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Coordinates:231651N772438E

Bhopaldisaster
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheBhopaldisaster,alsoreferredtoastheBhopalgastragedy,wasagasleakincidentinIndia,
consideredtheworld'sworstindustrialdisaster.[1]

Bhopaldisaster

Itoccurredonthenightof23December1984attheUnionCarbideIndiaLimited(UCIL)pesticideplantin
Bhopal,MadhyaPradesh.Over500,000peoplewereexposedtomethylisocyanate(MIC)gasandother
chemicals.Thetoxicsubstancemadeitswayintoandaroundtheshantytownslocatedneartheplant.[2]
Estimatesvaryonthedeathtoll.Theofficialimmediatedeathtollwas2,259.ThegovernmentofMadhya
Pradeshconfirmedatotalof3,787deathsrelatedtothegasrelease.[3]Agovernmentaffidavitin2006stated
thattheleakcaused558,125injuries,including38,478temporarypartialinjuriesandapproximately3,900
severelyandpermanentlydisablinginjuries.[4]Othersestimatethat8,000diedwithintwoweeks,andanother
8,000ormorehavesincediedfromgasrelateddiseases.[5]
Thecauseofthedisasterremainsunderdebate.TheIndiangovernmentandlocalactivistsarguethatslack
managementanddeferredmaintenancecreatedasituationwhereroutinepipemaintenancecauseda
backflowofwaterintoaMICtanktriggeringthedisaster.UnionCarbideCorporation(UCC)contends
waterenteredthetankthroughanactofsabotage.
Theownerofthefactory,UCIL,wasmajorityownedbyUCC,withIndianGovernmentcontrolledbanks
andtheIndianpublicholdinga49.1percentstake.In1989,UCCpaid$470m($907min2014dollars)to
settlelitigationstemmingfromthedisaster.In1994,UCCsolditsstakeinUCILtoEvereadyIndustriesIndia
Limited(EIIL),whichsubsequentlymergedwithMcLeodRussel(India)Ltd.Evereadyendedcleanupon
thesitein1998,whenitterminatedits99yearleaseandturnedovercontrolofthesitetothestate
governmentofMadhyaPradesh.DowChemicalCompanypurchasedUCCin2001,seventeenyearsafter
thedisaster.
CivilandcriminalcaseswerefiledintheDistrictCourtofBhopal,India,involvingUCCandWarren
Anderson,UCCCEOatthetimeofthedisaster.[6][7]InJune2010,sevenexemployees,includingthe
formerUCILchairman,wereconvictedinBhopalofcausingdeathbynegligenceandsentencedtotwoyears
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhopal_disaster

MemorialbyDutchartistRuthKupferschmidt
(whoseparentsweregassedinTreblinka
ConcentrationCamp)forthosekilledanddisabled
bythe1984toxicgasrelease
Date

2December19843December1984

Location

Bhopal,MadhyaPradesh

Coordinates 231651N772438E
Alsoknown Bhopalgastragedy
as
Cause

GasleakfromUnionCarbideIndia
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imprisonmentandafineofabout$2,000each,themaximumpunishmentallowedbyIndianlaw.Aneighth
formeremployeewasalsoconvicted,butdiedbeforethejudgementwaspassed.[1]Andersonalsodiedata
nursinghomeinVeroBeach,FloridaonSeptember29,2014.

Limitedstoragetank
Deaths

Atleast3,787over16,000claimed

Nonfatal
injuries

Atleast558,125

Contents
1 Thepreeventphase
1.1 Earlierleaks
2 Theleakageanditssubsequenteffects
2.1 Therelease
2.1.1 Thegascloud
2.2 Acuteeffects
2.2.1 Immediateaftermath
2.3 Subsequentlegalaction
2.4 Postsettlementactivity
3 Longtermeffects
3.1 Longtermhealtheffects
3.2 Healthcare
3.3 Environmentalrehabilitation

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3.3 Environmentalrehabilitation
3.4 Occupationalandhabitationrehabilitation
3.5 Economicrehabilitation
3.6 Otherimpacts
4 Causesofthedisaster:overview
4.1 Causesofthedisaster:The"corporatenegligence"argument
4.2 Causesofthedisaster:the"disgruntledemployeesabotage"case
4.3 Theargumentforsabotage
5 AdditionalUnionCarbideactions
5.1 ChargesagainstUCCandUCILemployees
6 Ongoingcontamination
7 Fiction
8 Activism
8.1 Localactivism
8.2 Internationalactivism
8.3 Activistorganisations
8.4 Settlementfundhoax
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8.5 MonitoringofBhopalactivists
9 Seealso
10 Citations
11 References
11.1 UnionCarbideCorporation
12 Externallinks

Thepreeventphase
TheUCILfactorywasbuiltin1969toproducethepesticideSevin(UCC'sbrandnameforcarbaryl)usingmethylisocyanate(MIC)asanintermediate.[5]AMIC
productionplantwasaddedin1979.[8][9][10]AftertheBhopalplantwasbuilt,othermanufacturers,includingBayer,producedcarbarylwithoutMIC,thoughata
greatermanufacturingcost.BayeralsousedtheUCCprocessatthechemicalplantonceownedbyUCCatInstitute,WestVirginia,intheUnitedStates.[11][12]
ThechemicalprocessemployedintheBhopalplanthadmethylaminereactingwithphosgenetoformMIC,whichwasthenreactedwith1naphtholtoformthefinal
product,carbaryl.This"route"differedfromtheMICfreeroutesusedelsewhere,inwhichthesamerawmaterialswerecombinedinadifferentmanufacturing
order,withphosgenefirstreactingwithnaphtholtoformachloroformateester,whichwasthenreactedwithmethylamine.Intheearly1980s,thedemandfor
pesticideshadfallen,butproductioncontinued,leadingtobuildupofstoresofunusedMIC.[5][11]

Earlierleaks
In1976,twotradeunionscomplainedofpollutionwithintheplant.[5][13]In1981,aworkerwassplashedwithphosgene.Inapanic,heremovedhismask,inhaling
alargeamountofphosgenegaswhichresultedinhisdeath72hourslater.[5][13]LocalIndianauthoritieshadwarnedthecompanyoftheproblemasearlyas1979,
butconstructiveactionswerenotundertakenbyUCICatthattime.[5][11]InJanuary1982,aphosgeneleakexposed24workers,allofwhomwereadmittedtoa
hospital.Noneoftheworkershadbeenorderedtowearprotectivemasks.Onemonthlater,inFebruary1982,aMICleakaffected18workers.InAugust1982,
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achemicalengineercameintocontactwithliquidMIC,resultinginburnsover30percentofhisbody.Laterthatsameyear,inOctober1982,therewasanother
MICleak.Inattemptingtostoptheleak,theMICsupervisorsufferedseverechemicalburnsandtwootherworkerswereseverelyexposedtothegases.During
1983and1984,therewereleaksofMIC,chlorine,monomethylamine,phosgene,andcarbontetrachloride,sometimesincombination.[5][13]

