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Mill Test Certificates

Chemical
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Samples are taken from the molten metal


Chemical analysis is performed
reported on a mill test certificate for an individual
heat or batch of steel
Heat is usually 50 to 300 tons of steel

Physical
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{
{

Samples from finished product (as required by a


specific steel standard)
tensile yield (Fy), tensile strength (Fult), and tensile
elongation tests are done
Reported on mill test certificate

Classification and Standards for Steels

Classifications:
{

classification system are generally based on


composition
most common is SAE-AISI system; other is UNS

First two digits identify primary alloy type (e.g. 10 for


carbon, 13 for manganese)
last two digits for carbon content

Standards are generally based on


performance
{

e.g. ASTM, AMS, ASME,

Steel Products in Civil Engineering

Plate Steel (for welded beams)


Shapes (wide flange, I-beams, channels, tees)
Fasteners
Reinforcing for Concrete
{
{
{

Reinforcing steel (rebar)


Prestressing tendon
Postensioning tendon and bar

Sheet steel (cladding, light steel framing,


decks, roofs

Typical general categories of structural steel

Type

Description

Fy
(MPa)

Fu
(MPa)

Carbon Steel

common grade, C and Mn are main


strengthening elements

245-300

380-450

High Strength
carbon steel

Higher carbon which increases strength but


reduces ductility, toughness, and weldability;
less common e.g. electrical transmission
towers where connections are bolted and
members are small

350-400

480-550

High strength low


alloy steel

low carbon, strength comes from other alloys


such as vanadium and columbium

300-480

450-550

Atmospheric
corrosion resistant
steel

Weathering steel low carbon steel with


alloying elements giving some corrosion
resistance

350 (typ)

480 (typ)

High strength
quenched and
tempered steel

Heat treated for high strength, generally


weldable (if special procedures used) and good
toughness

550-700

700-950

Structural Steel Grades in Canada

CSA G40.21 specifies grades of steel with


letter and number:
{

e.g. Grade 300W is a designation for steel with fy =


300 MPa (see standard for exceptions) where the
letter designation means one of the following:

Code

Description

Type W

weldable

Type WT

weldable, notch tough

Type R

atmospheric corrosion-resistant

Type A

atmospheric corrosion-resistant, weldable

Type AT

atmospheric corrosion-resistant, weldable, notch tough

Type Q

Quench and tempered low alloy steel plate

Type QT

Quench and tempered low alloy, notch tough, steel plate

Most common

(Canadian G.41)

Structural Shapes

Hot steel
passed through
series of rollers
to make
various shapes

From Mamlouk and Zaniewski

Beijing Olympic Stadium Birds Nest designed by Herzog and DeMeuron, and Arup
uses high strength low alloy plate steel (110 mm thick; Chinese grade Q460)

Structural Steel for Bridges

CSA S6 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code:


{

Structural Steel: CAN/CSA-G40.21

{
{
{
{

Cast Steel: ASTM 27M or ASTM 148M or ASTM A486M


Stainless Steel ASTM A167
Bolts: ASTM A325M, A490M
Cables

Normal: (Type W??)


Weathering Steel: Type A atmospheric corrosion-resistant steel
Fracture Critical: Type AT, WT or QT

Bright wire: ASTM A510


Galvanized wire: ASTM A641
Bridge strand: ASTM A586
Wire Rope: ASTM 603

High Strength Bars: CSA G279

Other Approximate Properties of


Structural Steel
Elastic Modulus

200,000 MPa

Poissons Ratio

0.30

Density

7850 kg/m3

Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion

appox 11.7 x 10-6 /C


(varies greatly for different
steel types)

Weathering Steel

Develops a dense tightly adhered coat of rust that


inhibits further corrosion (more or less)
Requires no paint for most environments
Can still result in rust stains onto concrete piers etc
e.g. WRB bridge in Kelowna (steel is painted near the
expansion joints only)
e.g. in cladding is the Civil Rusty Hut
Example types of Weathering Steel
{
{
{

Canada CSA G40.20 Grades 350A and 350R


US ASTM A242, ASTM A588 (check)
UK BS 4360

Examples of Canadian Codes


Code Designation

Title

CSA-S16-01

Limit States Design of Steel Structures

CAN/CSA-S6

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

CSA-W59

Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding)

CSA-G40.20/G40.21

General Requirements for Rolled or Welded


Structural Quality Steel/Structural Quality Steel

CSA-S136

Cold Formed Steel Structural Members

CSA W47.1

Certification of Companies for Fusion Welding of


Steel Structures
- 3 divisions of certification
- Owner/designer should specify the appropriate
division (e.g. buildings and bridges Div 1 or Div
2.1)

Examples of British Steels


Plate and Rolled Steel

BS 4360 or EN 10025
{Grade 43
{Grade 50

(fy = 275 MPa)


(fy = 335 MPa)

