncountable noun:


round.
2a. Money makes the world go round.
pittance.
2b. The money that most teachers earn is a pittance.

In the above sentence pairs each of the second (b) is a defining relative
lb refers to some cigars only, and 2b refers only to one instance
clause: i.e. lb
of money.
Note the following gradation:
desperate.
3a. Poverty makes people desperate.
W orld countries is desperate.
desperate.
3b. The poverty of Third World
W orld countries is desperate.
3c. The poverty that afflicts Third World

follow
The same pattern is found even with proper nouns. Compare the follow
ing:
4. I have two friends called Susan. One lives across the road and the other
is my colleague at work. The Susan that lives across the road is getting
married next week.

155
155

10. Participles as Postmodifiers (i.e. coming after the noun phrase that
they refer to)
There is again a marked tendency for such participles to be preceded by
the. Compare the following alternatives:
la . The phenomena that are presented here are highly significant.
significant,
la.
lb . The phenomena presented here are highly significant.
significant.
lb.
2a. The people who work in that place are underpaid.
working in that place are underpaid.
2b. The people working

lb and 2b are reduced versions of defining relative clauses.


In reality lb

11. Other Phrases Containing Prepositional Postmodifiers


of is
The pattern the... of... has already been mentioned: the preposition of
especially likely to be preceded by the definite article. The same pattern is
found with other prepositions as well, albeit to a lesser degree. Often we
people in our district, the
come across prepositional phrases like the old people
trees near the church etc., which can easily be turned into defining rela
rela
tive clauses:
clauses:
la . Old people are often neglected.
neglected.
la.
l b . The old people in our district are often neglected.
neglected.
lb.
lc . The old people that are in our district are often neglected.
neglected.
lc.
centuries.
2a. Trees often live for centuries.
old.
2b. The trees near the church are centuries old.
2c. The trees that are near the church are centuries old.
week.
3a. Susan is getting married next week.
3b. The Susan across the road is getting married next week.
(i.e. not the Susan at the office)
3c. The Susan that lives across the road is getting married next week.
(i.e. not the Susan that works with me at the office)

12. The fact


fact that...
This tip is actually an aspect of point 9, i.e. defining relative clauses. Again
fact that, the reason why, the question
in most but not all cases we say the fact
whether, not a fact that, a reason why, a question whether
whether,
whether etc.
The allegation that he embezzled millions of dollars is unfounded.

156
156

13. Phrases in Apposition


When a phrase or clause beginning with an article is in apposition to anoth
anoth
er, there is an especially great likelihood that the apposition will begin with
a / an, or in the case of plurals with no article at all:

With a singular noun:


At the end of the twentieth century,
century, a century
century of technical progress,
people began to wake up to the environmental costs.
costs.

In the above example, the phrase the twentieth century has been taken up
by the phrase a century (not: the
the century).
With a plural noun:
Compare the following sentences:
1.
1. Such a profession demands flexibility,
flexibility, a feature often all too rare.
flexibility and initiative, features often
2. Such a profession demands flexibility
all too rare.

flexibility and
In sentence 2 of the above example the composite phrase flexibility
features (not: the features).
initiative has been taken up by features
This tendency takes precedence over point 9 (Defining Relative

Clauses):
Man possesses the faculty of speech, a faculty that sets him apart from
the animals.
animals.

fac
Note how the defining relative clause does not prevent the phrase the
the. fac
ulty of
faculty.
of speech from being modified into a faculty.
By the same token the tendency also takes precedence over point 10
10
(Participles as Postmodifiers):
distinguishing him from
Man possesses the faculty of speech, a faculty distinguishing
the animals.

This tendency to use a / an in appositional structures is found even with


uncountable words, i.e. ones which cannot normally go with the indefinite
article:
Mother Teresa showed great compassion, a compassion that earned her
a reputation for saintliness.

157
157

Suggested Exercises (59):

following
Supply the article (al
(a / an, the) where necessary in the gaps of
o f the following
sentences:
way.
he would
a d------ good
wouldnot
have lost
hisway.
not have
lost his
map,he
good map,
11.. If he had hhad
contempt.
w ith------ contempt.
2. The President seems to treat everybody around him with
difficult.
friendsisisdifficult.
F in d in g------ true
3. Finding
truefriends
us ill
leaves us
ill
university leaves
can acquire
at university
that we
------ T/theoretical
acquire at
we can
knowledge that
4. T/theoretical knowledge
real life.
life.
prepared for
f o r------ real
200,000lives.
lives.
5. Bosnia cost
cost 200,000
------ W
/war in
in Bosnia
W/war
willbe
merger
substantial.
from this
A/advantages accruing
accruing from
thism
be substantial.
------ A/advantages
erger will
6. lik ed------ animals.
animals.
7. These war criminals behaved liked
-mistakes of
p eat--------mistakes
of his
his parents.
parents.
repeat
8. Such a boy will simply re
many.
by many.
of American
enviedby
and tolerance
American society
------ F/freedom
societyisisenvied
toleranceof
9. F/freedom and
10. Immense skill is needed to use
u s e----------surgical
instrument.
surgical
instrument.
10.
evil.
11.. Many religious myths tell of the battle between
betw een-----n d------- evil.
goodaand
-good
11
sense
qualityaa sense
very important
12. Laughter depends on
o n------ very
and subtle
subtlehuman
human quality
important and
12.
of humour.
humour.
13. ------ V/violence
TVisisoften
oftenexcessive.
onTV
excessive.
13.
shownon
V/violenceshown
social status.
high social
enjoy aahigh
14.
14. ------ D/doctors
generallyenjoy
status.
D/doctorsgenerally
things.
do
always
to
not
correspond
15.
-----W
/words
do
not
always
correspond
to

15.
things.
W/words
withsuch
suchproblems.
16. We
W e are seldom sympathetic to
t o------ people
16.
people with
problems.
culturally preeminent.
XIV was
wasculturally
France of
Louis XIV
17. ------ France
preeminent.
of Louis
17.
18. Anyone who spent a fortune on a computer ten years ago would now be
b e-----18.
proud owner of
o f------ worthless
worthlessantique.
antique.
sys
Greek,his
19. If Aristotle had uused
s e d------ language
languageother
otherthan
hisphilosophical
thanGreek,
philosophical sys
19.
tem would have been different.
of today.
English of
today.
Ages isis very
------ English
m------- English
very different
the Middle
Middle Ages
different fro
of the
from
20. English of
feelings of
of others.
-feelings
21.. Sports teach us to respect
re sp ect-----others.
21
many years.
years.
------ C/chimpanzee
behaviour
has
interested
scientists
has
22. for many
behaviour
interested
scientists for
C/chimpanzee
people
extent that
thatpeople
------ T/thought
y------- language
23. T/thought isisconditioned
conditioned bby
languagetotosuch
anextent
suchan
o f------ fact.
are not even aware of
fact.
24. Is man really different from
fro m------ animals?
animals?
warchanged------25. changed-face
------ S/six
1967 war
of the
faceof
of Palestine.
daysof
the 1967
S/sixdays
26. negative.
------ A/answer
arguably negative.
question isis arguably
thisquestion
A/answer totothis

158
158

27. H/harmony iis


feature ooff------ H/harmony
s------- feature
------- happy
relationships.
happyrelationships.
28. This is the most ancient view of the world,
w o rld,------ view
n------view based
based oon
unspoken premise that
th a t---------------------------gods can be placated.
gods can be placated.
29. L/language allo
allows
and
particular society
------ L/language
w s-------particular
history and
itshistory
topreserve
preserveits
society to
memory.
-politicians
30. Generally speaking,
speaking,-------politiciansare
are not
not held
heldin
in high
high esteem.
esteem.
31. somepeople
understanding.
thatsome
S/stupiditythat
------ S/stupidity
peopledisplay
surpassesall
display surpasses
allunderstanding.
32. willbe
beexamining
------ T/thesis
examining aanumber
of problems.
number of
problems.
T/thesiswill
33. Immense skill is needed to use
surgical instruments.
u s e------ surgical
instruments.
34. Finding
friend isis far
true friend
-true
F inding-----from
easy.
easy.
far from
35. Many little girls dream of bbeing
teachers, and
e in g------ teachers,
eco m e------and their
pupilsbbecome
theirpupils
teddy bbears,
dolls aand
othertoys.
ears,-----n d------- other
-dolls
toys.
36. Do
theoriesmentioned
mentioned above
above really
other?
D o------ theories
really exclude
exclude each
each other?
37. M/myth of
------ M/myth
------- harmony
of Eden
Eden tells
tellsooff harmony existing
between God
God and
man.
andman.
existing between
38. He advocates
tolerance,no
advocates------ freedom
n d------- tolerance,
atter what
freedom aand
what the
nommatter
the situation.
situation.
L/language of
39. beings iis
------ L/language
s------- enigma.
of human
human beings
enigma.
40. ------ P/poetry
William Blake
of William
Blakeisisreadily
readily accessible.
P/poetry of
accessible.
41. ------ Renaissance
Renaissancemusic
music isisespecially
especially fascinating.
fascinating.
42. ------ E/ethical
are most
most important
standardsare
important in
in the
profession.
medical profession.
the medical
E/ethical standards
43. Copernicus confirmed
goesaround
sun.
aroundthe
theearth
earthgoes
thatthe
confirm ed------hypothesis
hypothesisthat
thesun.
44. Most people re
read
a d------ books
just for
forpleasure.
booksjust
pleasure.
45. S/stupidityisisaacharacteristic
characteristicof
certainteachers.
------ S/stupidity
of certain
teachers.
46. There are
regularpilgrimages
themmiracle
a re------ regular
o------- place
iracle isissaid
pilgrimagestto
said toto
wherethe
place where
have occurred.
47. The two sides will soon address
address-----issues
facing them.
issues facing
them.
48. People still remember
communism,
rem em ber-----m unism ,------system
-com
their
governedtheir
thatgoverned
systemthat
lives for many years.
years.

49. goback
------ F/foundations
of science
science go
back to
theBabylonians.
tothe
Babylonians.
F/foundationsof
50. They attend classes in
English,and
grammar
i n------ gramm
ar of
o u t------------of English,
learn ab
about
and learn
history and literature of England.
51
5 1. ------ C/constant
TVnetworks
on our
ourTV
turmoil on
networksisiscaused
bypolitical
inter
politicalinter
caused by
C/constantturmoil
ference.
ference.
52. People should acquire the ability to think positiv
ely ,------ ability
abilitywhich
which isis
positively,
w ith------ experience.
connected with
experience.
53. keen-scented,wwhile
areextremely
D/dogs are
------ D/dogs
h ile------- cats
seeexceedingly
catssee
extremelykeen-scented,
exceedingly
well in the dark.
dark.

159
159

signs.
road signs.
Ie am------ road
54. If you want to pass the driving test, you must Ieam
interesting
an interesting
in
possessed
he
knowledge
55. Mr Jones was able to convey
convey-----knowledge
he
possessed
in
an
way.
problems.
person with
suchproblems.
with such
t o------ person
56. We are seldom sympathetic to
deserved.
contemptthat
thatititdeserved.
57. Peabodys proposal was treated with
w ith------ contempt
easy.
beeasy.
Europe will
willnot
notbe
twohalves
halvesof
ofEurope
B ridging-----een------gapbetw
between
-gap
-two
58. Bridging
language
philosophy
of
subject,
and
59. ------ P/philosophy
is
a
tricky
subject,
a
n
d
------philosophy
of
language
tricky
is
a
P/philosophy
especially so.
life.
Americanlife.
------ V/violence
------- American
part ooff60. V/violenceisisaapart
scientists for many years.
interested
-----B/behaviour
o
f--------chimpanzees
has
chimpanzees
of
661.
1. -B/behaviour
shoulder.
mustshoulder.
hemust
thathe
responsibilitiesthat
o f------ great
greatresponsibilities
62. The President is aware of
TV.
by
offered
entertainment
63. Many
M any people pprefer
re fer-----entertainment
offered
by
TV.
which
factwhich
eople,------fact
64. The candidate is able to get on very well with other ppeople,
consider
to be significant.
highly significant.
to be highly
I consider
human ability.
ability.
m ak e-----s------- uniquely
uniquelyhuman
tools iis
-tools
65. This ability to make
not
whoisisnot
person who
good teacher
ak e------------ person
teacher out
out ooff -good
make
66. It is impossible to m
bom
teaching.
bom for teaching.
M /music of the Renaissance is especially fascinating.
fascinating.
67. M/music
country.
history oof
andhistory
------ P/proverbs
n------- culture
f aacountry.
culture and
arerooted
rooted iin
P/proverbs are
68. orhe
sheorneeds
------ G/good
In he
fact
she n eed s------requires-patience. In fact
therapistrequires---------------patience.
G/goodtherapist
69. patience of Job.
its
fromits
verydifferent
wasvery
differentfrom
the 1960s
emerged in
70. ------ S/sociology
inthe
1960swas
thatemerged
S/sociologythat
version.
prewar version.
long.
listisisrather
ratherlong.
th in g s --------- list
71. You cannot expect me to buy all these things

--

Punctuation
The Colon (:)
The colon is used above all to give a sense of poise and counterbalance to
what has already been written. By the same token it is very often employed
later on in the sentence, to set off what has gone before.
1.
1. Appositions at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence

When the colon is used in order to introduce an apposition, pains should be


taken to ensure wherever possible that it marks the end of a self-contained
grammatical unit, instead of dividing such a unit into two. Look at the
punctuation of the following example:
la.
la . *Its colours: blue, red, green and yellow create a fabulous picture.