Theleakageanditssubsequenteffects
Therelease
InNovember1984,mostofthesafetysystemswerenotfunctioningandmanyvalvesandlineswereinpoorcondition.In
addition,severalventgasscrubbershadbeenoutofserviceaswellasthesteamboiler,intendedtocleanthepipes.
AnotherissuewasthatTank610contained42tonsofMIC,morethansafetyrulesallowedfor.[5]Duringthenightof2
3December1984,waterenteredasidepipethatwasmissingitsslipblindplateandenteredTankE610,which
contained42tonsofMIC.Arunawayreactionstarted,whichwasacceleratedbycontaminants,hightemperaturesand
otherfactors.Thereactionwasspedupbythepresenceofironfromcorrodingnonstainlesssteelpipelines.[5]The
resultingexothermicreactionincreasedthetemperatureinsidethetanktoover200C(392F)andraisedthepressure.
ThisforcedtheemergencyventingofpressurefromtheMICholdingtank,releasingalargevolumeoftoxicgases.About
30metrictonsofMICescapedfromthetankintotheatmospherein45to60minutes.[2]
Thegascloud
ThegaseswereblowninasoutheasterlydirectionoverBhopal.[5][14]

Tank610in2010.During
decontaminationoftheplant,tank
610wasremovedfromitsfoundation
andleftaside

Asof2008,UCChadnotreleasedinformationaboutthepossiblecompositionofthecloud.ApartfromMIC,thegascloudmayhavecontainedphosgene,
hydrogencyanide,carbonmonoxide,hydrogenchloride,oxidesofnitrogen,monomethylamineandcarbondioxide,eitherproducedinthestoragetankorinthe
atmosphere.Asthegascloudwascomposedmainlyofmaterialsdenserthanthesurroundingair,itstayedclosetothegroundandspreadoutwardsthroughthe
surroundingcommunity.[5]Thechemicalreactionsmayhaveproducedaliquidorsolidaerosol.[15]LaboratoryinvestigationsbyCSIRandUCCscientistsfailedto
demonstratethepresenceofhydrogencyanide.[16][17]

Acuteeffects

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Theinitialeffectsofexposurewerecoughing,severeeyeirritationandafeelingofsuffocation,burningin
therespiratorytract,blepharospasm,breathlessness,stomachpainsandvomiting.Peopleawakenedby
thesesymptomsfledawayfromtheplant.Thosewhoraninhaledmorethanthosewhohadavehicleto
ride.Owingtotheirheight,childrenandotherpeopleofshorterstatureinhaledhigherconcentrations.
Thousandsofpeoplehaddiedbythefollowingmorning.
Primarycausesofdeathswerechoking,reflexogeniccirculatorycollapseandpulmonaryoedema.Findings
duringautopsiesrevealedchangesnotonlyinthelungsbutalsocerebraloedema,tubularnecrosisofthe
kidneys,fattydegenerationoftheliverandnecrotisingenteritis.[18]Thestillbirthrateincreasedbyupto
300%andneonatalmortalityratebyaround200%.[5]

Methylamine(1)reactswithphosgene(2)producing
methylisocyanate(3)whichreactswith1naphthol
(4)toyieldcarbaryl(5)

Immediateaftermath
Intheimmediateaftermath,theplantwasclosedtooutsiders(includingUCC)bytheIndiangovernment,which
subsequentlyfailedtomakedatapublic,contributingtotheconfusion.Theinitialinvestigationwasconductedentirelyby
theCouncilofScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR)andtheCentralBureauofInvestigation.TheUCCchairmanand
CEOWarrenAnderson,togetherwithatechnicalteam,immediatelytraveledtoIndia.UponarrivalAndersonwas
placedunderhousearrestandurgedbytheIndiangovernmenttoleavethecountrywithin24hours.UnionCarbide
organizedateamofinternationalmedicalexperts,aswellassuppliesandequipment,toworkwiththelocalBhopal
medicalcommunity,andtheUCCtechnicalteambeganassessingthecauseofthegasleak.
Thehealthcaresystemimmediatelybecameoverloaded.Intheseverelyaffectedareas,nearly70percentwere
underqualifieddoctors.Medicalstaffwereunpreparedforthethousandsofcasualties.Doctorsandhospitalswerenot
awareofpropertreatmentmethodsforMICgasinhalation.[5]:6
Thereweremassfuneralsandcremations.Withinafewdays,treesinthevicinitybecamebarrenandbloatedanimal
carcasseshadtobedisposedof.170,000peopleweretreatedathospitalsandtemporarydispensaries2,000buffalo,
goats,andotheranimalswerecollectedandburied.Supplies,includingfood,becamescarceowingtosuppliers'safety
fears.Fishingwasprohibitedcausingfurthersupplyshortages.[5]

Reversiblereactionofglutathione
(top)withmethylisocyanate(MIC,
middle)allowstheMICtobe
transportedintothebody

Lackinganysafealternative,on16December,tanks611and619wereemptiedoftheremainingMICbyreactivating
theplantandcontinuingthemanufactureofpesticide.Despitesafetyprecautionssuchashavingwatercarryinghelicopterscontinuallyoverflyingtheplant,thisledto
asecondmassevacuationfromBhopal.TheGovernmentofIndiapassedthe"BhopalGasLeakDisasterAct"thatgavethegovernmentrightstorepresentall
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victims,whetherornotinIndia.Complaintsoflackofinformationormisinformationwerewidespread.AnIndiangovernmentspokesmansaid,"Carbideismore
interestedingettinginformationfromusthaninhelpingourreliefwork".[5]
Formalstatementswereissuedthatair,water,vegetationandfoodstuffsweresafe,butwarnednottoconsumefish.Thenumberofchildrenexposedtothegases
wasatleast200,000.[5]Withinweeks,theStateGovernmentestablishedanumberofhospitals,clinicsandmobileunitsinthegasaffectedareatotreatthevictims.
UCCestablishedarelieffundandofferedinterimrelief.TheIndiangovernmentturneddowntheoffer.

Subsequentlegalaction
LegalproceedingsinvolvingUCC,theUnitedStatesandIndiangovernments,localBhopalauthorities,andthedisastervictims
startedimmediatelyafterthecatastrophe.TheIndianGovernmentpassedtheBhopalGasLeakActinMarch1985,allowingthe
GovernmentofIndiatoactasthelegalrepresentativeforvictimsofthedisaster,[19]leadingtothebeginningoflegalproceedings.
InMarch1986UCCproposedasettlementfigure,endorsedbyplaintiffs'U.S.attorneys,of$350millionthatwould,according
tothecompany,"generateafundforBhopalvictimsofbetween$500600millionover20years".InMay,litigationwas
transferredfromtheUnitedStatestoIndiancourtsbyU.S.DistrictCourtJudge.Followinganappealofthisdecision,theU.S.
CourtofAppealsaffirmedthetransfer,judging,inJanuary1987,thatUCILwasa"separateentity,owned,managedand
operatedexclusivelybyIndiancitizensinIndia".[19]
TheGovernmentofIndiarefusedtheofferfromUnionCarbideandclaimedUS$3.3billion.[5]TheIndianSupremeCourttold
bothsidestocometoanagreementand"startwithacleanslate"inNovember1988.[19]Eventually,inanoutofcourtsettlement
reachedinFebruary1989,UnionCarbideagreedtopayUS$470millionfordamagescausedintheBhopaldisaster.[5]The
amountwasimmediatelypaid.
Throughout1990,theIndianSupremeCourtheardappealsagainstthesettlement.InOctober1991,theSupremeCourtupheld
theoriginal$470million,dismissinganyotheroutstandingpetitionsthatchallengedtheoriginaldecision.TheCourtorderedthe
Indiangovernment"topurchase,outofsettlementfund,agroupmedicalinsurancepolicytocover100,000personswhomay
laterdevelopsymptoms"andcoveranyshortfallinthesettlementfund.ItalsorequestedUCCanditssubsidiaryUCIL
"voluntarily"fundahospitalinBhopal,atanestimated$17million,tospecificallytreatvictimsoftheBhopaldisaster.The
companyagreedtothis.[19]

VictimsofBhopaldisaster
marchinSeptember2006
demandingtheextraditionof
AmericanWarrenAnderson
fromtheUnitedStates.