Buildings mostly Grade 43 although columns and composite beams in


multi-story are often Grade 50
Grade 50 common in bridges
Notch toughness:

-5 C buildings internal
-15 C buildings external
-15/-25 C bridges
(depending on location)

Weather resistant BS 4360


Cladding

Cold reduced, hot rolled


BS 1449.1 (production standard)
BS 2989/EN 10142 galvanized formed steel
Grades:
Z28 (fy = 280 MPa)
Z35 (fy = 350 MPa)

Steel Wire

BS 2763 fult appox 1700 MPa

Fastener Products

Conventional bolts,
twist-off type tension control bolt assemblies,
nuts,
washers,
compressible-washer-type direct tension
indicators,
anchor rods,
threaded rods,
forged steel structural hardware

Reinforcing Steel (rebar)

Geometry:
{

Bars (wire rolls for small sizes and straight


bar)

Plain (smooth round) now not common


Deformed (bumps on surface)
{

Most commonly used reinforcing for structural


concrete

Wire Mesh (sheets or rolls)

Plain and deformed (deformed not common)


{

Used in some structural concrete but more common


as crack control in non-structural concrete

Rebar Specifications
Types of Rebar in CSA S6 and MOTH BC
G30.3 and G30.14

Cold-drawn steel wire; Deformed steel wire

G30.5 and G30.14

Welded steel wire fabric; Welded deformed steel wire fabric

G30.18

Billet steel bars 300R, 400R, 500R, 400W, 500W

CSA A23.1:
{

CSA-G30.18

ASTM A82/A82M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A496/A496M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement

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{
{
{
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ASTM A184/A184M-06 Standard Specification for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete
Reinforcement
ASTM A185/A185M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for
Concrete
ASTM A497/A497M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Deformed, for
Concrete
ASTM A704/A704M-06 Standard Specification for Welded Steel Plain Bar or Rod Mats for Concrete
Reinforcement

ASTM A775/A775M-07 Standard Specification for Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars

Rebar Sizes
Bar
Designati
on

Uncoated Bars
(CSA Grades)

Epoxy Coated
Bars

Nominal Linear
Mass
(kg/m)
(confirm these)

300R

400R, 400W,
500W

10M

0.785

15M

1.570

20M

2.355

25M

3.925

30M

5.495

35M

7.850

45M

11.775

55M

19.625

ASTM A615/A615M-07 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for
Concrete
1.1 This specification covers deformed and plain carbon-steel bars for concrete reinforcement in
cut lengths and coils. Steel bars containing alloy additions, such as with the AISI and SAE series
of alloy steels, are permitted if the resulting product meets all the other requirements of this
specification. The standard sizes and dimensions of deformed bars and their number
designations are given in Table 1 . The text of this specification references notes and footnotes
which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables) shall
not be considered as requirements of the specification.
1.2 Bars are of three minimum yield strength levels: namely, 40000 [280 MPa], 60000 [420
MPa], and 75000 psi [520 MPa], designated as Grade 40 [280], Grade 60 [420], and Grade 75
[520], respectively.

Reinforcing Steel for Chloride Environments

Epoxy coated reinforcing steel


{
{
{
{

Galvanized Rebar
{
{

ASTM A-775M and D-3963M from certified plants


care not to damage coating
gives about extra 20 years protection
was common in 80s and 90s
ASTM A-767M Class 1 or CSA G164
Not too common in Canada but do have good track record in
some locations

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)


{
{
{

Typically glass or carbon composites


excellent new products
See Chapter 16 of Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code
and CSA S806

Reinforcing Steel for Chloride Environments

Regular steel with other protection measures


such as combinations of:
{
{
{
{
{
{

Increased concrete cover,


Corrosion inhibitors,
Better crack control, (curing practice, pre-stressing
or post tension, fibers, rebar detailing)
Low permeability to chlorides (silica fume, fly ash,
slag, low w/cm)
Coatings,
cathodic, protection

e.g. good cover, corrosion inhibitors, silica fume, fly ash, low w/cm
used on Golden Ears

Wire, Strand, Cable

Higher carbon contents


Individual wire is cold drawn from hot rolled to 90% reduction
which produces a heavily worked structure
Dislocation network provides high strength
Wires wound together to make a strand (typically 7 wire strand but
also 19, and 37)
Strands wound together to make cables

Prestressed Concrete Tendons

ASTM A416/A416M-06 Standard Specification for Steel Strand,


Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete
{
{
{

ASTM A421/A421M-05 Standard Specification for Uncoated StressRelieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete
{

Two types: BA button anchorage and WA wedge anchorage

ASTM A722/A722M-07 Standard Specification for Uncoated HighStrength Steel Bars for Prestressing Concrete
{
{

Two types: low-relaxation (most common) and stress relieved


Two grades: 1725MPa and 1860 MPa ultimate tensile strength
0.5 and 0.6 mm average diameter

Min 1035 MPa


Plain (Type I) and Deformed (Type II)

CSA S6 references CSA G279

Post-Tensioning

Fully bonded (grouted) or unbonded


(greased and inside plastic sheath)
Usually 7 wire strand to:
{

ASTM A416, A421, A722

Note: corrosion of unbonded tendons has been a problem in


the past and special care is need during manufacture and
installation

Wire for Cables in Suspension Bridges

Example of Properties:
{

High quality (close control on composition)

{
{
{
{
{
{

e.g.