In la
la the colon separates the subject (Its colours) from the rest of the sen
sen
tence, and is therefore incorrect. If the sentences grammatical structure is
left unchanged, then it is best to use different punctuation altogether:

granted.
forgranted.
taken for
notbe
betaken
72. ------ P/peace
n d------- prosperity
should not
prosperity should
P/peace aand
controls.
stringentcontrols.
moststringent
subjecttotothe
------ W/wine
themost
exportsisissubject
Franceexports
thatFrance
73. W/winethat
lb.
lb . Its colours - blue, red, green and yellow - create a fabulous picture.
publicly
they
that
standards
to
moral
74. ------ P/politicians
seldom
stick
t
o
--------moral
standards
that
they
publicly
stick
seldom
P/politicians
advocate.
advocate.
Thus, instead of a colon, two dashes have been used to mark the apposition.
common wwith
nothing in
in common
or nothing
little or
------ S/socialism
r Blair
ith------haslittle
Blairhas
of M
Mr
75. S/socialism of
Bolsheviks.
o f------ Bolsheviks.
socialism of
Exactly the same principle applies when the apposition happens to be
------E/evil
em ,--------good is often
interred with
after them,-good is often interredthwith
livesafter
a title:
mendo
dolives
thatmen
76. E/evilthat
their bones.
bones.
2a. * The second part:
part: Proposals
Proposals for a Cleaner Environment
Environm ent includes
an impassioned plea for alternatives to fossil fuels.
fuels.

In 2a the colon is incorrect for the simple reason that it separates the sub
sub
part from the rest of the sentence. A change of punctuation
ject The second part
is necessary:
161

Proposals for a Cleaner Environment,


Environment, includes an
2b. The second part, Proposals
fuels.
impassioned plea for alternatives to fossil fuels.

Thus, just as in lb
lb the apposition was marked by two dashes, so in 2b it is
marked by two commas.
Similarly in the following sentence the colon, coming after a preposi
preposi
tional phrase, is unsatisfactory:
Life-style and Longevity in the Light of Recent Discov
Discov
3. *In her essay: Life-style
eries
eries the author discusses the relations between patterns of life and mortality
at the turn
tum of the new millennium.

In 3 the colon is incorrect for the simple reason that it cuts a self-contained
grammatical unit into two: the words In her essay are
are. grammatically in
in
complete.
A similar mistake is to insert the colon between two clauses that in
grammatical terms are closely interconnected, as in the following:
4a. * Giving birth to two boys: William
W illiam and Henry, she became a public
figure.
figure.

In 4a the colon has been inserted between a subordinate participial clause


(<(Giving
Giving birth to two boys
boys)) and the subject of the main verb {she),
(she), which
governs the participial clause. If
the
If
sentences grammatical structure is
left unchanged, then it is best to use different punctuation:
4b. Giving birth to two boys, William
W illiam and Henry, she became a public
figure.
figure.

In other words, the apposition William


William and Henry is marked off from the
rest of the sentence by two commas.
For a further discussion of colons and appositions, cf. also above,
p. 40.
II. Colons with phrases of
of exemplification and enumeration:
enumeration:

When the colons function is to exemplify, it often occurs before phrases


for example, for
like for
for instance, that is etc.
5. Small
Small talk
talk is an essential part of British life: for example, when you
meet an acquaintance in the street, the first thing you will most likely
talk about is the weather.

162
162

Note how, unlike in la,


la , 2a, 3 and 4a, the colon is preceded by a selfpart of
( Small talk
talk is an essential part
o f British
contained grammatical unit {Small
life).
life).
And when the colons function is to enumerate a list of three or more
follows
following, as follows
items, it often occurs after phrases such as the following,
etc.
follows: Italian, Spanish,
6. The principal Romance languages are as follows:
Portuguese, Catalan, French, Provencal, Romansh and Rumanian.

As in 5, the colon is again preceded by a self-contained grammatical unit.


In other words, in 6 as well as in 5 the colon marks the end of a clause that,
grammatically speaking, forms virtually a complete sentence.
follows may strike some readers as being
In 6, however, the use of as follows
cumbersome and unnecessary, and it may seem preferable to leave the phrase
out, either with or without the colon:
6a. The principal Romance languages are: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese,
Rumanian.
Catalan, French, Provencal, Romansh and Rumanian.

In 6a the colon separates the verb from its complement. This usage, which
sen
violates the principle that the colon should not divide elements of a sen
interconnected,
restricted
is primarily
tence that grammatically are closely
to the verbs to be, to include and a very few others. If, however, the colon
is left out altogether, it is suggestive of an informal style:
6b. The principal Romance languages are Italian, Spanish, Portuguese,
Catalan, French, Provencal, Romansh and Rumanian.

N.B.
follow
The word both is not generally followed by a colon. Compare the follow
ing alternatives:
7a. * Singapore is an obvious destination for both:
both: businessmen and
tourists.
tourists.
7b. Singapore is an obvious destination for both businessmen and
tourists.
tourists.

tourists have already been


Even in a context where businessmen and tourists
mentioned, sentence 7a would hardly be possible. (Cf. also below,
p. 166.)
166.)
163
163

Suggested Exercises (60):

Supply extra punctuation


the following sentences if and when necessary:
punctuation in thefollowing
11.. Apart from such places of entertainment as cinemas, night clubs and discos
galleries.
one will also find several art galleries.
2. The area is famous for its beautiful lakes, of which the best known are Como,
Garda, Maggiore and Lugano.
100,000 entries and also includes the Greek alphabet,
3. The dictionary has 100,000
a users guide, abbreviations, and references.
references.
4. The many cafes, pubs and cinemas, together with facilities such as shops, car
parks and a well-developed public transport system make the town a mecca
tourists.
for tourists.
ns most important works include the BMW car fac
fac
towns
5. Apart from this the tow
cooperative.
tory and the Renoma leather products cooperative.
derivation.
6. Both compliment and complement have the same derivation.
M any years ago cinema audiences around the world were enthralled by an
77.. Many
American musical entitled Westside
Westside Story.
W isdom comes from many different factors like age and experience.
8. Wisdom
9. Two famous museums the National History and the V&A are situated in
Kensington but an even more renowned one the British Museum located in
centre.
Bloomsbury is closer to the centre.
bed,
early
10.
Is
the
maxim
early
to
to rise
rise really for everyone?
early
10.
11.. Bad teachers will always be despised because of such factors as arbitrary
11
behaviour, laziness or sheer incompetence.
incompetence.
12. The region possesses great variety including beaches, lowlands, highlands
12.
and steep cliffs.
13. Whatever
W hatever we do whether we wish to broaden our horizons or to realise our
13.
money.
dreams, we are limited by an overwhelming lack of money.
14. All kinds of relationships marriages, partnerships, friendships and parent14.
detrim ental effect on our
child relations may become toxic and have a detrimental
health.
health.
15. The most important rivers in this area are the Wye, the Monnow, and the
15.
Trothy.
16. However, her life divorce, love affairs, and conflicts with the rest of the royal
16.
sainthood.
family left her far removed from sainthood.
17. Such failings as anger, jealously or infidelity bring many marriages to an end.
17.
18. The results obtained for the years 1985,
1985, 1988,
1988, 1990
1990 and 1992
1992 indicate that
18.
further environmental degradation has taken place.

164
164

The Dash ( - ))
The dash should be used sparingly except in highly informal contexts.
The following points need to be borne especially in mind:
I. Ellipsis of
of verbs

The dash can never mark the ellipsis of a verb. Compare the following
alternative sentences:
la.
la . **The trains are always empty and the busses - always full.
full,
lb.
lb . The trains are always empty and the busses always full.
full.
2a. **They know that all good deeds will bring joy, and bad ones - sorrow.
2b. They know that all good deeds will bring joy, and bad ones sorrow.

Of
Of the above sentences only lb
l b and 2b
2 b are correct.
II. Appositions

An appositional word or phrase is generally marked off by commas rather


than by dashes, and never by a mixture of the two:

Incorrect:

3a. * If only Baird - the inventor of TV, had foreseen the consequences of
his discovery!
discovery!

Clumsy or highly informal:

3b. If only Baird the inventor of


o f TV had foreseen the consequences of
his discovery!
discovery!

Correct:
3c. If only Baird, the inventor of
o f TV, had foreseen the consequences of his
discovery!
discovery!

For dashes in appositional contexts cf. also above, p. 40f.


III. Appositions after the pronoun we

If
If the pronoun we is followed by an apposition of one or two words, no
punctuation generally needs to be added, and least of
of all a dash:
165
165

More formal:

Incorrect:

7b. For many visitors our culture is an enigma: we combine tradition with

parents.
** All that we - children can do is forgive the mistakes of our parents.
4a. **A11

Correct:
4b.

parents.
All that we children can do is forgive the mistakes of our parents.

foreign influences.

VII. Creating
an an
Creating
effect
effect

Using the dash to create


create an effect
effect is less typical of formal English:
Less formal:

IV. Parentheses
IV.

If the dash is used to introduce a parenthesis, it should also be used to


complete the parenthesis:

8a. We awoke to the shocking news - war had broken out.

More formal:

Incorrect:

8b. We awoke to the shocking news: war had broken out.

5a. * All species of animals - no matter whether they be elephants, mice or


suffer.
ants, have souls and can suffer.

Correct:
5b.

Y,
V.

All species of animals - no matter


m atter whether they be elephants, mice or
suffer.
ants - have souls and can suffer.

Additional Note:
The expressions fo
forr example, fo
forr instance etc. are not generally accom
accom
panied by dashes:

Incorrect:
9a. * The results of industrial action can be terrifying: in one country town
-- for example -- a woman died ofo f influenza because the local doctor

Both

Both is not generally followed by any punctuation, and least of all a dash.
Compare the following alternatives, which mark the very beginning of an
essay:

refused to treat her.

Correct:
9b. The results of industrial action can be terrifying: in one country
town, for example, a woman died of influenza because the local

6a. **In the course of her history Poland has assimilated both eastern and
influences.
western influences.
6b. In the course of her history Poland has assimilated both eastern and
western influences.
influences.

The first alternative (6a) is absolutely impossible in English. (Cf. also


p. 163).
163).

doctor refused to treat her.

Suggested Exercises (61):

punctuation in the following


following sentences if and when necessary
Supply extra punctuation
necessary::
On the north Westminster
W estminster is bounded by Mayfair,
M ayfair, Bloomsbury and M
aryleMarylebone all districts of London.
2. Through the first window one could see the deep blue ocean, through the
second the endless forests, and through the third the misty mountains.
mountains.
3. TV is prut
life
it
everyday
go.
our
part of
follows us wherever we
4. Years ago margarine was believed to be good for one and butter bad for one.
5. One of Europes largest Gothic structures St M
Marys
arys Church towers over the

1.
1.

clauses
VI. Explanatory clauses

The dash is not generally used in explanatory clauses, except in highly


informal contexts:

Less formal:

7a. For many visitors our culture is an enigma we combine tradition


influences.
with foreign influences.

166
166

city.

167

6. Generally, relationships between English people appear to be by no means


perfect, or the English themselves happy.
W ho should do this job? For sure not everybody.
everybody.
7. Who
8. When
W hen necessary, it is the Speaker of the Lower House that acts as deputy
president, and should that be impossible the Speaker of the Upper House.
9. It is difficult to tell which is a blessing and which a curse.
curse.
10.
10. The Normans spoke French and English people Anglo-Saxon, the two basic
elements of our language.
11
11.. The co-authors distinguished doctors from Britain and America are specia
specia
lists in various branches of
o f medicine.
medicine.
12.
12. We
W e hated him and his approach to his subject he was a hateful egocentric
who always tried to demonstrate his superiority.
13.
13. This can best be illustrated by the behaviour of my brothers girlfriend Kate.

III. Irony and distance

Sarcasm is the lowest form of wit, as the saying goes. Being generally
com
something very banal and commonplace, it seldom requires inverted com
mas. The following sentence represents a typical misuse:
3a. * In our country the average teacher works just
ju st 35 hours a week.

The inverted commas are not justified by the quality of the sarcasm, which
could be expressed much more appropriately by a rephrasing:
3b.

There are various ways of expressing irony, without resorting to invert


invert
ed commas, as in the following example:
4a.

How can the following


following sentence be improved?

14.
Wales
14. England and W
ales are divided into 53 counties (before 1974
1974 - 62).

Inverted Commas ( * and )

In our country the average teacher works a mere 35 hours a week.

W hat made such a calm tuid


krid innocent
innocent person as myself
m yself have
What
such a murderous dream?

In the above sentence, the inverted commas would only be justified if we


knew beforehand that the writer had been described as innocent, i.e. if
the word was a direct quotation or an obvious reference. If no quotation or
fol
reference is involved, the sentence requires modification, perhaps as fol
lows:
4b.

W hat made such a calm and supposedly innocent person...?


What

4c.

seemingly innocent person...?


person...?
What made such a calm and seemingly

Or:
Inverted commas are used for the following purposes:
I. Genuine quotations
1.
1. Marx described religion as the
the opium of the masses.
masses .

II. Received Opinion


Sometimes, however, the writer may merely repeat hearsay or received opin
opin
ions without specifying the source. Compare the following alternatives:
2a. * We should question the morals of this, as some say,
unpredictable man.
unpredictable
2b. ...the morals of
o f this reputedly unpredictable man.