Postsettlementactivity
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In1991,thelocalBhopalauthoritieschargedAnderson,whohadretiredin1986,withmanslaughter,acrimethatcarriesamaximumpenaltyof10yearsinprison.
HewasdeclaredafugitivefromjusticebytheChiefJudicialMagistrateofBhopalon1February1992forfailingtoappearatthecourthearingsinaculpable
homicidecaseinwhichhewasnamedthechiefdefendant.OrderswerepassedtotheGovernmentofIndiatopressforanextraditionfromtheUnitedStates.The
U.S.SupremeCourtrefusedtohearanappealofthedecisionofthelowerfederalcourtsinOctober1993,meaningthatvictimsoftheBhopaldisastercouldnot
seekdamagesinaU.S.court.[19]
In2004,theIndianSupremeCourtorderedtheIndiangovernmenttoreleaseanyremainingsettlementfundstovictims.AndinSeptember2006,theWelfare
CommissionforBhopalGasVictimsannouncedthatalloriginalcompensationclaimsandrevisedpetitionshadbeen"cleared".[19]TheSecondCircuitCourtof
AppealsinNewYorkCityupheldthedismissalofremainingclaimsinthecaseofBanov.UnionCarbideCorporationin2006.Thismoveblockedplaintiffs'
motionsforclasscertificationandclaimsforpropertydamagesandremediation.IntheviewofUCC,"therulingreaffirmsUCC'slongheldpositionsandfinallyputs
torestbothprocedurallyandsubstantivelytheissuesraisedintheclassactioncomplaintfirstfiledagainstUnionCarbidein1999byHaseenaBiandseveral
organisationsrepresentingtheresidentsofBhopal".[19]
InJune2010,sevenformeremployeesofUCIL,allIndiannationalsandmanyintheir70s,wereconvictedofcausingdeathbynegligence:KeshubMahindra,
formernonexecutivechairmanofUnionCarbideIndiaLimitedV.P.Gokhale,managingdirectorKishoreKamdar,vicepresidentJ.Mukund,worksmanager
S.P.Chowdhury,productionmanagerK.V.Shetty,plantsuperintendentandS.I.Qureshi,productionassistant.Theywereeachsentencedtotwoyears
imprisonmentandfinedRs.100,000(US$2,124).Allwerereleasedonbailshortlyaftertheverdict.
USFederalclassactionlitigation,Sahuv.UnionCarbideandWarrenAnderson,hadbeenfiledin1999undertheU.S.AlienTortsClaimsAct(ATCA),which
providesforcivilremediesfor"crimesagainsthumanity."[20]Itsoughtdamagesforpersonalinjury,medicalmonitoringandinjunctivereliefintheformofcleanupof
thedrinkingwatersuppliesforresidentialareasneartheBhopalplant.Thelawsuitwasdismissedin2012andsubsequentappealdenied.[21]Andersondiedin
2014.

Longtermeffects
Longtermhealtheffects
Somedataaboutthehealtheffectsarestillnotavailable.TheIndianCouncilofMedicalResearch(ICMR)wasforbiddentopublishhealtheffectdatauntil1994.[5]
Atotalof36wardsweremarkedbytheauthoritiesasbeing"gasaffected,"affectingapopulationof520,000.Ofthese,200,000werebelow15yearsofage,and
3,000werepregnantwomen.Theofficialimmediatedeathtollwas2,259,andin1991,3,928deathshadbeenofficiallycertified.IngridEckermanestimated8,000
diedwithintwoweeks.[5][22]
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ThegovernmentofMadhyaPradeshconfirmedatotalof3,787deathsrelatedtothegasrelease.[3]
Later,theaffectedareawasexpandedtoinclude700,000citizens.Agovernmentaffidavitin2006statedtheleakcaused558,125injuriesincluding38,478
temporarypartialinjuriesandapproximately3,900severelyandpermanentlydisablinginjuries.[4]
Acohortof80,021exposedpeoplewasregistered,alongwithacontrolgroup,acohortof15,931peoplefromareasnotexposedtoMIC.Nearlyeveryyear
since1986,theyhaveansweredthesamequestionnaire.Itshowsovermortalityandovermorbidityintheexposedgroup.Biasandconfoundingfactorscannotbe
excludedfromthestudy.Becauseofmigrationandotherfactors,75%ofthecohortislost,astheoneswhomovedoutarenotfollowed.[5][23]
Anumberofclinicalstudiesareperformed.Thequalityvaries,butthedifferentreportssupporteachother.[5]Studiedandreportedlongtermhealtheffectsare:
Eyes:Chronicconjunctivitis,scarsoncornea,cornealopacities,earlycataracts
Respiratorytracts:Obstructiveand/orrestrictivedisease,pulmonaryfibrosis,aggravationofTBandchronicbronchitis
Neurologicalsystem:Impairmentofmemory,finermotorskills,numbnessetc.
Psychologicalproblems:Posttraumaticstressdisorder(PTSD)
Childrenshealth:Periandneonataldeathratesincreased.Failuretogrow,intellectualimpairment,etc.
Missingorinsufficientfieldsforresearcharefemalereproduction,chromosomalaberrations,cancer,immunedeficiency,neurologicalsequelae,posttraumaticstress
disorder(PTSD)andchildrenbornafterthedisaster.Latecasesthatmightneverbehighlightedarerespiratoryinsufficiency,cardiacinsufficiency(corpulmonale),
cancerandtuberculosis.
A2014reportinMotherJonesquotesa"spokespersonfortheBhopalMedicalAppeal,whichrunsfreehealthclinicsforsurvivors"assaying"Anestimated
120,000to150,000survivorsstillstrugglewithseriousmedicalconditionsincludingnervedamage,growthproblems,gynecologicaldisorders,respiratoryissues,
birthdefects,andelevatedratesofcancerandtuberculosis."[24]

Healthcare
TheGovernmentofIndiahadfocusedprimarilyonincreasingthehospitalbasedservicesforgasvictimsthushospitalshadbeenbuiltafterthedisaster.WhenUCC
wantedtosellitssharesinUCIL,itwasdirectedbytheSupremeCourttofinancea500bedhospitalforthemedicalcareofthesurvivors.Thus,BhopalMemorial
HospitalandResearchCentre(BMHRC)wasinauguratedin1998andwasobligedtogivefreecareforsurvivorsforeightyears.BMHRCwasa350bedded
superspecialityhospitalwhereheartsurgeryandhemodialysisweredone.Therewasadearthofgynaecology,obstetricsandpaediatrics.Eightminiunits(outreach

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healthcentres)werestartedandfreehealthcareforgasvictimsweretobeofferedtill2006.[5]Themanagementhadalsofacedproblemswithstrikes,andthe
qualityofthehealthcarebeingdisputed.[25][26]SambhavnaTrustisacharitabletrust,registeredin1995,thatgivesmodernaswellasayurvedictreatmentstogas
victims,freeofcharge.[5][27]

