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THE MADHYAMAKA-HRDAYA-KARIKA

OF BHAV A VIVEKA*
A Photographic Reproduction
of Prof. V.V. Gokhale's Copy

Shrikant. S. BAHULKAR

The Madhyamaka-Hrdaya-Kiirikii (MHK) with the commentary


Tarka-jviilii (TJ) ascribed to Bhavaviveka (490-570 A.D.) is perhaps
the earliest attempt toward the survey of various systems of Indian
philosophy. This work, like thousands of other Buddhist Sanskrit
works, disappeared from India, but has been preserved in its Tibetan
version. In summer 1936, Pandit Ven. Rahula Saqik[tyayana
discovered a Sanskrit manuscript (MS) of the Kiirikii-text in Zha-lu
monastery in Tibet. 1 The work was entitled "the Tarkajviilii-Siitra"
in the colophon on folio 25a. During his stay in Tibet, Pt.
Sa.qllqtyayana made a hand-copy of this MS. Later on he presented
the hand-copy to the late Prof. V.V. Gokhale who made another
copy in his own handwriting. When Prof. Gokhale began to work
on this text, he obtained the photographs of the same MS from Prof.
G. Tucci, with the help of which he made conections in his own
copy. The MHK is the only work of Bhavaviveka that has survived
in Sanskrit. The discovery of this text gave impetus to studies of
Bhavaviveka's philosophy. Recently the MS of the MHK has been
photographed in China. These photographs have been and being
utilized by Prof. Chr. Lindtner, his colleagues and students for their
own research. 2 To date, there are a number of studies based on
various chapters of the MHK with the TJ. 3 I had the great opportunity
of reading the first chapter of the MHK with the TJ with Prof.

This is part of the results of Joint Research entitled "Comparative Studies of Theories and
Practices of Mru;tgala" headed by M. Tachik:awa, National Museum of Ethnology (Osaka),
1993-1994.
1

For details of the MS, see, Pt. Riihula Siitplqi:yii.yana, "Second Search of Sanskrit Palm-leaf

MSS in Tibet", Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, XXIII(!) (1937): 15, 48.
2

Qvarnstrom, Olle. Hindu Philosophy in Buddhist Perspective: The Vediintatattvaviniscaya

chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-Hjdaya-Kiirikii. Lund: 1989. p.l2.


See Nakamura, H., Indian Buddhism: A Survey with Bibliographical Notes. New Delhi:1987.
p. 284.
3

S.S.BAHULKAR

Gokhale. The English translation of the first chapter of the MHK


with the TJ by Prof. Gokhale was subsequently published in
Miscellanea Buddhica, edited by Prof. Chr. Lindtner, Copenhagen,
1985.
While working on the MHK, Prof. Gokhale decided to prepare a
critical edition of the text of MHK, based on the single Sanskrit MS
and tibetan Translations of the work. A joint project under his
leadership was undertaken by Prof. H. Nakamura, Prof. J. Takasaki,
Prof. S. Kawasaki, Prof. Y. Ejima and others. 4 I hear that they
4

The inteiim result of this joint project is as follows:


Ejima, Yasunori. Development of Miidhyamika Philosophy in India: Studies on Bhiivaviveka
(r:j:lim.~,~,il') Ji:~ -Bhavaviveka MJe-)[in Japanese]. Tokyo: Shunjiisha, 1980.
"Daiji5-shi5chin-ron no Yugagyo-ha Hihan ( r:k:*~~~iiil.l II'):EmdJJ01'J~mtlt'I'U)[in
Japanese]." Takasaki Jikido Hakase Kanreki Kinen Ronshii: Indogaku Bukkyogaku
Ronshii (~l~ii![J!!t$~F.fi'lc~~~: 1 / F~1L.~~~~). Tokyo:Shunjiisha,
1987. 201-214.
"Bhii.viveka on Language: his Critique of Yogii.cii.ra Theories (Bhii.vivekai/')mim
-JiiiJJ!l1:Y~mtlttU t II')~ *I: Sit "(-)[in Japanese]". Journal of Naritasan
Institute for Buddhist Studies, no.15(II) (1992): 75-93.
Gokhale, V.V. "The Vedanta Philosophy Desclibed by Bhavya in his MadhyamakaJJrdaya."
Indo-Iranian Journal, vol.II, no.3 (1958): 165-180.
"Masters of Bud~hism Adore the Brahman Through Non-Adoration: Bhavya,
MadhyamakalJ[daya, III." Indo-Iranian Journal, vol.V, no.4 (1963): 271-275.
"The Second Chapter of Bhavya's MadhyamakaJJrdaya: Taking the Vow of an
Ascetic." Indo-Iranian Journal, vol.XIV, no.1/2 (1972): 271-275.
Gokhale, V.V. and Bahulkar, S.S. "MadhyamakaJJrdaya-kiirikii Tarkajviilii, Chapter 1."
Miscellanea Buddhica (Indiske Studier 5), ed. by Chr. Lindtner, Copenhagen (1985)
: 76-108.
lida, Shotaro. "Agama(Scripture) and Yukti(Reason) in Bhavaviveka." Kanakura Hakase
Koki Kinen Indogaku Bukkyi5gaku Ronsl1fi (~~t$!!lflili'lc~ ~P!3t~1L.~~1iiiil
~). Kyoto: Heirakuji, 1966. 79-96.
Reason and Emptiness: A Study in Logic and Mysticism. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1980.
Kawasaki, Shinjo. "Bhavya no Tsutaeru Mimiiqlsa Shis6 ( ;'\ r'j 1 -1' ll'){id.l.> ~ - '";(- / -1]-.~,;W)[in Japanese]." Nakamura Hajime Hakase Kanreki Kinen Ronsyfi: Indo Sl:Usi5
to Bukkyi5 (q:tHftt$~F.fi'lc~~:l: 1/ V.\St;Wc{L.~). Tokyo: Shunjiisha,
1973. 71-86.
"Quotations in the Mi:marpsii. Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-hrdaya-kiirikii."
Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, vol.22, no.2 (1974): 1-8
"A Reference to Maga in the Tibetan Translation of the Tarkajviilii." Journal of
Indian and Buddhist Studies, vol.23, no.2 (1975): 14-20. [Rep1inted in A Study of
the Omniscient Being (sarvajfia) in Buddhism : 509-516.]
"The Mi:mii.rpsa Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-h[daya-kiirikii -Text and
Translation- (1) Piirva-pak~a." Studies in Philosophy 1976, Institute of Philosophy,
University of Tsukuba (1977): 1-16.
"Omniscient Being (sarvajfia) in the Madhyamaka-hrdaya-kiirikii and Tarkajviilii(
rr:ptm'L'~.I 1:;,. Ghl.> --\j[J~(Sarvajiia).~,;W)[in Japanese]." Journal of Indian
and Buddhist Studies, vol.34, no.1 (1985): 160-167.
"Flesh-eating and Bhii.vaviveka (~ jt CBhii.vaviveka)." Ti5hi5 (the East), no.1 (1985):
174-184.