Note how the clumsy and asyntactic parenthesis as some say of 2a has been
replaced in 2b by reputedly, while the inverted commas have disappeared.

168

seemingly) has been added, while the inverted


Thus the word supposedly ((seemingly
commas have disappeared.

Let us now look at the following sentence, taken from a discussion on


nonconformists:
nonconformists:
5a.

Nonconformists deserve the credit for most


m ost human progress, since in
practice revolt
revolt often means imagination and creativity.
creativity.

Here again, if the concept revolt has occurred for the first time and there is
inap
no obvious quotation, inverted commas might strike many as being inap
propriate. Moreover, the irony or distance inherent in the writers use of
the word is hardly forceful enough to justify them. The sentence needs to
be rephrased, perhaps along the following lines:

169

5b.

...since in practice so-called revolt often means imagination and


creativity.
creativity.

Thus, the phrase so-called has been added, while the inverted commas
have disappeared.
For a writer who wishes to create a certain distance between himself
and the word or phrase that he is using, other options are also available:
6a. In many countries of the world, capitalism is the most important single
discovery of the 1990s.
1990s.
discovery
6b. In many countries of the world, capitalism is the most important single
discovery - if one can call it that - of
o f the 1990s.
7a. The mixture of
o f violent films and shocking talk-show confessions is
further enriched
enriched with endless soap operas.
operas.
7b. ...is further enriched with endless soap operas, if enriched is
the word.
word.

In each of the above pairs the second alternative (6b, 7b) is preferable.
Of course, there are also occasions when the sarcasm is less common
common
place, and it is then that inverted commas are justified, perhaps in the fol
fol
lowing example:
8. My only education
education consisted of parental abuse, sadistic teachers and
several stays in a borstal.

IV.
IV. Metaphors
Metaphors

Look at following sentences, in both of which mirror is used as a meta


meta
phor:
9. Literature should be the mirror
m irror of life.
10. Death is often the mirror
m irror of life.

In 9 the metaphor is obvious; in 10 it is not. Hence the difference in punc


punc
tuation. In other words, inverted commas should be reserved for a meta
meta
phor that is genuinely original or striking. Among foreign writers of
English a widespread error is to use inverted commas for even the most
obvious metaphors, as in the following example:
11. * Deployed on the battlefield because of its size and ferocity,
the Neapolitan mastiff
m astiff was the tank
tank of the ancient world.
world.

In modem warfare, tanks immediately spring to mind as battlefield equip


equip
ment. Thus tank is an obvious metaphor, and requires no inverted commas.
170
170

Generally, overuse or misuse of inverted commas leaves an impression


of affectation, so apart from reported speech and genuine quotations they
must be employed sparingly.

Suggested Exercises (62):

justified? How
In which of
o f the following
following sentences are inverted commas justified?
improved?
o f the sentences be
might some of
provide.
o f the sort of edification
edification that violent films provide.
1 . Parents are often unaware of
because
simply
from choice
choice or
2. Such are the down-and-outs who are poor from
they like it.
prison, so to speak.
speak.
3. Envy has the potential to turn a relationship into a prison,
4. The Government should realise the dangers of forgetting
forgetting about the poor.
literature that many of us know consists of
5. Sadly, it seems that the only literature
pulp magazines, threepenny romances or sensational tabloids.
victim s.
6. In their hunt for success reporters show no compassion for their victims.
bom artist
artist denotes.
denotes.
7. Let me explain what the term bom
family
law and order, and
8. Mrs Thatchers programme included family values, law
ents for persistent offenders.
offenders.
short, sharp punishm
punishments
H alf the class had to retake the year thanks to
to that maniac. After such en
en
9. Half
couragem ent few of us saw any point in studying any more.
couragement
10. Hungary belongs to Western Europe, where western
western means better
better developed.
10.
11.. Someone who is always afraid of what
what the neighbours will say
say does not
11
really live for himself. Adapting your life to standards
standards means living a lie all
the time.
12. My parents were brought up in a different
different reality, the reality of the sixties.
sixties.
12.
bom conformist
13. Over our monotonous world the natural
natural bom
conformist reigns supreme.
13.
14. The speaker insisted that she did not believe in any truths
truths from the Bible, or
14.
in any God.
15. Little did Marjorie know that her little
little angel
angel was really a little devil, ter
ter
15.
kids.
rorising the other kids.

Note:
Additional Note:
) and double (
( )
) inverted commas.
We can choose between single ( )
Single ones tend to be favoured especially when we discuss an individual
word or phrase or else use it in a striking manner (cf. exx. 7b and 10, above).

171
171

(;)
The Semicolon (;)
I. Semicolons
Sem icolons and commas
The semicolons most usual function is to show the basic organisation of
a sentence that already contains commas. Compare the alternative punctu
punctu
ation of the following example:
la.
la . * The duties of the monarch are to open Parliament, to appoint
ministers, to act as head of
o f the Church of England, as well as of the
British Commonwealth, to take part in various time-honoured rituals,
and generally to try to keep far away from the tabloids, which are
always in search of
o f salacious gossip.
gossip.
lb.
lb . The duties of
o f the monarch are to open Parliament; to appoint
ministers; to act as head of
o f the Church of England, as well as of the
British Commonwealth; to take part in various time-honoured rituals;
and generally to try to keep far away from the tabloids, which are
always in search of
o f salacious gossip.
gossip.

In lb
lb semicolons have been introduced in order to bring out the underlying
structure of the sentence, to create an impression of order and hierarchy
amidst what would otherwise have been a forest of commas. After all, why
should commas be used all the time, no matter whether the pause in the
sentence is more important or less important?
Similarly the punctuation of the following example can be compared:
2a. * The country possesses huge oil-deposits, though yet to be fully
exploited, extensive coffee plantations, albeit hampered by antiquated
technology, and finally, almost unlimited resources of rain forest.
2b. The country possesses huge oil-deposits, though yet to be fully
exploited; extensive coffee plantations, albeit hampered by antiquated
technology; and finally, almost unlimited resources of rain forest.

Here also 2a, having only commas, is confused and bewildering, while 2b is
clearly organised. Thus, to repeat, the semicolon often separates phrases and
clauses that are themselves broken up by commas or other punctuation.
II. Semicolons
Sem icolons without commas
com m as

In addition, the semicolon is often used to mark a division of a sentence often a long one into two grammatically comparable sections even when
other punctuation is absent:
172
172

3. In a film the producer creates every detail of his world for us; in a book
the author allows us to create that world for ourselves.

3 the two clauses are so closely parallel and mutually complementary


In 3
that a semicolon is preferable to a full stop. On the other hand, the sentence
is too long to warrant a comma.
The same pattern applies in sentences where a division into more than
two grammatically comparable sections needs to be marked:
4. Some people are sent home after a day or two; others stay for a couple of
weeks; still others require very long-term treatment.
treatment.

Again, the clauses are clearly parallel and complementary so as to make


semicolons preferable to full stops. On the other hand, the sentence is too
long for commas to be optimal.
be
Thus the semicolon may be considered as being at a halfway stage be
tween the comma and the full stop.
III. Semicolons and sentence adverbials

The semicolon is often used to link two sentences that are grammatically
separate but connected in thought when the second one is introduced by
consequent
sentence adverbials, such as the following: accordingly, also, consequent
fact, moreover, nevertheless,
ly,furthermore,
furthermore, hence, however, indeed, in fact,
on the contrary, otherwise, so, still, then, therefore, thus, what is more,
yet etc.
Two typical patterns deserve to be noted. The first is exemplified by the
following sentence:
M r Jones has been employed as a junior clerk;
clerk;
5. All these years Mr
consequently, it is time we thought about assigning him to a more
senior position.

Here the sentence adverbial consequently begins the second statement,


and is directly followed by a comma. The pattern may be summed up as
semicolon followed by one comma.
A second typical pattern is when the sentence adverbial is embedded in
the second statement:
6. For some students a teacher may be a mentor and the greatest authority;
No.l
to others, by contrast, he or she appears as Public Enemy N
o.l and
simply a monster.

173
173

1I
Here the sentence adverbial by contrast makes explicit the relation of the
two principal parts of the sentence to each other; nonetheless, it does not
start the second part directly, but is embedded or sandwiched in the text.
The pattern may be summed up as semicolon followed by two commas.

8.

9.

Note:
Additional Note:

In English the conjunction and may be preceded by the comma and semi
semi
colon, as can be seen from two of the above examples (la-b
generally,
(la-b and generally,
finally).
2a-b and finally).

Suggested Exercises (63):

punctuation in the following


following sentences (in each of
o f them at
Complete the punctuation
):
required):
least one semicolon is required
11.. Such students usually do not pay too much attention to learning they cheat in
order to pass exams and finally they become frustrated pessimistic teachers
who are not able to forget their problems as they enter the classroom.
2. In my opinion there are several kinds of poor people those who are poor
because they do not care much about material goods those who are too lazy to
more
work m
ore and finally those who are industrious and work from dawn to dusk
but still cannot save enough money for a higher standard of living.
3. In this essay I am going to give some examples to support this view and at the
same time answer two crucial questions firstly whether we have the right to
pry into politicians
politicians private lives and secondly whether those statesmen whose
private lives do not conform to the same ethical standards as their conduct in
public deserve to be condemned.
condemned.
4. Some labourers became unemployed some of them however succeeded in
making
m aking a living from agriculture.
agriculture.
5. There are programmes really worth seeing films that are works of
o f art plays we
are not able to see in the theatre but may watch on TV we can find truly edu
edu
cational productions that are not likely to have a detrimental effect on the
character of the young.
6. Such a child has everything all his dreams are fulfilled at once his life is like
a fairy tale without pain close to mothers
m others apron strings.
strings.
7. The results of such a strike can be terrifying in one country town for example
a woman died of influenza because the local doctor refused to help her claim
claim
ing that he was simply overwhelmed with patients the emergency services also

174
174

10.
10.
11.
11.

12.
12.
13.
13.
14.
14.
15.
15.

16.
16.
17.
17.

18.
18.

refused to take care of her insisting that it was the family doctor that should
take care of her.
her.
We are not all bigots and not all drunks there is a young generation that is not
at all influenced by past horrors and most importantly not everything here is
upside down.
down.
For some people the countryside is a place of
o f freedom from cars buses and
poverty.
pollution for others however it is a place of hard work and poverty.
People rarely go to a library for a good book they prefer to stay at home in
TV.
front of the TV.
Warsaw
arsaw
Western borders were suddenly open which gave the peoples of the W
Pact countries an opportunity to visit foreign countries shops were filled with
both imported and local produce the growth of
o f the free market became a fact.
Literature trains the imagination of the reader someone who reads a book can
imagine things as he wants to and create the main characters in his own way.
Many parents seem to forget about their essential role they treat their children
as playthings or as a necessary fulfilment of marriage.
People did not abandon their traditions what is more they did their best to
preserve them.
The human psyche has three levels the id standing for impulses and urges the
ego representing ones personality and the superego dealing with sublimated
urges.
desires and urges.
Good teachers never treat those entrusted to their care as their inferiors on the
equality.
contrary the relationship is based on the principle of equality.
pur
Each literary epoch possesses the rich legacy of patriotic lyrics whose pur
pose was to arouse the fighting spirit and win battles love lyrics written to
express an authors feelings towards his beloved religious poems expressing
an authors faith and devotion to God political treatises voicing the need for
w riters reflections about different
change or philosophic tracts setting forth a writers
aspects of human life.
addi
Today people work very hard to earn money they stay at work late take addi
tional hours and spend much of their free time on activities connected with
their jobs.

Key to the Exercises*


Nominalisations
(1, P- 20):
1.
1. It is not easy to answer this question. / Answering this question is not a simple
matter.
matter. 2. Our foundation invites you to participate
of
participate in.... 3. ...but the easiest way of
manipulating people
people as well. 4. ...to witness many discussions about politics. 5. The
prepare the students to use the language in a conscious
purpose of the course is to prepare
manner. 6.
6. The Royal Family was opposed to the Kings
K ings marrying
m anying a
and critical manner.
divorcee. 7. Such a man is unsuited to represent a country and its people. 8. Another
failing to trust children. 9. Every Buddhist wishes
mistake often made by parents is failing
10. A good teacher must be patient, as it is often necessary
to attain Enlightenment. 10.
11. Poles may criticise
in this job to repeat the same information several times over. 11.
fail
12. Unfortunately some teenagers fa
il to grow out o/adolescence.
o/adolescence. 13.
13. For
priests.... 12.
14. Improving
those people who do not happen to be lucky enough to own a car.... 14.
the railways and utilising them more intensively would have the effect of decreasing
extent. 15.
15. The engine resisted all attempts at
traffic congestion to a significant extent.
getting it started
again,, and we....
stalled again

(2, p. 21):
1.
1. One shortcoming of globalisation is the danger of small countries becoming dom
dom
judging his or her
inated by multinational concerns. 2. A teacher must be capable of judging
signif
fairly as individuals. 3. ...a consequence of failing
failing to realise the full signif
students fairly
icance of the situation. 4. ...identified by comparing the present century with former
i n v a d every
e d ry sphere....
epochs. 5. The theme of this essay is the way the computer has invaded
feel
...people seem
seem to
to have
have ceased
ceased to
to fe
e l that
that itit is
is necessary
necessary to
to do
do good
good deeds.
deeds. 7.
7. The
The
6. ...people
fact
fa
c t that cats have incredibly sharp
shaip senses makes them react.... 8. We run a serious

The answers provided below do not by any means exhaust all the possibilities of correctness.
In many cases alternative answers may also be found.