Environmentalrehabilitation
Whenthefactorywasclosedin1986,pipes,drumsandtanksweresold.TheMICandtheSevinplantsarestillthere,asarestoragesofdifferentresidues.
Isolationmaterialisfallingdownandspreading.[5]Theareaaroundtheplantwasusedasadumpingareaforhazardouschemicals.In1982tubewellsinthevicinity
oftheUCILfactoryhadtobeabandonedandtestsin1989performedbyUCC'slaboratoryrevealedthatsoilandwatersamplescollectedfromnearthefactory
andinsidetheplantweretoxictofish.[28]Severalotherstudieshadalsoshownpollutedsoilandgroundwaterinthearea.Reportedpollutingcompoundsinclude1
naphthol,naphthalene,Sevin,tarryresidue,mercury,toxicorganochlorines,volatileorganochlorinecompounds,chromium,copper,nickel,lead,hexachloroethane,
hexachlorobutadiene,andthepesticideHCH.[5]
InordertoprovidesafedrinkingwatertothepopulationaroundtheUCILfactory,GovernmentofMadhyaPradeshpresentedaschemeforimprovementofwater
supply.[29]InDecember2008,theMadhyaPradeshHighCourtdecidedthatthetoxicwasteshouldbeincineratedatAnkleshwarinGujarat,whichwasmetby
protestsfromactivistsalloverIndia.[30]On8June2012,theCentreforincinerationoftoxicBhopalwasteagreedtopay 250million(US$3.7million)todispose
ofUCILchemicalplantswasteinGermany.[31]On9August2012,SupremecourtdirectedtheUnionandMadhyaPradeshGovernmentsto,takeimmediatesteps
fordisposaloftoxicwastelyingaroundandinsidethefactorywithinsixmonths.[32]
AU.S.courtrejectedthelawsuitblamingUCCforcausingsoilandwaterpollutionaroundthesiteoftheplantandruledthatresponsibilityforremedialmeasuresor
relatedclaimsrestedwiththeStateGovernmentandnotwithUCC.[33]In2005,thestategovernmentinvitedvariousIndianarchitectstoentertheir"conceptfor
developmentofamemorialcomplexforBhopalgastragedyvictimsatthesiteofUnionCarbide".In2011,aconferencewasheldonthesite,withparticipantsfrom
Europeanuniversitieswhichwasaimedforthesame.[34][35]

Occupationalandhabitationrehabilitation
33ofthe50plannedworkshedsforgasvictimsstarted.Allexceptonewascloseddownby1992.1986,theMPgovernmentinvestedintheSpecialIndustrial
AreaBhopal.152oftheplanned200workshedswerebuiltandin2000,16werepartiallyfunctioning.Itwasestimatedthat50,000personsneedalternativejobs,
andthatlessthan100gasvictimshadfoundregularemploymentunderthegovernment'sscheme.Thegovernmentalsoplanned2,486flatsintwoandfourstory
buildingsinwhatiscalledthe"widow'scolony"outsideBhopal.Thewaterdidnotreachtheupperfloorsanditwasnotpossibletokeepcattlewhichweretheir
primaryoccupation.Infrastructurelikebuses,schools,etc.weremissingforatleastadecade.[5]
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Economicrehabilitation
Immediaterelievesweredecidedtwodaysafterthetragedy.Reliefmeasurescommencedin1985whenfoodwasdistributedforashortperiodalongwithration
cards.[5]MadhyaPradeshgovernment'sfinancedepartmentallocated 874million(US$13million)forvictimreliefinJuly1985.[36][37]Widowpensionof 200
(US$2.90)/permonth(later 750(US$11))wereprovided.Thegovernmentalsodecidedtopay 1500(US$22)tofamilieswithmonthlyincome 500
(US$7.40)orless.Asaresultoftheinterimrelief,morechildrenwereabletoattendschool,moremoneywasspentontreatmentandfood,andhousingalso
eventuallyimproved.From1990interimreliefof 200(US$2.90)waspaidtoeveryoneinthefamilywhowasbornbeforethedisaster.[5]
Thefinalcompensation,includinginterimreliefforpersonalinjurywasforthemajority 25,000(US$370).Fordeathclaim,theaveragesumpaidoutwas
62,000(US$910).Eachclaimantweretobecategorisedbyadoctor.Incourt,theclaimantswereexpectedtoprove"beyondreasonabledoubt"thatdeathor
injuryineachcasewasattributabletoexposure.In1992,44percentoftheclaimantsstillhadtobemedicallyexamined.[5]
BytheendofOctober2003,accordingtotheBhopalGasTragedyReliefandRehabilitationDepartment,compensationhadbeenawardedto554,895peoplefor
injuriesreceivedand15,310survivorsofthosekilled.Theaverageamounttofamiliesofthedeadwas$2,200.[38]
In2007,1,029,517caseswereregisteredanddecided.Numberofawardedcaseswere574,304andnumberofrejectedcases455,213.Totalcompensation
awardedwas 15465million(US$230million).[29]On24June2010,theUnionCabinetoftheGovernmentofIndiaapproveda 12650million
(US$190million)aidpackagewhichwouldbefundedbyIndiantaxpayersthroughthegovernment.[39]

Otherimpacts
In1985,HenryWaxman,aCaliforniaDemocrat,calledforaU.S.governmentinquiryintotheBhopaldisaster,whichresultedinU.S.legislationregardingthe
accidentalreleaseoftoxicchemicalsintheUnitedStates.[40]

Causesofthedisaster:overview
Therearetwomainlinesofargumentinvolvingthedisaster.The"CorporateNegligence"pointofviewarguesthatthedisasterwascausedbyapotentcombination
ofundermaintainedanddecayingfacilities,aweakattitudetowardssafety,andanundertrainedworkforce,culminatinginworkeractionsthatinadvertentlyenabled
watertopenetratetheMICtanksintheabsenceofproperlyworkingsafeguards.[5][22]
The"WorkerSabotage"pointofviewarguesthatitwasnotphysicallypossibleforthewatertoenterthetankwithoutconcertedhumaneffort,andthatextensive
testimonyandengineeringanalysisleadstoaconclusionthatwaterenteredthetankwhenarogueindividualemployeehookedawaterhosedirectlytoanempty
valveonthesideofthetank.ThispointofviewfurtherarguesthattheIndiangovernmenttookextensiveactionstohidethispossibilityinordertoattachblameto
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UCC.[41]
Theoriesdifferastohowthewaterenteredthetank.Atthetime,workerswerecleaningoutacloggedpipewithwaterabout400feetfromthetank.Theyclaimed
thattheywerenottoldtoisolatethetankwithapipeslipblindplate.Theoperatorsassumedthatowingtobadmaintenanceandleakingvalves,itwaspossiblefor
thewatertoleakintothetank.[5][42]
Thiswaterentryroutecouldnotbereproduceddespitestrenuouseffortsbymotivatedparties.[43]UCCclaimsthata"disgruntledworker"deliberatelyconnectinga
hosetoapressuregaugeconnectionwastherealcause.[5][41]
Earlythenextmorning,aUCILmanageraskedtheinstrumentengineertoreplacethegauge.UCIL'sinvestigationteamfoundnoevidenceofthenecessary
connectiontheinvestigationwastotallycontrolledbythegovernment,denyingUCCinvestigatorsaccesstothetankorinterviewswiththeoperators.[41][44]