Carbon

0.75-0.85

Manganese

0.55-0.75

Phosphorus

<0.03

Sulfur

<0.03

Silicon

0.15-0.30

Galvanized
High strength (e.g. tensile strength =1550 MPa
Elongation (e.g. 4% in 250 mm)
Coating elongation (e.g. no peel on 1.5x wire diameter mandrel)
Wire size: 4.88 (more common) and 4.11 mm dia
Supplied in large diameter rolls (e.g. 1.5m) to prevent coating failure
and to facilitate spinning on site
Wires can be pre-assembled into strands at factory then made into
cables (or run parallel) on site

Fire and Steel

Fire and Steel do no mix steel softens quickly and


looses strength, leaving little life safety for egress
Fire protection is stipulated in buidling codes (not
structural standards) such as:
{
{

Amount of protection depends on:


{
{

Vancouver Building By-law


BC Building Code
Type of Occupancy e.g. school, home, warehouse
Size of structure

Protection over fire resistant insulation may be


required

Corrosion of Steels

Destructive action or deterioration of metal by


sometimes chemical but mostly
electrochemical reaction with the environment
Corrosion Environments:
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

atmosphere
aqueous solutions
soils
acids and bases
inorganic solvents
sea water (deicing salts) etc
high temperature

Electrochemical Corrosion Process

corrosion cells are formed with a


continuous flow of electrons
Cathode and Anode reactions
corrosion requires:
{
{
{
{

source of water
source of oxygen
electrical continuity
potential difference

Types of Corrosion

general corrosion (rusting)


Pitting corrosion
galvanic corrosion
stress-corrosion
crevice corrosion
hydrogen
intergranular
biological
filliform

case of dissimilar
metals
Fe has a higher
electromotive
potential than Cu
if Fe replaced with
Zn electrons would
flow opposite
direction

Case of Reinforced Concrete

high pH (caused by OH-) results in


passive layer on surface of steel,
therefore does not rust
HOWEVER: chloride can disrupt
passive layer and cause corrosion or
carbonation can lower pH and cause
corrosion

Corrosion Control
1.

2.

Protective paint coatings paint


becomes a barrier between steel and
atmosphere
Hot Dip Galvanizing steel immersed
in bath of molten zinc resulting in:

Zn corrodes preferentially over the iron


(sacrificial anode)
acts as a barrier as well

Corrosion Control
Cathodic Protection:

3.

impressed current will reverse potential and


reaction does not occur

Use corrosion resistant metal:

4.

stainless steel
weathering steels

In the case of reinforced concrete replace


steel with FRP materials

5.

glass, aramid, carbon in a polymeric matrix


very brittle
polymer can be vinyl ester or epoxy

Galvanic Series
materials higher in the
chart will corrode
before those lower

Uniform Corrosion

General loss of
material exposed to
corrosion
environment
General thinning
takes place until
failure

Galvanic Corrosion

corrosion due to electrical contact of two


dissimilar conductive materials

Pitting Corrosion

Pitting corrosion is a localized form of


corrosion by which cavities or "holes" are
produced in the material.
Pitting is considered to be more dangerous
than uniform corrosion damage because it is
more difficult to detect, predict and design
against.
A small, narrow pit with minimal overall metal
loss can lead to the failure of an entire
engineering system.

Example of Corrosion Pits

Intergranular Corrosion

loss of material at grain boundary

Hydrogen Embrittlement

cracking, blistering and premature failure of a


material due to the entry of hydrogen into the
material causing brittleness

Crevice Corrosion

Crevice corrosion is a
localized form of
corrosion usually
associated with a
stagnant between metals
in close contact

Such stagnant microenvironments tend to occur in


crevices (shielded areas) such:
{

under gaskets, washers, disbonded coatings, threads, lap


joints and clamps etc.

Crevice corrosion

Crevice corrosion is initiated by changes


in local chemistry within the crevice:
{
{
{
{

Depletion of inhibitor in the crevice


Depletion of oxygen in the crevice
A shift to acid conditions in the crevice
Build-up of aggressive ion species (e.g.
chloride) in the crevice

Stress corrosion cracking

Stress corrosion
cracking (SCC) is
the cracking induced
from the combined
influence of tensile
stress and a
corrosive
environment.

BCE Place, Toronto, Ontario