177
177

risk of losing our traditional, rather conservative values. 9. The new developments
possibility being considered of the coexistence of
in archaeology resulted in the possibility
possi
groups of people.... / The new developments in archaeology resulted in the possi
people coexisting as reflected....
reflected....
o f groups of
o f people
bility being considered of

Emerge, Happen, Occur, Prove, Turn Out


(7, p. 31):
1.
1. prove (to be); turn out to be 2. happened 3. proves (to be), turns out to be 4. it
now transpires that 5. turn out, prove. 6. It emerges, turns out, transpires that....
that....
7. occurs 8. it turns out that 9. it turns out that 10.
10. turns out to be. 11.
11. turned out

Proper Adjectives
(3, p. 25):

Namely and Related Expressions


(8, p. 33):

Americas
1.
1. Philadelphia is one of A
m ericas biggest cities / one of the biggest cities in Amer
Amer
ica 2. The various cultures of Europe / Europes various cultures 3. Polands young
generation / the young generation in Poland 4. one of Britains most aristocratic
families / one of the most aristocratic families in Britain

1.
1. namely 2. namely 3. In other words, Thus 4. i.e. 5. namely 6. Thus, In other
words 7. namely 8. Thus 9. namely, which is

Adjectives vs. Prepositional Modifiers

Easy, Difficult, Possible, Impossible


(9, p. 35):

(4, p. 26):
26):
1. words of criticism 2. path to democracy
1.

1. It is impossible to achieve such prosperity within a few years. 2. If it were possi


possi
1.
ble to market hope.... 3. The area is wet and therefore difficult to plough.
plough. 4. These
things are priceless but it is possible to obtain them for free. 5. It was not possible
im possible for anyone to
to
to experience these things until recently. 6. It is almost impossible
age.
easy
im possible
7. Such books are not
to read. 8. It is impossible
learn skiing at such an
to erase such bad memories within a short time. 9. Ethnic conflicts are inherently
bombing.
intractable and it is impossible to solve them only by bombing.

Belong
(5, p. 27):
27):
1.
1. Dunes are among the characteristic features of the Baltic littoral. 2. These monu
monu
ments are among those most often visited by lovers of art. 3. Frankly, the Joneses are
not to be numbered (ranked) among those people who have fastidious tastes. 4. Ac
Ac
BMJJ is one of the top three most
cording to the latest computer-based analyses the BM
prestigious journals in the world. 5. Visiting the poor and chairing various charity
organisations formed part of
o f her many duties. (Or: Her many duties included....)
6. Sensitivity,
Sensitivity, intelligence and tolerance are
are also
also to be included among the qualities of
of aa
good teacher. 7. Health and happiness are among the most precious things in life.
The m
Agatha Christie
8. The
murder
urder mysteries
ost popular books
among the
mysteries of Agatha
Christie are among
books
most
the m
ever written. 9. Diet is one of the most crucial factors in human longevity.

Value

(10, p. 36):
1.
1. elements 2. aspects; features 3. elements 4. for things of such priceless value
as; for such blessings as 5. have an eternal value, being respected by...; ...are things
of eternal value, being respected by.... 6. thing

Citizen

Get
(6, p. 29):

(11, p. 37):
1. townsfolk, townspeople, city dwellers 2. non-specialists, lay people, ordinary
1.
people 3. ordinary Americans, the average Am
erican 4. peoples lives, the lives of
American
ordinary people 5. the average adult 6. the people who live there 7. westerners,
people from the West
W est 8. ordinary people 9. Many
M any Romans 10.
10. educated people,
educated folk

1.
1. acquire; gain 2. possesses 3. become; grow 4. has; is left with; cannot avoid;
cannot escape 5. be; obtain a proper education etc. 6. avoid; evade 7. extract; ob
ob
tain 8. become; grow 9. select; find something interesting for oneself
oneself in
in the pro
pro
gramme offered 10.
10. have 11.
11. grows 12.
12. derive, obtain 13.
13. grow

179
179

178
178

Appositions (I)
(12, p.
p. 42):
42):

possible: owns
Also possible:
1. Our company owns the Dutch publishing house Polkadot. ((Also
1.
Polkadot, a Dutch publishing house.) 2. The British PM Benjamin Disraeli played
writ
a crucial role in the crisis. 3. The book describes the relationship between the writ
Hum bert Humber and a precocious teenager. 4. The Soviet politician Mikhail
er Humbert
events. 5. From my window I have a spectacular
Gorbatchev also describes these events.
o f the extinct volcano Shavnabada, which forms part of the central mountain
view of
possible: ...a spectacular view of Shavnabada, an extinct volcano which
lso possible:
Also
range. ((A
forms part of the central mountain range.) 6. The above journals are complemented
Also possible: ...by Forthcom
Forthcom
Publications. ((Alsopossible:
by the monthly bulletin Forthcoming Publications.
Nor
Viking comes from vikingr,
vikingr, an old Nor
Publications, a monthly bulletin.) 7. Viking
ing Publications,
pirate. 8. The Peasants
Peasants Revolt was led by Wat
W at Tyler, a man of
dic word meaning pirate.
Ri
humble origins. 9. Using e-mail I can communicate with my Australian friend Ri
possible: ...with Richard, an Australian friend of
Also
lso possible:
chard within a few seconds. ((A
10. A poll conducted by the American magazine Newsweek also gave the
mine....) 10.
11. The Roman poet Juvenal once said that.... 12.
12. Taking the double
same results. 11.
him self as a defender of
name John Paul II, he soon established a reputation for himself
possible:
(A lso possible:
freedom, offering great moral support for the Solidarity trade union. (Also
13. Not only does the President face a charge of
...for the trade union Solidarity.) 13.
sexual harassment by former Arkansas State employee Paula Jones, but he has also
Lewin
-year-old White House intern Monica Lewin
21-year-old
had an extramarital affair with 21
14. The name Iron
Iron Curtain
Curtain was given to the Elbe frontier. 15.
15. Orphee,
Orphee, con
con
sky. 14.
ceived and directed by the great French playwright Jean Cocteau, is a case in
point. 16.
16. ...in the framework of the mass movement Alliance for Change. 17.
17. Thus
un
Raskolnikov, the protagonist of Dostoyevskys novel Crime and Punishment,
Punishment, un
18. I would like to quote the words of a
dergoes something of a spiritual rebirth. 18.
19. Pope John Paul II has tried
song by the British heavy-metal band Iron Maiden. 19.
reformer
er John XXIII and the enlightened conserv
conserv
to continue the work of the great reform
ative Paul VI.

Appositions (II): Appositions vs. Prepositional Structures


(13, p. 47):
In all sentences (1-10) the first option only is correct.

180
180

Because in Negative Sentences


(14, p. 50):
1.
1. for, since, the reason being that, for the simple reason that. (Also possible
a
possible is a
new sentence starting with After all.) 2. since, for the simple reason that. (Also
possible: their only goal being to make maximum profits.) 3. since 4. for. (Also
possible:
(Also
possible: for it is simply not enough.)
possible:

Being and Having


(15, p. 51):
Young
1.
1. Nowadays it is difficult to find anybody who does not have a TV set. 2. Young
people in love have been the subject.... 3. Cheltenham has long been known as a
spa which has a distinctive microclimate. (Also: ...as a spa with a distinctive micro
m icro
climate.) 4. In the course of the years the duchesss smile, which was initially warm
and natural, froze into a studied, official one. (Also: ...the duchesss smile, initially
range of hills of
warm and natural....) 5. A range
of pivotal importance is the Pennines.
Pennines.
6. Despite
Despite his
his enormous
enormous wealth
wealth Hughes
Hughes had
had no
no one
one who
who truly
truly loved
loved him....
him.... 7.
7. At
At
the age
age of 70 Mann crossed the Pyrenees on foot to escape arrest. 8. ...by people
who had a hostile attitude towards her. 9. ...the government of a country that is a
member of theEU....
the EU.... 10.
10. Marilyn Monroe died as a young attractive woman. (Also:
(Also:
they have few resources and poor
...died a young attractive woman.) 11.
11. Though
Though they
equipment.:.. (Also: Despite their few resources and poor equipment...; With
W ith their
few resources etc.) 12.
12. Though intelligent and good-looking.... (Also: Though she
was intelligent etc....) 13.
13. Mother Teresa visited many people in need. (Also: ...many
having no formal education.... (Also: Though
While
people who were in need.) 14.
14. W
hile having
he had....-)
had....-) 15.
15. ...is not unusual for a person who is so young and vet has a high
voung and with a high social position.)
social position. (Also: ...for a person so voung
Though so
16.
fragile and
and small
(Also: Though
so fragile
small compared
to the
the great
great universe....
compared to
16. Though
universe.... (Also:
Though he
he
is....) 17.
17. ...there is at least one rescue worker with a specialised medical training.
training.
(Also: ...one rescue worker who has undergone....) 18.
18. People under the influence
of alcohol do not have the right to use our facilities. (Also: People who are under....)

Be + to-infinitive
(16, p. 55):
1.
1. is expected to, is supposed to, is meant to 2. is expected to, has to 3. exists to, is
intended to, is there to 4. are expected to, are supposed to

181
181

Comment Clauses with As


(17, p. 57):
1. It is widely assumed that this cataclysm destroyed the entire Minoan
M inoan civilisation
1.
in a single day. (Also: This cataclysm, it is widely assumed, destroyed....) 2. The
best way to dismantle a personality was, she remarked, to isolate it. (Also: She
was....
remarked that the best way to....) 3. The lama stressed that his mental state was....
justified. (Also:
(Also:
4. It seems that (or: It would seem that) dishonesty is sometimes justified.
position
Unchanged: the speakers position
Dishonesty is, it seems, sometimes justified. 5. Unchanged:
person who wrote the report.
o f the person
report. 6. The relationship between
is identical to that of
her husband and Camilla had, she said (or: she insisted), appalled her from the
very beginning. (Also: ...the relationship between her husband and Camilla had,
footnote.) 7. You claim in your article that
- cf. pp.. 56,
56, footnote.)
as she put it, appalled her.... - so you claim
nuclear energy is the only feasible option. (Also: Nuclear energy is - the only feasible option.) 8. Her deep love of her spiritual mentor
in your article free and wholehearted dedication....
dedication.... 9. ...be
...be
inclined her towards what she called free
cause they assumed I was too young....

Complements and the Verb To Be

Constructions with As and Than


(20, p. 63):
1.
1. as did his attempt 2. As was ascertained 3. as may be inferred 4. as did most
m ost
people 5. as did most of the people there 6. as is usually imagined 7. As has be
b e
come apparent 8. As shown; As has been shown 9. as can be seen 10.
10. as had been
expected 11.
11. as all too often happens (In this sentence as means just
ju st as
a s and not
seeing
.) 12.
seeing that
that.)
12. as can be illustrated 13.
13. as is common 14.
14. As had once hap
hap
pened 15.
15. as can be noticed 16.
16. as is observable 17.
17. as might have been expect
expect
ed 18.
18. as was humanly possible 19.
19. as is the fact that 20. as did some other states
states
men 21. as can be illustrated 22. as is typical 23. as was proper 24. as is their
intention 25. As is widely realised 26. than had previously been supposed.

Gerunds
(21, p. 65):
1.
1. There should be strict controls on the manufacturing of
o f such articles. 2. The
Council cannot tolerate the killing o/unarmed
o/unarm ed civilians by paramilitaries. 3. A spe
spe
cial term exists for this manipulating o/public opinion.... 4. The Institute prompted
prom pted
the setting up of
o f two research stations.

(18, p. 59):
1. The birds are the first thing that visitors to Australia notice. 2. Doctors are distin
distin
1.
What
possible: W
hat distinguishes
guished from others by their professional ethics. (Also possible:
doctors from others is their professional ethics.) 3. The beggars who throng the
long
streets and train stations are yet another sign of the countrys poverty. 4. Our long
o f people whose
term goal is bilateral relations.... 5. Philosophers are another group of
aim is to possess wisdom. 6. Another proof of the villas late occupation is the
pavements of
o f mosaic and marble fragments indiscriminately mixed.
mixed.

(19, p. 60):
1. The Botanical Gardens constitute one.... 2. People who are completely absorbed
1.
in
in their careers provide (or: constitute) another interesting instance..; Another in
at
teresting instance of bad parents is provided by people.... 3. ...but the greatest at
traction is provided by the tall cliffs...; ...but it is the tall cliffs jutting straight into
attraction.
the sea that constitute the greatest attraction.

182
182

Most
(22, p. 66):
1.
1. the most frightening thing is the fact that...; what is especially frightening is the
the
fact that... 2. the most important thing is... 3. The most visible thing for anyone...;
What is most visible for anyone... 4. the most crucial thing is... 5. The most
m ost re
re
...; What is most remarkable about... 6. are most
markable thing about
a b o u t...;
m ost important...
important...
7. the most important thing... 8. are most appropriate at this moment; are the most
m ost
appropriate measures (steps etc.) at this moment 9. the most important thing of all
is that...

Many of..., Most of..,


Of
O f ((Many
of..., Some of... etc.)