Causesofthedisaster:The"corporatenegligence"argument
Thispointofviewarguesthatmanagement(andtosomeextent,localgovernment)underinvestedinsafety,whichallowedforadangerousworkingenvironmentto
develop.FactorscitedincludethefillingoftheMICtanksbeyondrecommendedlevels,poormaintenanceaftertheplantceasedMICproductionattheendof
1984,allowingseveralsafetysystemstobeinoperableduetopoormaintenance,andswitchingoffsafetysystemstosavemoneyincludingtheMICtank
refrigerationsystemwhichcouldhavemitigatedthedisasterseverity,andnonexistentcatastrophemanagementplans.[5][22]Otherfactorsidentifiedbygovernment
inquiriesincludedundersizedsafetydevicesandthedependenceonmanualoperations.[5]Specificplantmanagementdeficienciesthatwereidentifiedincludethe
lackofskilledoperators,reductionofsafetymanagement,insufficientmaintenance,andinadequateemergencyactionplans.[5][13]
Underinvestment
Underinvestmentiscitedascontributingtoanenvironment.Attemptstoreduceexpensesaffectedthefactory'semployeesandtheirconditions.Kurzmanargues
that"cuts...meantlessstringentqualitycontrolandthusloosersafetyrules.Apipeleaked?Don'treplaceit,employeessaidtheyweretold...MICworkers
neededmoretraining?Theycoulddowithless.Promotionswerehalted,seriouslyaffectingemployeemoraleanddrivingsomeofthemostskilled...elsewhere".[45]
WorkerswereforcedtouseEnglishmanuals,eventhoughonlyafewhadagraspofthelanguage.[42][46]
SubsequentresearchhighlightsagradualdeteriorationofsafetypracticesinregardtotheMIC,whichhadbecomelessrelevanttoplantoperations.By1984,only
sixoftheoriginaltwelveoperatorswerestillworkingwithMICandthenumberofsupervisorypersonnelhadalsobeenhalved.Nomaintenancesupervisorwas
placedonthenightshiftandinstrumentreadingsweretakeneverytwohours,ratherthanthepreviousandrequiredonehourreadings.[42][45]Workersmade
complaintsaboutthecutsthroughtheirunionbutwereignored.Oneemployeewasfiredaftergoingona15dayhungerstrike.70%oftheplant'semployeeswere
finedbeforethedisasterforrefusingtodeviatefromthepropersafetyregulationsunderpressurefromthemanagement.[42][45]
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Inaddition,someobservers,suchasthosewritingintheTradeEnvironmentalDatabase(TED)CaseStudiesaspartoftheMandalaProjectfromAmerican
University,havepointedto"seriouscommunicationproblemsandmanagementgapsbetweenUnionCarbideanditsIndianoperation",characterisedby"theparent
companies[sic]handsoffapproachtoitsoverseasoperation"and"crossculturalbarriers".[47]
Adequacyofequipmentandsafetyregulations
ThefactorywasnotwellequippedtohandlethegascreatedbythesuddenadditionofwatertotheMICtank.TheMICtankalarmshadnotbeenworkingforfour
yearsandtherewasonlyonemanualbackupsystem,comparedtoafourstagesystemusedintheUnitedStates.[5][22][42][48]Theflaretowerandseveralventgas
scrubbershadbeenoutofserviceforfivemonthsbeforethedisaster.Onlyonegasscrubberwasoperating:itcouldnottreatsuchalargeamountofMICwith
sodiumhydroxide(causticsoda),whichwouldhavebroughttheconcentrationdowntoasafelevel.[48]Theflaretowercouldonlyhandleaquarterofthegasthat
leakedin1984,andmoreoveritwasoutoforderatthetimeoftheincident.[5][22][42][49]Toreduceenergycosts,therefrigerationsystemwasidle.TheMICwas
keptat20degreesCelsius,notthe4.5degreesadvisedbythemanual.[5][22][42][48]Eventhesteamboiler,intendedtocleanthepipes,wasnonoperationalfor
unknownreasons.[5][22][42][48]SlipblindplatesthatwouldhavepreventedwaterfrompipesbeingcleanedfromleakingintotheMICtanks,hadthevalvesbeen
faulty,werenotinstalledandtheirinstallationhadbeenomittedfromthecleaningchecklist.[5][22][42]AsMICiswatersoluble,delugegunswereinplacetocontain
escapinggasesfromthestack.Thewaterpressurewastooweakforthegunstosprayhighenoughtoreachthegaswhichwouldhavereducedtheconcentrationof
escapinggassignificantly.[5][22][42][48]Inadditiontoit,carbonsteelvalveswereusedatthefactory,eventhoughtheywereknowntocorrodewhenexposedto
acid.[11]
Accordingtotheoperators,theMICtankpressuregaugehadbeenmalfunctioningforroughlyaweek.Othertankswereused,ratherthanrepairingthegauge.The
buildupintemperatureandpressureisbelievedtohaveaffectedthemagnitudeofthegasrelease.[5][22][42][48]UCCadmittedintheirowninvestigationreportthat
mostofthesafetysystemswerenotfunctioningonthenightof3December1984.[50]ThedesignoftheMICplant,followinggovernmentguidelines,was
"Indianized"byUCILengineerstomaximisetheuseofindigenousmaterialsandproducts.MumbaibasedHumphreysandGlasgowConsultantsPvt.Ltd.,werethe
mainconsultants,Larsen&ToubrofabricatedtheMICstoragetanks,andTaylorofIndiaLtd.providedtheinstrumentation.[16]In1998,duringcivilactionsuitsin
India,itemergedthattheplantwasnotpreparedforproblems.Noactionplanshadbeenestablishedtocopewithincidentsofthismagnitude.Thisincludednot
informinglocalauthoritiesofthequantitiesordangersofchemicalsusedandmanufacturedatBhopal.[5][11][22][42]
Safetyaudits
SafetyauditsweredoneeveryyearintheUSandEuropeanUCCplants,butonlyeverytwoyearsinotherpartsoftheworld.[5][51]Beforea"Business
Confidential"safetyauditbyUCCinMay1982,theseniorofficialsofthecorporationwerewellawareof"atotalof61hazards,30ofthemmajorand11minorin
thedangerousphosgene/methylisocyanateunits"inBhopal.[5][52]Intheaudit1982,itwasindicatedthatworkerperformancewasbelowstandards.[5][44]Ten
majorconcernswerelisted.[5]UCILpreparedanactionplan,butUCCneversentafollowupteamtoBhopal.Manyoftheitemsinthe1982reportwere
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temporarilyfixed,butby1984,conditionshadagaindeteriorated.[44]InSeptember1984,aninternalUCCreportontheVirginiaplantintheUSArevealeda
numberofdefectsandmalfunctions.Itwarnedthat"arunawayreactioncouldoccurintheMICunitstoragetanks,andthattheplannedresponsewouldnotbe
timelyoreffectiveenoughtopreventcatastrophicfailureofthetanks".ThisreportwasneverforwardedtotheBhopalplant,althoughthemaindesignwasthe
same.[53]

Causesofthedisaster:the"disgruntledemployeesabotage"case
NowownedbyDowChemicalCompany,UnionCarbidemaintainsawebsitededicatedtothetragedyandclaimsthattheincidentwastheresultofsabotage,
statingthatsufficientsafetysystemswereinplaceandoperativetopreventtheintrusionofwater.[54]
Theimpossibilityofthe"negligence"argument
Accordingtothe"CorporateNegligence"argument,workershadbeencleaningoutpipeswithwaternearby.Thiswaterwasdivertedduetoacombinationof
impropermaintenance,leakingandclogging,andeventuallyendedupintheMICstoragetank.Indianscientistsalsosuggestedthatadditionalwatermighthave
beenintroducedasa"backflow"fromadefectivelydesignedventgasscrubber.Noneofthesetheoreticalroutesofentrywereeversuccessfullydemonstrated
duringtestsbytheCentralBureauofInvestigators(CBI)andUCILengineers.[42][44][51][55]
AnanalysisbyArthurD.LittlearguesthattheNegligenceargumentwasimpossibleforseveraltangiblereasons:[41]
1.Thepipesbeingusedbythenearbyworkerswereonly1/2inchindiameterandwerephysicallyincapableofproducingenoughhydraulicpressuretoraise
waterthemorethan10feetthatwouldhavebeennecessarytoenablethewaterto"backflow"intotheMICtank.
2.AkeyintermediatevalvewouldhavehadtobeopenfortheNegligenceargumenttoapply.Thisvalvewas"tagged"closed,meaningthatithadbeen
inspectedandfoundtobeclosed.Whileitispossibleforopenvalvestoclogovertime,theonlywayaclosedvalveallowspenetrationisifthereisleakage,
and1985testscarriedoutbythegovernmentofIndiafoundthisvalvetobenonleaking.
3.InorderforwatertohavereachedtheMICtankfromthepipecleaningarea,itwouldhavehadtoflowthroughasignificantnetworkofpipesrangingfrom6
to8inchesindiameter,beforerisingtenfeetandflowingintotheMICtank.Hadthisoccurred,mostofthewaterthatwasinthosepipesatthetimethetank
haditscriticalreactionwouldhaveremainedinthosepipes,astherewasnodrainforthem.InvestigationbytheIndiangovernmentin1985revealedthatthe
pipeswerebonedry.