(23, p. 68):
1.
1. Some parts 2. No parent is... 3. Any human values were... 4. One such organi
organi
sation... 5. Hardly any such child stands... 6. Most
M ost Americans possess... 7. one
book 8. all people

183
183

Problems with Negative Sentences


(24, p. 72f.):
A. 1.
1. either 2. let alone, to say nothing of 3. either 4. let alone, to say nothing
of 5. either 6. to say nothing of
o f 7. let alone, least of all 8. let alone, to say nothing
of 9.
9. any more than 10.
10. either 11.
11. let alone 12.
12. any more than 13.
13. let alone, least
were
alone,
15.
of
let
least
all 16.
14. any more than her parents
15.
16. any more
of all 14.
let
alone
18.
of
all
17. let alone, least
18.
than 17.
1. Our new secretary is not very hard-working, and she does not prove to be
B. 1.
very competent either. 2. The turmoil on the Japanese markets has not affected the
economic situation of neighbouring countries to any considerable degree. 3. Joan
has no talent for teaching, let alone for getting her knowledge across.

Relative Clauses and the Comma


(25, p. 75):
1.
1. Tourists
Touristsmay
maywell
wellbe
becharmed
charm edby
bytheir
theirvisit
visittotoour
ourcountry,
country,where
whereremarkable
remarkable
custom s are still to be found. 2. The m
ost important organisation is the EU, w
hich
most
customs
which
com prises 15
15 members. 3. Unchanged
Unchanged 4. The ties between m
an and nature,
now comprises
man
w hich were very close until the nineteenth century, can no longer be restored.
which
restored.
Unchanged 6.
6. Even
Even in
in the
the economically
econom ically most
most developed
developed countries,
countries, where
where itit
5. Unchanged
might seem that everyone lives in affluence, there are people whose standard of
living is low. 7. Unchanged
Unchanged 8. Unchanged
Unchanged 9.
9. Unchanged
Unchanged 10.
10. Even now Eng
Eng
traditions,
land has a num
an
number
November
example of which is Novem
ber of old
ber 5, when
children bum a dummy. 11.
11. Unchanged
U nchanged 12.
12. Europes
E uropes paparazzi, some of whom
even disturbed her last moments,
m om ents, must
m ust take much of
o f the blam
blamee for the princesss
death. 13.
13. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 14.
14. Becoming poor is not a punishment:
punishment: it is simply life,
which
w hich is often cruel and full of injustices. (A coordinate clause can easily be
formed:
form
ed: it is simply life and life is often cruel and full of injustices.) 15.
15. Un
Un
changed 16.
16. Unchanged
Unchanged 17.
17. Everything began in the early 50s, when the foun
foun
constructed. 18.
18. Unchanged
Unchanged 19.
19. Unchanged
Unchanged
dations for the EU were being constructed.
20. The
which
Commission,
to
which
mem
ber-states
send
delegates,
meets
Commission,
The European
send
delegates,
to
European
in
member-states
meets in
Napoleon,
Strasbourg. 21. Unchanged
Unchanged 22. N
apoleon, who
w ho is remembered today as one of
F rances greatest men, was actually a Corsican. 23. Global warm
ing will have
Frances
warming
m alaria already reaps a
especially serious consequences in Central Africa, where malaria
grim harvest.
Unchanged 25. Their marriage,
m arriage, which
w hich used to be considered
harvest. 24. Unchanged
so stable, has now come to an end. 26. Unchanged
Unchanged 27. Unchanged
U nchanged 28. Paper,

silk and gunpowder were first m


manufactured
anufactured in China, where recorded history

reaches back 5000 years.

184
184

There
T here
(26, p. 79):
1. Most of us wonder whether watching TV has more positive or negative aspects.
1.
may develop between them.
them.
2. When people of different nations meet, a discourse may
3. Owing to this a maritime climate prevails in our part of the world. 4. Such
a situation must have had a cause. 5. When
W hen this slanderous article appeared, he was
absolutely speechless. 6. Serious problems often occur if proper precautions are
not taken. 7. They do not realise that such a problem exists. 8. Recently a debate
on this particular issue has emerged. 9. While the traditional method of learning
has many adherents.... 10.
10. If these two problems can be overcome, possibilities of
real development will appear. 11.
11. In the last few years doubts have also arisen about
the benefits of.... 12.
12. One should stress that this reform has numerous pros and
13. As a result of the changes we see that education is no longer
longer free. Of
Of
cons. 13.
good aspects.
course some will argue that paving for education does have its good
arbitrary
15. Obviously,
victims.
14. ...for ...for
this strike
has already
claimed
too many
victims.
15. Obviously,
arbitrary
14.
claimed
this strike
too many
has already
16. These examples show that thousands
or unjust redundancies sometimes occur. 16.
actually have positive role models. 17.
17. ...it seems obvious that
of young people do actually
significant
significant changes
changes and improvements have appeared in the wav we live. 18.
18. Those
seeing as they
they did the emergence
emergence of reggae, heavy
years were crucial for music, seeing
metal, techno and rap. (Also: Reggae, heavy metal, techno and rap emerged.)

(27, p. 81):
1. No more staff meetings
meetings have been planned for the foreseeable future. (Not: No
1.
2 .11 am going to
more staff meetings for the foreseeable future have been planned.) 2.
anv limits should be established to such interference in private
consider whether any
affairs. (Not: ...whether any limits to such interference in private affairs should be
established.) 3. A special term has even been coined for this kind of thing. (Not:
A special term for this kind of thing has even been coined.) 4. organisations ought
ought
devot
to be formed, devoted to the needs of such social groups. (Not: organisations devot
ed to the needs of such social groups ought to be formed.) 5. No written accounts of
(Not: No written
this event have been found in the records of other civilisations. (Not:
o f this event in the records of
o f other civilisations have been found.)
accounts of
Every year
year innocent
innocent people
people are
are murdered....
m urdered.... 7.
7. Fortunately,
Fortunately, people
people are
are inventing
inventing
6. Every
dealing with such problems.
problems.
more and more ways of deeding

Additional Note to Exercise 27:


Note how in each of the above suggested answers long subjects followed by short
predicates have been avoided, in accordance with the principle outlined elsewhere
(pp. 103-106).
103-106).

185
185

(28, p. 82):
1.
1. Beyond the picturesque town of Penzance lies the westernmost point of Great
Britain. 2. Adjacent to the Grand Hotel is / is situated the Sopot pier, extending 5
512
12
metres. 3. Ahead of them, clearly discernible on the horizon, rose / towered the
Pillars of Hercules. 4. On the western edge of the Nile delta lies / is situated // i
located the city of Alexandria. 5. At a right angles to the square is / is to be found
fonnH
the towns
tow ns most
m ost famous monument.
monument.

What,
What, Which
Which etc.
(29, p. 83):
1.
1. Mr
M r Jones is an avid football-fan, a circumstance that is often a cause of argu
argu
ments. 2. They watch soap operas every day, a habit that is certainly a waste of
time. 3. John said he would fight for custody of the children, an attitude / stance
that he justified by saying that Jane was unsuited as a mother. 4. The Joneses have
different social backgrounds, a circumstance that seems to influence the relations
between Mrs Joness parents and their own son-in-law.

(30, p. 84):
1.
1. Dreams are closely related to reality, as can be illustrated by the fact that we often
dream about people and places we know. 2. People in our country tend to be very
hospitable, a
as visitors will easily notice. (Also: ...
... as will easily be noticed by vi
vi
sitors.) 3. In extreme cases love may demand the sacrifice of life, as was the case
with Romeo and Juliet. 4. The government does not attach much importance to the
teaching profession, as is obvious from the teachers
teachers wages. 5. Life expectancy
and life style are closely related, as has been established beyond all doubt by an
immense number of scientific studies.
studies.

(31, p. 86):
1.
1. more
m ore worryingly, worse still etc. 2. Worse
W orse still, Making matters worse 3. more
importantly 4. more importantly, worse still, more worryingly etc. 5. making mat
mat

W hat is worth mentioning is that George al


al
inal. 3. It is worth mentioning that / What
remarka
arka
ways put other people first and himself last. 4. It is remarkable that / The rem
ble thing is
is. that / What is remarkable is that they do not overestimate their financial
W hat is curious is that
situation. 5. It is curious that / It is a curious fact that / What
people often behave in an irrational way when confronted by TV-cameras. 6. It is
is
an important fact that / The important thing is that dreams reveal the stresses with
which people are not able to cope in reality. 7. It is striking that / The striking thing
im possi
is that / What is especially striking is that many companies claim that it is impossi
ble to sell their products without resorting to such methods. 8. It is extraordinary
W hat is
that / It is an extraordinary fact that / The extraordinary thing is that / What
extraordinary is that no more than a century ago the extended family was the rule
rather than the exception in most of Europe.

Cleft Sentences with the Pronoun It


(33, p. 91):
1. It is owing to his highly developed brain that man is able to learn many difficult
1.
to
things. 2. The psychiatrist explained that while he was always careful to listen to
each patient carefully, it was the body language that told him most. 3. It was the
1998 the
existence of a common threat that cemented the military alliance. 4. In 1998
1999 it was the courses
courses in investment banking were especially popular, but in 1999
of
in derivative instruments that drew the most participants. 5. During those years of
tyranny it was personal contacts and not ones abilities that brought success in many
spheres of life. 6. It is impeccable behaviour in private life that makes a politician
worthy of the respect and trust of others. 7. It is especially while being abroad for
some time that one may begin to think unconsciously in the language of the foreign
leam the local traditions of Andalusia, and it was
country. I had the opportunity to learn
language that made it possible. 8. It was not until the publication of his book that
experi
this theory was called into question. 9. For others it is only from personal experi
10. After all, it is the moments of
o f horror before
ence that true wisdom may stem. 10.
re
maths and the attempts to keep our eyes open during biology lessons that we re
most.
member most.

ters worse

(32, p. 87):
1.
1. It is ironic that / The ironic thing is that the Party was abolished by the man whom
it had once expelled in disgrace. 2. It is striking that / The striking thing is that //
What
W hat is especially striking is that he does not consider his actions to be at all crimcrim

186
186

Emphatic Word Order (Fronting)


I: Hardly, Only, Rarely, Scarcely etc.
(34, p. 93):
1. Seldom before had I seen such an expressive face. 2. Such is the wisdom that
1.
every one of us can derive from reading books. 3. Never before has such enormous

187
187

progress in medicine been achieved. 4. Only by communicating in this way can a


be
real relationship be established. 5. Very rarely do such couples get married be
cause they love each other. 6. Only by using his inborn creativity can a teacher
o f soccer
vary his lessons and make them worth attending. 7. Such is the level of
violence in Argentina that a judge there has recently banned all games for a month.
8. In the worst scenario not only is communication abandoned but parents devote
their entire energies to attaining common material goals. 9. Only by reading the
authors book or poem in the original can one appreciate the talent and writing skill
o f the author. 10.
10. So imaginative and creative was she that every class with her was
of
11. Not only does this knowledge imbue one with confidence but it also
different. 11.
helps one in getting to know other cultures. 12.
12. Talent must be accompanied by
hard work, and only then does it yield results. 13.
13. Not without reason can one say
14. So enthralled are the fans by their idol
that the pen is mightier than the sword. 14.
that they will follow him to the ends of the earth. 15.
15. Under no circumstances should
literature serve useful
useful purposes. 16.
16. No sooner had this scandal been forgotten
17. Nowhere are the traces of
o f the First World War
W ar more
than another appeared. 17.
18. Only when your manners improve will you be
visible than in Northern France. 18.
19. Hardly for a single moment did he stop to think
allowed to join our gathering. 19.
about the consequences of his deed. 20. Little did the princess realise what terrible
fate awaited her. 21. Such was the force of the explosion that several people were
instantly.
killed instantly.

Emphatic Word Order (Fronting)


II: With As and Though
(35, p. 97):
1.
1. Angry though (or: as) the countess was, she was tempted to laugh. 2. Fascinated
by these characters as they are, children want to be like them. 3. Unwilling as most
people might be to admit the fact, the world today is ruled by the power of mon
mon
ey. 4. Cruel though (or: as) this may seem, the ability to speak a foreign language is
job. 5. Well prepared and competent though (or:
indispensable for any well-paid job.
as) he may be, such a person will never reach the level of
o f the healer that has true
vocation. 6. Different as the sources of the tragedy may be, poverty has one face
for those who have experienced it. 7. Sad as (or: though) this may seem, it is a fact
that parents have a tendency to regard love as a financial transaction. 8. Good gen
gen
eral as he was, Hannibal made the most careful dispositions. 9. Spoilt as they are,
such children cannot cope with the real world. 10.
10. Inane though (or: as) they are,
such soap operas flood our TV channels. 11.
11. Incomprehensible as it might seem to
us, the reclusive way of life is not devoid of experience. 12.
12. Cunning though (or:
as) Moriarty was, he was outwitted by the superior guile of
o f Sherlock Holmes.

188
188

(36, p. 98):
1.
1. Having as he does the most highly developed brain functions, man seems to be
completely different from the other primates. 2. Taking up so much time as it does,
television can be detrimental to family relations. 3. It will not be difficult for the
twenty-first century to seem like an age of gold, having as it does such a terrible and
bloody predecessor. 4. TV, operating as it does by means of visual images, is much
more communicative and fascinating than radio. 5. The publication constitutes an
invaluable source of information, including as it does many crucial discoveries.

Relative Clauses in Apposition


(37, p. 101):
1.
1. Susan considers the guide dog to be a most precious gift, one which has changed
gift that....) 2. The plan involves an alter
alter
her life completely. (Also: one that...; a gift
native to spending a prison sentence, one which is open to all women prisoners.
prisoners.
3. We
We do
do not
not notice
notice the
the unique
unique features
features of
o four
oureveryday
everyday reality
reality and
and mentality,
mentality, ones
ones
that...;
which would nonetheless surprise the first-time foreign visitor. (Also: ones that...;
features that....) 4. English people consume enormous quantities of tea, a habit which
has become legendary. (Also: a habit that....) 5. Her relationship to Diana was very
might
ight have been attributable to resem
resem
profound and heartfelt, an attitude which m
blances of character. (Also: an attitude that....) 6. The local roads are extremely bad
when compared with those in Western Europe, a circumstance which makes it im
im
possible to dispense with trains completely. (Also: a circumstance that....) 7. The
o f the composer as endowed with a marvellous lyrical
manuscripts reveal a picture of
talent, an artist who builds up the emotional climate of the music by means of
o f the
where
melodic line. 8. This is a classic example of
wants
a
a
o f family
to project
father
his own ambitions onto a child, an attitude which in the longer term may and often
does prove fatal. (Also: a situation which / that...; an inclination which / that....)
Mother Teresa
Teresa was
was known
known for
for her
her loving
loving heart,
heart, one
one which
which did
did not
not distinguish
distinguish
9. Mother
between nations and religions. (Also: one that...; a heart which / that....) 10.
10. The
harshness,
and
express
doggedness
strength
impression
face seems to
which is strength
an
ened by the sinister glint in the eyes. (Also: an impression that...; an effect which /
that....) 11.
11. The vast majority of
o f anaesthetists refused to continue working, a deci
deci
com pletely paralysed the health system. (Also: a decision that....)
sion which completely
12.
theory,one
12. Scholars
propoundanother
Scholarsalso
onewhich
alsopropound
anothertheory,
whichisisbased
based on
moreconvention
onmore
convention
al argumentation. (Also: one that....) 13.
13. They treat old people with respect, an
attitude which is probably linked to the importance attached to good manners. (Also:
an attitude that....) 14.
14. Mr
M r and Mrs Jones have little job
job security and poor profes
profes
sional prospects, a circumstance which may disqualify them as potential fosterparents. (Also: a circumstance that....) 15.
15. A visit to the harbour is always like

189
189

a week in a health resort, a place where all my senses may recuperate from the
16. The extended family is not an anachronism. It is a
fumes and traffic of the city. 16.
cure for loneliness, an institution which has developed along with humanity and
remedy which / that....)
must be continuously cultivated. (Also: an institution that; a remedy
clerksusually
usually female
queuesfor
in queues
likely to
female
stand in
hourswhile
whileclerks
forhours
to stand
17. Our
touristisis likely
Ourtourist
17.
are varnishing their nails, reading magazines, drinking coffee, guzzling cakes and
gossiping about their bosss latest hair-do, an attitude which they acquired during
ap
their years under the previous political system. (Also: an attitude that...; an ap
proach to work which / that...; habits which / that....) 18.
18. Owing to these childhood
experiences she is unable to establish any satisfactory relationships with others,
a predicament which leaves her a very unhappy person. (Also: a predicament that....)

Coordination
II: Concord and Gender Bias
(40, p. Ill):
Ill):
1.
1. he or she 2. his, his 3. he (also: he or she) 4. one 5. him (also: him or her; that
person) 6. his 7. his, his (also: each students, his or her) 8. he (also: he or she; that
person) 9. him, his (also: that person, his or her; such people, their) 10.
10. his, his 11.
11. his
(also: his or her; that persons) 12.
12. him 13.
13. that persons (also: his; his or her) 14.
14. he,
he.
He (also: he or she, The average adolescent) 15.
15. its own 16.
16. himself
him self (also: him- or
herself) 17.
17. him, his (also: that person, his or her; that person, his) 18.
18. he (also: he or
she) 19.
19. that person 20. one 21. he, his 22. his or her (also: his) 23. he (also: he or
she; that person) 24. he (also: he or she) 25. his, himself, his, his 26. himself
himself 27. his
(also: his or her) 28. that person (also: him or her)

Abrupt Sentence Endings

(38, p. 105):
1. Easter is another typical example... 2. Urgent action is necessary to improve.... 3. It
1.
was against this background that the idea emerged of writing.... 4. Our minds may be
broadened by documentaries which.... 5. Opinions may differ as to whether.... 6. Re
Re
sentence. 7. It is sad to observe five-year-olds
move the last two words in the sentence.
M ommsens contribution....
who.... 8. Among these particular attention is due to Th. Mommsens

Coordination
I: Unjustified Change of Subject
(39, p. 106):

__

1. We
W e hardly
hardly spoke
spoke aa word...
word... 2.
2. ...if
...if they
they have
have made
made any
any mistake.
mistake. 3.
3. ...the
...the state
state
1.
ments that they utter... 4. ...to party activism, regarding it as a kind of... 5. ...and
never count the cost, caring nothing for public opinion. 6. ...that they have never
convenient.
encountered before. 7. ...that perhaps they find more attractive or convenient.
...and he
he will
will have
have aa struggle
struggle arranging
arranging anything...
anything... 9.
9. ...by
...by the
the awarding
awarding of
of the
the
8. ...and
Nobel Prize. 10.
10. ...and I will attempt to explain why. 11.
11. ...that he has yet to over
over
12. ...whatever she found superfluous. 13.
13. ...that we do not like trees or
come. 12.
14. ...something that we consider vital. 15.
15. ...by which I mean
going for walks. 14.
16. ...that the two are unconnected. 17.
17. ...he (also: he or she) will under
under
culture. 16.
18. ...a deep respect for such things as honesty, keeping ones word,
stand why... 18.
19__ that everything
everything is
preordained and thus
worth
and respect for ones elders. 19
is preordained
thus not worth
Europe
trying to change. 20. ...which they consider the most important thing. 21. Europe
ans are especially well received in the States, and they should not think twice about
visiting the country.

190
190

Coordination
III: Absence of Parallel Structure
(41, p. 114):

__

1.
1. TV not only gives us... 2. Either the question has... (also: ...or could be an
an
swered...) 3. ...but they also show... 4. ...but also desensitise... 5. The young are
M an is able not only
expected not only to maintain... 6. ...should be not only... 7. Man
to create... 8. Bringing up children means not only providing... 9. ...but she was
also believed... (also: Mother
M other Teresa was not only widely recognised...) 10.
10. ...will
turn neither into... 11.
11. expect him to be not only a competent candidate... 12.
12. Life
style determines not only longevity but also the quality of life. 13
13__ but also
also ruin...
ruin...
(also: Not only are such teenagers unaware...) 14.
14. ...and the bad things... 15.
15. ...they
have not only...

(42, p. 116):
1.
I. By introducing a common currency and eliminating
elim inating international barriers (also:
By the introduction of a common currency and the elimination of international bar
bar
riers) the countries of Western
W estern Europe became integrated in terms of economics,
trade, and to some extent culture. 2. ...equality or wealth. 3. ...or Catholic cler
cler
ic... 4. ...to help them, to talk to them, or even sometimes to prepare... 5. ...and
identity. 6. ...and harm the poor. 7. ...and still effective... 8. ...or does perhaps the
10. ...the status quo of Europe and the world...
world...
fault lie...? 9. ...of finding a job... 10.
diet,
regular
11.
balanced
life
a
style,
I I . A proper
ad
sports and the avoidance of ad
dictions... 12.
12. ...the average European. 13.
13. ...using the railway... 14.
14. ...methods
of separating, purifying and measuring the activity of radioactive elements.

191
191

Coordination
IV: Unjustified Change of Person
(43, p. 117):
1. ...and educating oneself. 2. Or when we dream about failing our exam.... ((The
The
1.
alternative, namely of
o f using one and ones
o n es throughout,
throughout, would read less natural
natural
alternative,
ly.)
.) 3. ...when the mind is stimulated... (Also: ...when our minds are stimulated....)
ly.
suggests that the
can... (The humour ooff the
the context suggests
...as they
5. You can...
us... 5.
help us...
they help
4. ...as
preferred to one and ones.
you and yo
your
u r are to be preferred
ones. Also the repetition
more informal you
o f one and ones
o n es would seem highly awkward and unnatural.)
unnatural.)
of

Coordination
Participles
V: Dangling Participles
(44, p. 119):
1. Whoever
W hoever examines the influence of TV will have to face one important ques
ques
1.
tion. 2. When visiting Britains former colonies one can still come across... 3. Given
W hen one observes the sheer variety... 4. Having
the sheer variety of opinions...; When
time,
eater of tim
e, TV is argu
argu
attained such a rank, many abuse... 5. Though called an eater
entertainment.
ably a necessary source of information as well as entertainment.

Splices

(45, p. 120):
(Depending on
on the
the meaning:)
meaning:) i.i. While
While most
most people
people admire
admire sportsmen
sportsmen and
and watch
watch
1. (Depending
screen, ii. While most
them on TV, they all too rarely move from the front of the screen,
people admire sportsmen, they all too rarely move from the front of the screen as
they
they watch them on TV. 2. (Depending on the meaning:) i. With a freely elected
government in office and the free market taking hold at long last, the country is
looking forward to the kind of prosperity that the West has long enjoyed. (A comma
mar
has been removed.) ii. With a freely elected government in office and the free mar
ket taking hold, the country is looking forward at long
long last to the kind of prosperity
given the sophisticated
that the West has long enjoyed. 3. Although at first it may, given
language of many masterpieces, be difficult to follow the gist, the fact that you have
read one such work will give you a great deal of satisfaction. 4. When the countries
of the East started to turn towards democracy and towards freedom of speech, press
peo
and conscience, the division into eastern and western Europe still survived in peo
pples
les minds. 5. Whoever
W hoever wishes to become a successful practitioner will surely
surely
invest in his education, never cease to increase his qualifications, and be devoted to
all his patients.
patients.

192
192

(46, p. 121):
1.
1. However, only some doctors are successful. (Also
(Alsopossible:
doc
possible: ...yet only some doc
tors are successful.) 2. Tricky as the question is, an attempt will be made in this
essay to examine it.

Unclear Antecedents (I)


(47, p. 123):
1.
1. Is such an attitude justified? 2. We
W e should appreciate this basic truth.
truth. 3. People
complain that the trains are late... 4. but such ideas are simply mistaken.
mistaken. 5. even
though the latter are known for their love of cleanliness.
cleanliness.

Unclear Antecedents (II)


The Pronoun It.
It.
(48, p.124):
p. 124):
1.
I. This is mainly because.... 2. Such an arrangement / Such a pattern is supposed
to.... 3. Such a pattern of behaviour can also be observed.... 4. The result was that
many students played truant. 5. Such words speak volumes.... 6. Those doctors
who forget this basic truth / this basic fact.... 7. ... such a scenario / outcome is just
impossible. 8.
... and he showed his disapproval.... 9.
8....
9....
... and there seems to be nothing
abnormal in such behaviour / in doing so. 10. ...but such a life style does not seem
to tire him. (Also: ... but his journeys / peregrinations etc. do not seem to tire him.)
11.
I I . Impressive as all this may seem
seem ....; Impressive as this list may seem .... 12.
12. The
whole area is an eyesore.... 13.
13. Doing so could have given.... 14.
14. ...Such meas
m eas
ures would.... 15.
15. ...but few are ready to admit the fact. 16.
16. Unfortunately such
a thing happens very rarely....

Un-English Syntax
I: Verb and Object
(49, p. 126):
1.
1. Such eyesores generally represent the tasteless architecture of
o f the past. 2. In
reality, few politicians enjoy any privacy. 3. The young generation does have role
models that profoundly influence teenagers. 4. Those are the boys who in cold
blood killed a two-year-old child. Also: who killed a two-year-old child in cold
blood. 5. A good teacher can, for example, make you adore physics, even if you
loathed the subject sincerely before. 6. They want the best for their children.
children.
7. The
The news
news is
is full
full of
of various
various conflicts
conflicts now
now tormenting
tormenting that
that continent.
continent. 8.
8. A
A friend
friend

193
193

whom Diana had trusted made a small fortune out of publishing untrue or half-true
stories about her. 9. One may see many interesting exhibits here. A
Also:
lso: Here one
may see.... 10.
10. He says that while he likes the USA, he can do much more in Cen
Cen
tral and Eastern Europe. 11.
11. TV affects our lives tremendously. 12.
12. Man
M an usually
considers him
himself
self superior, conceitedly calling himself
him self homo
homo sapiens. 13.
13. John
realises this fact perfectly well. 14.
14. If you were to ask such people, they would
probably, after a moments
m om ents hesitation, put money at the top of their list of priori
priori
ties. 15.
Also:
15. We
W e have considerably improved our safety precautions. A
lso: We
W e have
im proved our safety precautions considerably.
improved

Un-English Syntax
II: Main and Subordinate Clauses
(50, p. 128):
1.
1. Although the RSC is perceived as exclusively producing Shakespeare, their pro
pro
gramme does in fact include classical theatre of all periods. 2. As we grow up and
face more
m ore and more moral dilemmas, we can no longer condemn such behaviour.
3. Had
Hadititnot
notbeen
beenfor
forsuch
suchevents,
events,we
wewould
wouldnow
nowperhaps
perhapsbe
beliving
livingininaacompletely
completely
different reality. 4. When
W hen we cross the threshold of
o f parenthood, we simultaneously
cross the threshold of the generation gap. 5. While
W hile in the initial stages training was
focussed mainly on traditional banking, the course gradually came to include other
areas. 6. Although the majority of
o f people have chosen to live in small units, there is
still a tendency in some regions towards preserving extended families. 7. As I am
not a music lover, my dislike of concerts has frequently led to serious quarrels
between us both. 8. Founded by 12
12 countries in Washington in 1949,
1949, NATO was
initially a military alliance against the USSR. 9. As most would agree, it depends
on ourselves to a certain extent in what way we are influenced by the mass me
m e
dia. 10.
10. If a child is deprived of the possibility of imitating grown-ups, he or she
will probably find it difficult as an adult to perform the role of parent. 11.
11. Although
he offers a plausible theory, he sometimes
som etim es unfortunately borders on fantasy.
fantasy.
When
12.
to politics,
comes to
politics, our
our country
country seems
finally after
seems finally
12. W
hen itit comes
many years
un
after many
years of
of un
bridled capitalism - to have established its own middle way. 13.
13. Sad as it may seem,
nothing has been done so far to eliminate
elim inate this problem.
problem.