Theargumentforsabotage
TheArthurD.LittlereportconcludesthatitislikelythatasingleemployeesecretlyanddeliberatelyintroducedalargeamountofwaterintotheMICtankby
removingameterandconnectingawaterhosedirectlytothetankthroughthemeteringport.[41]
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UCCclaimstheplantstafffalsifiednumerousrecordstodistancethemselvesfromtheincidentandabsolvethemselvesofblame,andthattheIndianGovernment
impededitsinvestigationanddeclinedtoprosecutetheemployeeresponsible,presumablybecausethatwouldweakenitsallegationsofnegligencebyUnion
Carbide.[56]
Theevidenceinfavorofthispointofviewincludes:
1.Akeywitness(the"teaboy")testifiedthatwhenheenteredthecontrolroomat12:15am,priortothedisaster,the"atmospherewastenseandquiet".
2.Anotherkeywitness(the"instrumentsupervisor")testifiedthatwhenhearrivedatthesceneimmediatelyfollowingtheincident,henoticedthatthelocal
pressureindicatoronthecriticalTank610wasmissing,andthathehadfoundahoselyingnexttotheemptymanheadcreatedbythemissingpressure
indicator,andthatthehosehadhadwaterrunningoutofit.
3.Thistestimonywascorroboratedbyotherwitnesses.
4.Graphologicalanalysisrevealedmajorattemptstoalterlogfilesanddestroylogevidence.
5.Otherlogfilesshowthatthecontrolteamhadattemptedtopurge1tonofmaterialoutofTank610immediatelypriortothedisaster.Anattemptwasthen
madetocoverupthistransfervialogalteration.WaterisheavierthanMIC,andthetransferlineisattachedtothebottomofthetank.TheArthurD.Little
reportconcludesfromthisthatthetransferwasanefforttotransferwateroutofTank610thathadbeendiscoveredthere.
6.Athirdkeywitness(the"offdutyemployeeofanotherunit")statedthat"hehadbeentoldbyaclosefriendofoneoftheMICoperatorsthatwaterhad
enteredthroughatubethathadbeenconnectedtothetank."ThishadbeendiscoveredbytheotherMICoperators(sothestorywasrecounted)whothen
triedtoopenandclosevalvestopreventtherelease.
7.Afourthkeywitness(the"operatorfromadifferentunit")statedthataftertherelease,twoMICoperatorshadtoldhimthatwaterhadenteredthetank
throughapressuregauge.
TheLittlereportarguesthatthisevidencedemonstratesthatthefollowingchronologytookplace:
At10:20pm,thetankwasatnormalpressure,indicatingtheabsenceofwater.
At10:45pm,ashiftchangetookchange,duringwhichtimetheMICstoragearea"wouldbecompletelydeserted".
Duringthisperiod,a"disgruntledoperatorenteredthestorageareaandhookeduponeofthereadilyavailablerubberwaterhosestoTank610,withthe
intentionofcontaminatingandspoilingthetank'scontents."
Waterbegantoflow,beginningthechemicalreactionthatcausedthedisaster.
Aftermidnight,controlroomoperatorssawthepressurerisingandrealizedtherewasaproblemwithTank610.Theydiscoveredthewaterconnection,and
decidedtotransferonetonofthecontentsouttotryandremovethewater.
Thedisasterthenoccurred,amajorreleaseofpoisonousgas.
Thecoverupactivitiesdiscoveredduringtheinvestigationthentookplace.

AdditionalUnionCarbideactions
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Thecorporationdeniedtheclaimthatthevalvesonthetankweremalfunctioning,andclaimedthatthedocumentedevidencegatheredaftertheincidentshowedthat
thevalveclosetotheplant'swaterwashingoperationwasclosedandwasleaktight.Furthermore,processsafetysystemshadpreventedwaterfromenteringthe
tankbyaccident.Carbidestatesthatthesafetyconcernsidentifiedin1982wereallallayedbefore1984andhadnothingtodowiththeincident.[57]
Thecompanyadmittedthatthesafetysystemsinplacewouldnothavebeenabletopreventachemicalreactionofthatmagnitudefromcausingaleak.According
toCarbide,"indesigningtheplant'ssafetysystems,achemicalreactionofthismagnitudewasnotfactoredin"because"thetank'sgasstoragesystemwasdesigned
toautomaticallypreventsuchalargeamountofwaterfrombeinginadvertentlyintroducedintothesystem"and"processsafetysystemsinplaceandoperational
wouldhavepreventedwaterfromenteringthetankbyaccident".Instead,theyclaimthat"employeesabotagenotfaultydesignoroperationwasthecauseof
thetragedy".[57]
Tacticalresponse
Thecompanystressestheimmediateactiontakenafterthedisasteranditscontinuedcommitmenttohelpingthevictims.On4December,thedayfollowingthe
leak,UnionCarbidesentmaterialaidandseveralinternationalmedicalexpertstoassistthemedicalfacilitiesinBhopal.[57]
Financialresponse
TheprimaryfinancialrestitutionpaidbyUCCwasnegotiatedin1989,whentheIndianSupremeCourtapprovedasettlementofUS$470million( 1055crore
(equivalentto 58billionorUS$850millionin2016)).ThisamountwasimmediatelypaidbyUCCtotheIndiangovernment.Thecompanystatesthatthe
restitutionpaid"was$120millionmorethanplaintiffs'lawyershadtoldU.S.courtswasfair"andthattheIndianSupremeCourtstatedinitsopinionthat
"compensationlevelsunderthesettlementwerefargreaterthanwouldnormallybepayableunderIndianlaw."[58]
Intheimmediateaftermathofthedisaster,UnionCarbidestatesonitswebsitethatitput$2millionintotheIndianprimeminister'simmediatedisasterrelieffundon
11December1984.[57]ThecorporationestablishedtheEmployees'BhopalReliefFundinFebruary1985,whichraisedmorethan$5millionforimmediate
relief.[19]AccordingtoUnionCarbide,inAugust1987,theymadeanadditional$4.6millioninhumanitarianinterimreliefavailable.[19]
UnionCarbidestatedthatitalsoundertookseveralstepstoprovidecontinuingaidtothevictimsoftheBhopaldisaster.Thesaleofits50.9percentinterestin
UCILinApril1992andestablishmentofacharitabletrusttocontributetothebuildingofalocalhospital.ThesalewasfinalisedinNovember1994.Thehospital
wasbeguninOctober1995andwasopenedin2001.Thecompanyprovidedafundwitharound$90millionfromsaleofitsUCILstock.In1991,thetrusthad
amountedapproximately$100million.Thehospitalcateredforthetreatmentofheart,lungandeyeproblems.[54]UCCalsoprovideda$2.2milliongrantto
ArizonaStateUniversitytoestablishavocationaltechnicalcenterinBhopal,whichwasopened,butwaslaterclosedbythestategovernment.[58]Theyalso
donated$5milliontotheIndianRedCrossafterthedisaster.[58]TheyalsodevelopedaResponsibleCaresystemwithothermembersofthechemicalindustryasa
responsetotheBhopalcrisis,whichwasdesignedtohelppreventsuchaneventinthefuture.[19]
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ChargesagainstUCCandUCILemployees
UCCchairmanandCEOWarrenAndersonwasarrestedandreleasedonbailbytheMadhyaPradeshPoliceinBhopalon7December1984.Andersonwas
takentoUCC'shouseafterwhichhewasreleasedsixhourslateron$2,100bailandflownoutonagovernmentplane.Theseactionswereallegedlytakenunder
thedirectionofthenchiefsecretaryofthestate,whowaspossiblyinstructedfromchiefminister'soffice,whohimselfflewoutofBhopalimmediately.[59][60][61]
Laterin1987,theIndiangovernmentsummonedAnderson,eightotherexecutivesandtwocompanyaffiliateswithhomicidechargestoappearinIndiancourt.[62]
Inresponse,UnionCarbidesaidthecompanyisnotunderIndianjurisdiction.[62]
From2014,DowisanamedrespondentinanumberofongoingcasesarisingfromUnionCarbidesbusinessinBhopal.[63]