(51, p. 129):
1.
1. Despite the fact that we had spent fifty years in a prison, it turned out that when
the walls finally came down the dream of instant paradise on earth had not come
true for everyone. 2. Although a dog may be cheerful and wag its tail, it will never
laugh at our jokes or understand us, however much it tries.

194
194

Un-English Syntax
III: Composite Attributive Expressions
(52, p. 131):
pop1. The famous Grand Hotel, surrounded by parks, usually hosts international pop1.
stars. 2. Development is hampered by the bureaucracy dominant everywhere. (Also:
...by the ubiquitous bureaucracy.) 3. The Popes personality remarkable and im
im
(Also:
dignitaries.
foreign
possible to characterise works wonders with various
teach
The Popes remarkable and enigmatic personality....) 4. In our country such teach
used
can
be
Internet
The
5.
ers, who improve their qualifications, are very unique.
way.
some
in
harmful
m aterial that is often
way.
to disseminate forbidden material, material
6. John was a sensitive individual, (and) very easy to hurt. 7. Though reasonable in
M any
its assumptions, this economic policy led to widespread impoverishment. 8. Many
m eadows
city dwellers dream of living in a quiet village close to nature, with fields, meadows
and landscapes unspoilt by civilisation. 9. In their eyes Maureen is still a perfect
princi
10. The Toyota factory located there is a princi
daughter, obedient to her parents. 10.
cal
day
become
pal source of employment. 11.
11. Such immature idealists will one
cal
littered
lawns
the
Looking
at
12.
lous, egotistic people, loving only themselves. 12.
no
with rubbish and the dilapidated houses, one might suppose that our town has no
13. Winter is presaged by swarms of birds leaving for warmer climes. 14.
14. The
future. 13.
m entioned above was always making our lives a misery. 15.
15. This
history teacher mentioned
politi
ultimate
scintillating man who skilfully manipulates the mass media is the ultim ate politi
this
media,
mass
of
the
cian. (Also: Scintillating and skilful in his manipulation
inde
the
accept
difficult
16. Parents often find it
to
inde
man is the ultimate politician.) 16.
pendence of their children that grows with age. 17.
17. Many factories are full of obso
obso
form er USSR. 18.
18. To make matters worse, there
lete technology imported from the former
have been complaints from railwaymen dissatisfied with their low salaries, who are
19. He was famous for performing Britains
B ritains first heart
threatening to go on strike. 19.
transplant.
transplant.

Un-English Syntax
IV: Parallel Expressions
(53, p. 134):
1. TV influences our feelings and emotions,
em otions, and changes our social attitudes. (Also:
1.
ust be a good atmosphere in class, so that stu
stu
must
...as well as changing....) 2. There m
M ed
dents can take part in discussions and express their opinions on the subject. 3. Med
ical advances have saved countless lives. It is enough to mention the transplantation
to
of organs and the invention of the artificial heart. 4. Many people would prefer to
dishonest....
... 5. Sitting in front of the TV causes headaches and backaches,
lie and be dishonest.

195
195

being bad....) 6.
... headaches and backaches, as well as being
(A lso:...
and is bad for the eyes. (Also:
the
g o in g to discuss
d isc u ss th
e features
fe a tu re s of
o f a pperfect
e rfe c t teacher
te a c h e r and explain....
e x p la in ....
I am going
Ourworld
world will
willsoon
soonbecome
become more
morecohesive
cohesiveand
andstandardised,
standardised, as
aswell
wellas
as being
beinp
7. Our
friend
governed.... 8. Family life helps people to appreciate such things as love and friend
must
We m
ust face these problems and try to understand them. 10.
10. The Inter
Inter
ship.... 9. We
possibil
net informs us about the present as well as the past, and gives us.... (Other possibil
ities: ...giving us....; The Internet informs us about the present as well as the past; it
11. The roads here are narrow and full of holes.... 12.
12. Each day the
gives us....) 11.
sending letters and faxes. (Also:
minister has meetings and consultations, as well as sending
sending....V 13.
13. ...in the way we
...has meetings and consultations, quite apart from sending....V
perceive and understand.... 14.
14. The situation of
o f complete misunderstanding and
15. Often readers identify with literary characters and
non-communication leads.... 15.
be
share their emotions. Indeed, they sometimes even imitate them and copy their be
sharing their emo
emo
haviour. (Also: Often readers identify with literary characters, sharing
16. We
tions. Indeed, they sometimes even imitate them, copying their behaviour.) 16.
have similar views and interests; we listen to the same kinds of music and watch
17. There is seldom any clear rule or direction that we
Hollywood blockbusters. 17.
must take in life.

Un-English Syntax
V: Active vs. Passive
(54, p.
135):
p. 135):
1. The high academic level of the book is guaranteed by specialists of international
1.
Elbl^g High
High
standing.... 2. The eastern edge of the Vistula delta is formed by the Elblqg
lands and the Lowlands of Warmia. 3. The material is illustrated by a set of twelve
diagrams. 4. The decision to build the basilica was made by Abbot Quodvultdeus.
Atthe
theOlympic
OlympicGames
Gameseach
eachcountry
countrymay
maybe
berepresented
representedonly
onlyby
byone
oneman
manand
and
5. At
one woman.

Concession and Contrast


(55, p. 139):
1. while 2. whereas 3. (even) though 4. (And) yet 5. Yet 6. Although, Though,
1.
W hile 7. Despite,
D espite, For all 8. While
W hile 9. While
W hile 10.
10. albeit 11.
11. while 12.
12. albeit
While
14. irrespective
although, though
of 15.
irrespective of
while, wwhereas
13. while,
hereas 14.
13.
15. although,
16. By
though 16.
By contrast
contrast
20. albeit
17.
17. while
hile 23.
Yet 19.
Yet 20.
While
18. Yet
19. Yet
21. albeit
22. W
albeit 21.
albeit 22.
while 18.
Yet 24.
23. Yet
24. while
while
27. though,
though, while
while 28.
25. whereas
26. albeit
28. albeit
albeit 27.
whereas 26.
albeit

196
196

Similarity and Contrast


(56, p.143):
p. 143):
1,
1. as 2. As with 3. like, unlike, in contrast to 4. by the same token 5. Like 6. On
the contrary 7. as 8.
8. Just as... so... 9. like 10.
10. unlike, in contrast to 11.
11. as is the
case with 12.
12. unlike, in contrast to 13.
13. by the same token 14.
14. By contrast 15.
15. as in
the case of, as was the case with, like 16.
16. Like, As is the case with 17.
17. by way of
contrast 18.
18. unlike, in contrast to, as against; also: as opposed to 19.
19. like, as was
the case with 20. like 21. Just as... so... 22. by the same token 23. as against 24. If...
then... 25. By the same token, Similarly

Therefore and Related Expressions


(57, p.147):
p. 147):
1.
1. It follows that (Implication). Also: Hence; Consequently; That is why 2. therefore
(Logical deduction) 3. It follows that; Hence (Implication) 4. and that is why; which
is why; and hence 5. Hence; Thus 6. thus, hence, consequently 7. therefore (Logical
deduction).
deduction). Also: thus, consequently 8. it follows that (Implication) 9. It follows that
(Implication).
(Implication). Also: Hence; That is why 10.
10. therefore (Arbitrary decision). Also: con
con
11. That is why Also: Thus: Hence; Consequently 12.
12. Consequently 13.
13. It
sequently 11.
follows that (Implication)

In My Opinion...
In
Opinion...
(58, p. 150):
1.
1. The fact of the matter is that...; There is no escaping the fact that...; The sad truth
is that...; The simple fact is that... 2. I beg to differ. 3a.
3a. The conclusion seems
inescapable that...; There is no escaping the fact that... b. My impression is that...;
I suspect that...; My feeling is that... 4. It is my contention that...; It is my convic
convic
tion that... 5. the conclusion seems inescapable that...; the only conclusion that would
suggest itself is that... 6a. I would even go so far as to say that...; b. My feeling is
that...; I suspect that...; Surely 7. The fact of the matter is that... 8. In our spiritual
spiritual
ly impoverished world the Dalai Lama arguably represents...; My feeling is that...;
ents reflection shows that... 9. A moments
m om ents reflection
moments
It would seem that...; A mom
shows that...; The fact of the matter is that... 10.
10. my feeling is that...; the question
would seem to admit of... 11. it is a sad truth that...; it needs to be pointed out
that... 12.
12. A moments
m om ents reflection shows that...
th a t...;; It is a sad truth that...; It is no secret
that... 13.
13. Surely...; Military
M ilitary action in that conflict was arguably a necessary

197
197

evil... 14.
14. It is my contention that...; It is my firm conviction that...; My feeling is
evil...
that... 15.
15. is arguably doing...; is surely doing... 16.
16.1
1 suspect, however, that...; My
that...
17. A moments
m om ents reflection shows that... 18a.
18a. It is com
com
feeling is, however, that... 17.
inescapable
seems
conclusion
that...;
The
mon knowledge that...; b. It would seem
19. It is my firm conviction, however, that...
that... 19.

Articles: A Few Tips


(59, p. 158):

11. -, -10. aa 11.


1. a 2. - 3.
3. - 4.
4. The,
The, - 5.
5. The
The 6.
6. The
The 7.
7. - 8.
8. the
the 9.
9. The
The 10.
1.
The,
15. --,
The 18.
12. aa 13.
13. The
14. -- 15.
, -- 16.
16. -- 17.
17. The
18. the,
the, aa 19.
19. aa 20. The, the
the
The 14.
12.
a, the,
28. a,
,, a, 28.
the
22. 23.
23. -,
-,
the 24.
24. the
the 25.
25. The,
The, the
the 26.
26. The
The 27.
27.
the,
21. the 22.
36. the
35.--,
33.-- 34.
- , aa 30.
30.-- 31.
31.The
The 32.
32.The
The 33.
, --,
, --,
, -- 36.
the 37.
37. The,
The, the
the
34.aa 35.
the 29. -,
-, - 39. The, an 40. The
The 41. - 42. - 43. the 44. - 45. - 46. -,
- , the 47. the
38. -,
i.e. all the mad
- a 49. The 50. the, the 51. The 52. an, - 53. -,
-, - 54. the ((i.e.
48. signs) 55. the 56. a 57. the 58. the, the 59. -,
- , the 60. -,
-, - 61. The, - 62. the
the 64.
64. aa 65.
65. -,
- , aa 66.
66. a,
a, aa 67.
67. The
The 68.
68. -,
- , the
the 69.
69. A,
A, -,
- , the
the 70.
70. The
The 71.
71. the
63. the
-, - 73. The 74. -,
- , the 75. The, the, the 76. The, the
72. -,

Colons
(60, p. 164):
possible
1. Unchanged.
Unchanged. A colon after as"
a s is impossible.
impossible. 2. After are
are a colon is possible
1.
possible after Magal context.
context. Otherwise unchanged.
unchanged. (A comma is also possible
Magformal
in a form
possible after includes
giore).
al context a colon is possible
includes,, even
formal
giore ). 3. In a highly form
possible
f mm the direct object.
object. 4. A comma is possible
though that would separate the verb from
forr that
car pparks"
a rks".. Otherwise unchanged.
unchanged. (There is no colon after such
such as,
as, fo
after car
from the verb.) 5. Unchanged.
Unchanged. No colon after include"
include,,
would separate the subject from
o f 2 items.
items. 6. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 7. Unchanged.
Unchanged.
because the ensuing list consists only of
No
N
o colon is necessary after entitled"
entitled.. 8. Comma after factors
factors.. N
o colon after
No
"like.. ((Like
Like is not generally follow
ed by a colon.) 9.
9. Two famous museums, the
followed
like"
re
National History and the V&A, are situated in Kensington; but an even more re
nowned one, the British Museum located in Bloomsbury, is closer to the centre.
forr that would separate
an even more renowned one
one a colon is impossible,
impossible, fo
(After an
preferable to
- cf. exx.
exx. 2a-b.
2a-b. Here in sentence 9 commas are preferable
fmm its verb a subject from
semico
dashes, while the basic organisation of
o f the sentence is indicated by the semico
dashes,
10. Unchanged.
Unchanged. The use of
o f the colon is inappmpriate
inappropriate (cf. exx.
exx. 2a-b).
2a-b). 11.
11. Un
Un
lon.) 10.
followed
changed. The phrase
such as
as is seldom
ed by a colon,
colon, and the context is
seldom follow
phrase such
changed.
al. 12.
12. Best leave unchanged,
unchanged, since the context is obviously not
formal.
obviously not form

198
198

formal
form
al enough to deserve a colon after including.
varie
including. Comma possible
possible after varie
ty.
A colon is impossible,
ty. 13.
13. Comma after do.
d o . A
impossible, because that would separate
a subordinate clause from
fmm the main clause.
clause. 14.
14. Dashes after "relationships
an d
relationships and
exxla-b).
(cf.
relations"
Comma
possible after friendships
relations
e x x la -b ).
friendships.. 15.
15. Colon ppos
o s
also possible
sible after are
are (cf. ex.
ex. 6a).
6a). 16.
16. However, her life divorce, love affairs, and con
con
flicts with the rest of the royal family left her far removed from sainthood. ((C
ex.
Cf.f ex.
lb,
possible, because the apposition itself
lb , and 14 above.
above. Commas are not possible,
itself contains
commas,
commas, and the result would be confusion .) 17.
17. Unchanged.
Unchanged. Cf. 1,4
1 , 4 and 11
above.
A colon after years
above. 18.
18. Unchanged.
Unchanged. A
years is impossible.
impossible.