Ongoingcontamination
Chemicalsabandonedattheplantcontinuetoleakandpollutethegroundwater.[38][64][65][66]Whetherthechemicals
poseahealthhazardisdisputed.[67]Contaminationatthesiteandsurroundingareawasnotcausedbythegasleakage.
Theareaaroundtheplantwasusedasadumpinggroundforhazardouschemicalsandby1982waterwellsinthevicinity
oftheUCILfactoryhadtobeabandoned.[5]UCCstatesthat"aftertheincident,UCILbegancleanupworkatthesite
underthedirectionofIndiancentralandstategovernmentauthorities",whichwascontinuedafter1994bythesuccessor
toUCIL.Thesuccessor,EvereadyIndustriesIndia,Limited(EIIL),endedcleanuponthesitein1998,whenit
terminatedits99yearleaseandturnedovercontrolofthesitetothestategovernmentofMadhyaPradesh.[19][54]
DeterioratingsectionoftheMIC
UCC'slaboratorytestsin1989revealedthatsoilandwatersamplescollectedfromnearthefactoryweretoxictofish.
plant,decadesafterthegasleak.
Twentyoneareasinsidetheplantwerereportedtobehighlypolluted.In1991themunicipalauthoritiesdeclaredthat
waterfromover100wellswashazardousforhealthifusedfordrinking.[5]In1994itwasreportedthat21%ofthe
factorypremiseswereseriouslycontaminatedwithchemicals.[28][68][69]Beginningin1999,studiesmadebyGreenpeaceandothersfromsoil,groundwater,
wellwaterandvegetablesfromtheresidentialareasaroundUCILandfromtheUCILfactoryareashowcontaminationwitharangeoftoxicheavymetalsand
chemicalcompounds.Substancesfound,accordingtothereports,arenaphthol,naphthalene,Sevin,tarryresidues,alphanaphthol,mercury,organochlorines,
chromium,copper,nickel,lead,hexachlorethane,hexachlorobutadiene,pesticideHCH(BHC),volatileorganiccompoundsandhaloorganics.[68][69][70][71]Many
ofthesecontaminantswerealsofoundinbreastmilkofwomenlivingnearthearea.[72]SoiltestswereconductedbyGreenpeacein1999.Onesample(IT9012)
from"sedimentcollectedfromdrainunderformerSevinplant"showedmercurylevelstobeat"20,000and6milliontimes"higherthanexpectedlevels.
Organochlorinecompoundsatelevatedlevelswerealsopresentingroundwatercollectedfrom(sampleIT9040)a4.4meterdepth"boreholewithintheformer
UCILsite".Thissamplewasobtainedfromasourcepostedwithawarningsignwhichread"Waterunfitforconsumption".[73]Chemicalsthathavebeenlinkedto
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variousformsofcancerwerealsodiscovered,aswellastrichloroethylene,knowntoimpairfetaldevelopment,at50timesabovesafetylimitsspecifiedbytheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).[72]In2002,aninquirybyFactFindingMissiononBhopalfoundanumberoftoxins,includingmercury,lead,1,3,5
trichlorobenzene,dichloromethaneandchloroform,innursingwomen'sbreastmilk.
A2004BBCRadio5broadcastreportedthesiteiscontaminatedwithtoxicchemicalsincludingbenzenehexachlorideandmercury,heldinopencontainersor
looseontheground.[74]Adrinkingwatersamplefromawellnearthesitehadlevelsofcontamination500timeshigherthanthemaximumlimitsrecommendedby
theWorldHealthOrganization.[75]In2009,theCentreforScienceandEnvironment,aDelhibasedpollutionmonitoringlab,releasedtestresultsshowingpesticide
groundwatercontaminationuptothreekilometresfromthefactory.[76]Alsoin2009,theBBCtookawatersamplefromafrequentlyusedhandpump,locatedjust
northoftheplant.Thesample,testedinUK,wasfoundtocontain1,000timestheWorldHealthOrganization'srecommendedmaximumamountofcarbon
tetrachloride,acarcinogenictoxin.[77]InOctober2011,theInstituteofEnvironmentalManagementandAssessmentpublishedanarticleandvideobytwoBritish
environmentalscientists,showingthecurrentstateoftheplant,landfillandsolarevaporationpondsandcallingforrenewedinternationaleffortstoprovidethe
necessaryskillstocleanupthesiteandcontaminatedgroundwater.[78]

Fiction
In1999,aHindifilmdealingwiththetragedy.BhopalExpress,wasreleased.ThefilmstarsKayKayMenonandNaseeruddinShah.
AmulyaMalladi's2002novelABreathofFreshAirrelatesthestoryofamotherandsonwhodevelophealthissuesasaresultofexposuretogasatBhopal.The
bookisbasedonMalladi'srecollectionsofBhopalduringtheincident.[79]
IndraSinhareleasedAnimal'sPeoplein2007.Thenoveltellsthestoryofaboywhoisbornwithaspinalconditionduetoeffectsofthegas.Thebookwas
shortlistedfortheManBookerPrize.
In2014,tocoincidewiththe30thanniversaryofthedisaster,historicaldramaBhopal:APrayerforRainwasreleased,starringMartinSheenasUnionCarbide
CEOWarrenAnderson,KalPenn,andMischaBarton.ThefilmearnedglobalpraiseandLATimescriticMartinTsaisaidthefilmwas"ambitiousandshattering"
andthat"Althoughthereallifeeventstookplacethreedecadesago,thecautionarytalecouldnotbemorerelevant."[80]

Activism
Since1984,individualactivistshaveplayedaroleintheaftermathofthetragedy.ThebestknownisSatinathSarangi(Sathyu),ametallurgicengineerwhoarrived
atBhopalthedayaftertheleakage.Hefoundedseveralactivistgroups,aswellasSambhavnaTrust,theclinicforgasaffectedpatients,whereheisthemanager.[5]
OtheractivistsincludeRashidaBeeandChampaDeviShukla,whoreceivedtheGoldmanPrizein2004,AbdulJabbarandRachnaDhingra.[81][82]
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Localactivism
Soonaftertheaccident,representativesfromdifferentactivistgroupsarrived.Theactivistsworkedonorganisingthegasvictims,whichledtoviolentrepression
fromthepoliceandthegovernment.[5]
Numerousactionshavebeenperformed:demonstrations,sitins,hungerstrikes,marchescombinedwithpamphlets,books,andarticles.Everyanniversary,actions
areperformed.OftentheseincludemarchesaroundOldBhopal,endingwithburninganeffigyofWarrenAnderson.