The Dash
(61, p. 167):

1.
1. On the north Westminster
W estminster is bounded by Mayfair, Bloomsbury and Marylebone
M arylebone
all districts of
of London. 2. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 3. TV is part of
o f our everyday life it
follows us wherever we go. 4. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 5. One of Europes largest Gothic struc
struc
tures, St Marys
M arys Church, towers over the city. 6. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 7. For sure, not
everybody. 8. Unchanged
Unchanged.. 9.
9. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 10.
10. Unchanged.
Unchanged. 11.
11. The co-authors, dis
dis
tinguished doctors from Britain and America, are specialists in various branches of
of
medicine. 12.
possible. 13.
12. Unchanged.
Unchanged. Colon also possible.
13. ...my brothers girlfriend, Kate.
((Leaving
Leaving the sentence unchanged is also possible.)
14. England and Wales are di
d i
possible.) 14.
vided into 53 counties (before 1974
1974 it was 62).
62).

Inverted Commas
(62, p. 171):
(Places where changes have been introduced have been underlined.)

1.
1. Unchanged.
Unchanged. The irony is arguably effective,
effective, which justifies
o f the inverted
justifies the use of
commas.
commas. 2. IIff the inverted commas are intended to express reported speech,
speech, then it
is completely unclear whose speech it is. IIff the context is an interview with downand-outs,
following
possible: Such are the down-and-outs
and-outs, then the follow
ing modification is possible:
who are poor from
from choice, as they
they put it. or simply because they like it. 3. The
so to speak is clumsy.
Best
clumsy. B
est rephrase: Envy has the potential to turn a relationship
relationship
into a kind of prison.
prison. 4. Forgetting
F orgetting is both unusual and effective in its sarcasm;
hence the inverted commas seem
seem justified.
justified. 5. Literature in this context is bitterly
sarcastic,
sarcastic, and hence the inverted commas seem
Victims here is an obvi
obvi
seem justified.
justified. 6. Victims
ous metaphor.
metaphor. Hence the inverted commas should be removed.
removed. 7. Unchanged.
Unchanged. Ob
O b
viously,
phrase can be pput
viously, a word or phrase
u t in inverted commas if
i f you wish to discuss it.
it.

199
199

These are
are all
all virtual
virtual quotations.
quotations. Hence the
the inverted
inverted commas
commas are
are justified. 9.
9. The
The
8. These
justifies the inverted commas.
commas. (Cf. also 5,
5, above.) 10.
10. Unchanged:
Unchanged:
bitter sarcasm justifies
the word western is being discussed.
discussed. Cf. 77 above.
above. 11.
11. What
W hat the neighbours will
say is immediately recognisable as a cliche,
say
cliche, and hence the inverted commas are
possible, to indicate that the writer is distancing himself
Byy contrast,
possible,
him self from
it. B
contrast, the
from it.
inverted commas around standards are unjustified,
unjustified, and a reformulation is better:
Adapting your life to so-called standards means living a lie all the time. 12.
12. The
inverted commas have no obvious justification.
justification. 13.
13. Unchanged. The phrase natu
natu
ral born conformist
conform ist is strikingly unusual. 14.
14. Here a word is being used in a highly
ironic manner; hence the inverted commas are justified.
justified. 15.
15. Unchanged.
Unchanged. The phrase
phrase
is a notorious cliche and the inverted commas serve to disassociate the writer
writer.

The Semicolon
(63, p. 174):
174):
1.
1. Such students usually do not pay too much attention to learning; they cheat in
order to pass exams; and finally they become frustrated, pessimistic teachers who
are not able to forget their problems as they enter the classroom. 2. In my opinion
there are several kinds of poor people:
people: those who are poor because they do not care
much about material goods; those who are too lazy to work more; and finally those
who are industrious and work from dawn to dusk, but still cannot save enough
money for a higher standard of living. 3. In this essay I am going to give some
examples to support this view, and at the same time answer two crucial questions:
questions:
firstly, whether we have the right to pry into politicians
politicians private lives; and secondly,
whether those statesmen whose private lives do not conform to the same ethical
standards as their conduct in public deserve to be condemned. 4. Some labourers
became unemployed; some of them, however, succeeded in making a living from
agriculture. 5. There are programmes really worth seeing: films that are works of
art, plays we are not able to see in the theatre but may watch on TV
T V; we can find
truly educational productions that are not likely to have a detrimental effect on the
character of the young. 6. Such a child has everything; ((colon
possible) all his
colon also possible)
dreams are fulfilled at once; his life is like a fairy tale without pain, close to moth
moth
ers
e rs apron strings. 7. The results of such a strike can be terrifying: in one country
town, for example, a woman died of influenza because the local doctor refused to
help her, claiming that he was simply overwhelmed with patients; the emergency
services also refused to take care of her, insisting that it was the family doctor that
should take care of her. 8. We are not all bigots and not all drunks; there is a young
generation that is not at all influenced by past horrors; and, most importantly, not
everything here is upside down. 9. For some people the countryside is a place of
freedom from cars, buses, and pollution;
pollution; for others, however, it is a place of hard

200

10. People rarely go to a library for a good book; they prefer to


to
work and poverty. 10.
possible.) 11.
(A colon is also possible.)
11. Western
W estern borders
stay at home in front of the TV. {A
op
were suddenly open, which gave the peoples of the Warsaw Pact countries an op
portunity to visit foreign countries; shops were filled with both imported and local
produce; the growth of the free market became a fact. 12.
12. Literature trains the im
im
agination of the reader; someone who reads a book can imagine things as he wants
13. Many parents seem to forget
to and create the main characters in his own way. 13.
about their essential role; they treat their children as playthings or as a necessary
14. People did not abandon their traditions; what is more,
m ore,
fulfilment of marriage. 14.
15. The human psyche has three levels: the id,
they did their best to preserve them. 15.
standing for impulses and urges; the ego, representing ones personality; and the
16. Good teachers never treat
superego, dealing with sublimated desires and urges. 16.
is
those entrusted to their care as their inferiors; on the contrary, the relationship is
17. Each literary epoch possesses the rich legacy
based on the principle of equality. 17.
battles;
of patriotic lyrics whose purpose was to arouse the fighting spirit and win battles;
love lyrics written to express an authors feelings towards his beloved; religious
poems expressing an authors faith and devotion to God; political treatises voicing
w riters reflections about
the need for change; or philosophic tracts setting forth a writers
money;
18. Today people work very hard to earn m
oney;
different aspects of human life. 18.
(colon also possible)
{colon
possible) they stay at work late, take additional hours, and spend much
jobs.
of their free time on activities connected with their jobs.

Index
A
accordingly 145,
145, 173
173
according to 24
active (voice) 34, 135
135
adverbial 136,
136, 138,
138, 173f
173f
after all 49
agreement 57-60, 90
137
albeit 137
all 59, 154
154
173
also 173
although 129,
129, 136-9
136-9
133
anaphora 133
and 69, 74, 99, 132,
132, 174
174
antecedent 99f, 121-4
121-4
any 68, 152
152
anybody 109
109
any more than 69
anyone 109f
109f
appear
appear1%{
78f
apposition 39-47, 73, 83, 98-100, 157,
157,
161f,
161f, 165
165
arguably 149
149
arise 79
arrive 79
152-60
article 20, 39-41, 43-7, 64-8, 96, 152-60

as in the case o/141f


as is the case with 61, 141f
141f
as often happens 62
as well 70
as well as
a s7l \1
as with 141
141 f
at no time 93
attributive 129f
129f
auxiliary 62

B
be 57-60, 62, 77f, 80, 82, 96, 163
163
be to 54f
found 82
be found
be situated 82
because 47-50
being 50-3
50-3
belong 27
best 67
both 163,
163, 166
166
both... and 112f,
112f, 116
116
but 136
136
by contrast 138,
138, 142,
142, 173
173
by the same token 143
143
by way of
of contrast 142f
142f

as
just as 55f, 61f, 84,
8 4 ,141f
141f
==just
49f,
53,
62,
96f
since
=
=
== though 95f

as against 141
141
as a result 145f
145f
as... as.... 61
163
follows 163
as follows
as he puts it 56
as in 141

C
can be 60
citizens 37
cleft sentence 89-92
colon 40f, 161-3
161-3
come 79
comma 40f, 49, 73-7, 89, 98, 137,
137, 162,
162,
172-4
172-4
comment clause 55f

203
203

13, 163
163
complement 57-60, 90, 1113,
11
completely 71
10811
concord 10811
consequently 87, 145f,
145f, 173
173
considerably 11
71
considering 119
119
constitute 59f
coordinate clause 74, 99
106-119
coordination 106119
152, 155
155
countable 152,

D
dangling participle 118
161f, 165-8
165-8
dash 4Of, 161f,
definite article 40f, 65, 68, 76f, 1546
154-6
119
depending on 119
139
despite 139
130
difficult 34f, 130
direct object, cf. object

E
easy 34f
either 70
112, 114
114
either... or.... 112,
ellipsis 165
emerge 30f, 79
136, 138
138
emphasis 57, 92-8, 136,
enter 19
71
entirely 71
162f
enumeration 162f
epithet 47
70f
especially 70f
everybody, everyone 109f
109f
everybody,
exclamation 57
162
exemplification 60, 84, 162
exist 78
F
failing
119
failing that 119
find
find cf. be found
found
first person, expressions involving
cf. in my opinion
follow 79, 87
follow

204

for 35, 50
for
for example, for
for instance 162,
for
162, 167
167
for the simple reason that 49
for
fronting
fronting 92-8
928
furthermore
furthermore 173
173

G
G
gender bias 108-112
108-112
generalisation 153
153
generally speaking 1119
19
genitive 105
105
gerund 19f,
19f, 64f, 1115
15
get 28f
greatly 70
grow 28

H
happen 30
hardly 924
924
have 28, 78, 97
having 504
504
146, 173
173
hence 146,
120, 173
173
however 120,
I
i.e. 33
if... then.... 143
143
147
implication 147
important 85
impossible 34
163
include 163
including 119
119
in contrast to 142
142
173
indeed 173
100, 152,
152, 157
157
indefinite article 65, 100,
in fact
173
fact 173
infinitive 19f,
19f, 34f, 54
132, 148
148
in my opinion 132,
in no way 93
in other words 33
interestingly enough 85
inversion 62, 92-8
928
16871
inverted commas 16871

irony 169f
169f
irrespective of
of 139
139
f, 89-92, 123-6
it 33, 61
61f,
123-6
follows that.... 87, 147
it follows
147
it is a curious fact
fact that.... 86-8
86-8

JJ
journalism 41
41,, 44, 54, 77
judging
judging fry
by 1119
19
just as 61f, 69f, 143
just
143

L
least of
of all 70f
left-handed sentence
sentence 131
131
left-handed
legal contexts 53, 139
139
let alone 70f
lie 82
141f
like 141f
little 93
live 78
M
main clause 40, 52f, 61, 96, 99, 127f, 136
136
main verb 118,
118, 127,
127, 162
162
making matters worse 85f
many of
of 67f

170
metaphor 170
mid-position 149
149
modal 62, 78
modifier 25

more importantly 85
173
moreover 113
more worryingly 85
most 66-8
much as 95f
N
namely 324,
324, 39
negative sentence 47-50, 69-73, 89
112, 114
93,112,114
neither... nor.... 93,
935
never 935
136, 173
173
nevertheless 136,
109f
nobody 109f

19-22
nominalisation 19-22
nominal phrase (cf. noun phrase)
of 68
none of
136f
nonetheless 136f
non-finite verb 32
no one 109f
109f
no sooner than 93
not 4850,
48-50, 92f
not at all
a im
11
not only... but also.... 93, 112f
112f
not to mention 69
noun phrase 43, 90, 96, 115,
115, 141,
141, 156
156
nowhere 93

O
object 20, 126,
126, 134f
134f
obtain 29
obviously 85
occur 30
of
of 43f, 67f, 154f
154f
one 74, llOf, 117,
117, 152
152
one of
of 68
only 92f
on no account 93
on the contrary 142,
142, 173
173
on the other hand 136f
136f
or 69,
69, 71, 133
133
173
otherwise 173
owing to 1119
19

P
parallel expression 1324
1324
parenthesis 166
166
participle 77, 80f, 119,
119, 130,
130, 156,
156, 162
162
passive 34,62,81,
34, 62, 81, 134f,
134f, 151
151
past simple tense (cf. simple past)
perhaps
132
perhaps 132
possess
possess 29, 78
possessive adjective 109f,
109f, 117,
117, 121
121
possible
possible 34f
postmodifier 25f, 67, 78f, 81, 156f
156f
participial postmodifier 156f
156f
prepositional postmodifier 25f, 156
156

205