Internationalactivism
CooperationwithinternationalNGOsincludingPesticideActionNetworkUK(http://www.panuk.org/)andGreenpeace
(http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/toxics/justiceforbhopal/)startedsoonafterthetragedy.OneoftheearliestreportsistheTradeUnionreportfrom
ILO1985.[44]
In1992,asessionofthePermanentPeoples'TribunalonIndustrialHazardsandHumanRightstookplaceinBhopal,andin1996,the"CharteronIndustrial
HazardsandHumanRights"(https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/212/45285.html)wasadopted.
In1994,theInternationalMedicalCommissiononBhopal(IMCB)metinBhopal.Theirworkcontributedtolongtermhealtheffectsbeingofficiallyrecognised.
ImportantinternationalactionshavebeenthetourtoEuropeandUnitedStatesin2003,[83]themarchestoDelhiin2006and2008,allincludinghungerstrikes,and
theBhopalEuropeBusTourin2009.

Activistorganisations
Atleast14differentNGOswereimmediatelyengaged.[5]Thefirstdisasterreportswerepublishedbyactivistorganisations,EklavyaandtheDelhiScienceForum.
Aroundtenlocalorganisations,engagedonlongterm,havebeenidentified.Twoofthemostactiveorganisationsarethewomen'sorganisationsBhopalGas
PeeditMahilaStationeryKarmachariSanghandBhopalGasPeeditMahilaUdyogSangthan.[5]
Morethan15nationalorganisationshavebeenengagedalongwithanumberofinternationalorganisations.[5]
Someofthemostimportantorganisationsare:
InternationalCampaignforJusticeinBhopal(ICJB),coordinatesinternationalactivities.
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BhopalMedicalAppeal,collectsfundsfortheSambhavnaTrust.
SambhavnaTrustorBhopalPeople'sHealthandDocumentationClinic.Providesmedicalcareforgasaffectedpatientsandthoselivinginwater
contaminatedarea.
ChingariTrust,providesmedicalcareforchildrenbeingborninBhopalwithmalformationsandbraindamages.
StudentsforBhopal,basedinUSA.
InternationalMedicalCommissiononBhopal,providedmedicalinformation19942000.

Settlementfundhoax
On3December2004,thetwentiethanniversaryofthedisaster,amanfalselyclaimingtobeaDowrepresentativenamedJudeFinisterrawasinterviewedonBBC
WorldNews.Heclaimedthatthecompanyhadagreedtocleanupthesiteandcompensatethoseharmedintheincident,byliquidatingUnionCarbidefor
US$12billion.[84][85]Dowquicklyissuedastatementsayingthattheyhadnoemployeebythatnamethathewasanimpostor,notaffiliatedwithDow,andthat
hisclaimswereahoax.TheBBClaterbroadcastacorrectionandanapology.[86]
JudeFinisterrawasactuallyAndyBichlbaum,amemberoftheactivistprankstergroupTheYesMen.In2002,TheYesMenissuedafakepressreleaseexplaining
whyDowrefusedtotakeresponsibilityforthedisasterandstartedupawebsite,at"DowEthics.com",designedtolookliketherealDowwebsite,butcontaining
hoaxinformation.[87]

MonitoringofBhopalactivists
AreleaseofanemailcacherelatedtointelligenceresearchorganisationStratforwasleakedbyWikiLeakson27February2012.[88]ItrevealedthatDow
ChemicalhadengagedStratfortospyonthepublicandpersonallivesofactivistsinvolvedintheBhopaldisaster,includingtheYesMen.EmailstoDow
representativesfromhiredsecurityanalystslisttheYouTubevideosliked,TwitterandFacebookpostsmadeandthepublicappearancesoftheseactivists.[89]
StratforreleasedastatementcondemningtherevelationbyWikileakswhileneitherconfirmingnordenyingtheaccuracyofthereports,andwouldonlystatethatit
hadactedwithintheboundsofthelaw.DowChemicalalsorefrainedtocommentonthematter.[90]
IngridEckerman,amemberoftheInternationalMedicalCommissiononBhopal,hasbeendeniedavisatovisitIndia.[91]

Seealso
Listofindustrialdisasters
Systemaccident
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Citations
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2.Varma,RoliDayaR.Varma(2005)."TheBhopalDisasterof1984".BulletinofScience,TechnologyandSociety.
3."MadhyaPradeshGovernment:BhopalGasTragedyReliefandRehabilitationDepartment,Bhopal".Mp.gov.in.Retrieved28August2012.
4.AKDubey(21June2010)."BhopalGasTragedy:92%injuriestermed"minor"".First14News.Archivedfromtheoriginalon26June2010.Retrieved26June2010.
5.Eckerman,Ingrid(2005).TheBhopalSagaCausesandConsequencesoftheWorld'sLargestIndustrialDisaster.India:UniversitiesPress.
doi:10.13140/2.1.3457.5364.ISBN8173715157.
6."CompanyDefendsChiefinBhopalDisaster".NewYorkTimes.3August2009.Retrieved26April2010.
7."U.S.ExecArrestSoughtinBhopalDisaster".CBSNews.31July2009.Retrieved26April2010.
8.Methylisocyanate.NewYork:UnionCarbideCorporation.1976.F41443A7/76
9.Carbonmonoxide,PhosgeneandMethylisocyanate.UnitSafetyProceduresManual.Bhopal:UnionCarbideIndiaLimited,AgriculturalProductsDivision.1978.
10.BehlVK,AgarwalVN,ChoudharySP,KhannaS(1979).OperatingManualPartII.MethylIsocyanateUnit.Bhopal:UnionCarbideIndiaLimited,Agricultural
ProductsDivision.
11.Kovel(2002).
12.Ward,KenJr.(18March2011)."BayergivesupfighttorestartInstituteMICunit".TheCharlestonGazette.Retrieved24September2013.
13.Eckerman,Ingrid(2006)."TheBhopalDisaster1984workingconditionsandtheroleofthetradeunions"(PDF).AsianPacificNewsletteronoccupationalhealth
andsafety13(2).
14.Narrator:AshtonSmith(10October2011)."BhopalNightmare".SecondsfromDisaster.Season4.Episode6.5:45minutesin.NatGeo.
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Externallinks
InternationalCampaignforJusticeinBhopal(http://www.bhopal.net/)
WikimediaCommonshas
BhopalMedicalAppeal(http://www.bhopal.org/)
mediarelatedtoBhopal
BhopalGasTragedyRelief&RehabilitationDepartment(http://www.mp.gov.in/bgtrrdmp/)attheGovernmentof
disaster.
MadhyaPradesh
BhopalInformationCenter(http://www.bhopal.com/),UnionCarbide
IndiaEnvironmentalPortal(http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/search/?q=bhopal+gas)UpdatednewsonBhopalGasDisaster
Bhopal:AnatomyofaCrisis(http://books.google.ca/books/about/Bhopal.html?id=QiBPAAAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y)PaulShrivastava,PaulChapman
Publishing,1987,ISBN1853961922
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