ii

THE MADRYAMAKA-Ifll.DA YA- KA.RIKA.

"Controversy on the Buddha's Omniscience (sarvajiiatva) in Bhavya's Madhyamakah[daya-kiirikii and Tarkajvala (!': cl' 11'm f ifl W[,l.,~ii!J LIGtiR*=J mn
m+.JiJf~ ---11)~,\l;t;Wo:JJ.iF>H:~im l'""C- [in Japanese]."
Studies in
Philosophy, no.ll, Institute of Philosophy, University of Tsukuba (1986): 1-26.
"Mind in a Plant ? - Concept of the Sentient Being according to Bhavaviveka
-(Bhavaviveka O)~Ji0Ji!)[in Japanese]." Busan Kyogaku Taikai Kiyo: Memoirs
of the Society for the Busan Study, no. 14 (1986):1-15.
"The :Mimarpsa Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-h[daya-kiirikii -Sanskrit and
Tibetan Texts- (2) Uttara-pak~a." Studies in Philosophy , no.12, Institute of
Philosophy, University of Tsukuba (1987): 1-23.
"Idea of Sarvajiia in Bhavya's Madhyamaka-h[daya-kiirikii- jiieya-avaral).a and
sarvajiia (!':~/1-to:J r!flM'L'~J I:::OS<.Gh~ r-tv~.l mc-)[in Japanese]."
Bukkyo-Gaku: Journal of Buddhist Studies, vol.24, (1988): 1-20.
"The :Mimarpsa Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-h[daya-kiirikii -Sanskrit and
Tibetan Texts- (3) with the Sarvajiia Chapter." Studies in Philosophy , no.13,
Institute of Philosophy, University of Tsukuba (1988): 1-42.
"Discrepancies in the Sanskrit and Tibetan Texts of Bhavya's Madhyamaka-h[dayaTarkajviilii (the IXth and Xth Chapters)." Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 5th
Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies NARITA 1989, vol.l.
Narita: Naritasan Shinshoji, 1992. 131-143.
A Study of the Omniscient Being (sarvajfia) in Buddl1ism (--11]~ }(!;1,1!\0).JiJf~)[in
Japanese]. Tokyo: Shunjiisha, 1992.
Nakada. Naomichi. "The Sanskrit Text of the Madhyamaka-h[daya-kiirikii (Dbu-mal.ti Siiiil-poJ.ll
Tshig-lel}.ur-byas-pa) and the Tibetan Text of the Madhyamaka-hrdaya-vrttiTarkajviilii (Dbu-maJ.ll Sfiin-pol}.i I;lgrel-pa Rtog-ge I;Ibar-ba), ~a~tal}. Paricchedal}.,
Sari1khyatattvavataral}., (Part 1. Piirvapak~a)." The Bulletin of Women's Junior
College, Tsurumi University, vol.6 (1972): 145-155.
"The Samkhya-philosophy Described by Bhavaviveka in his Madhyamaka-h[daya
and his own commentary on it, Tarkajviilii( fiflWl'L'~iiJO)~m:t\i::l J: "Cl"~ii!J'!!l.O)
*=J-1YFo:J=~~o:J-$[~-Y~-tmJ ~M~~~-~o:JW~tfi

)." The Bulletin of Women's Junior College, Tsurumi University, vo1.6 (1972):
156-185.
"The Sanskrit Text of the Madhyamaka-Hrdaya-Kiirikii and the Tibetan Text of the
Madhyamaka-Hrdaya- Vrtti-Tarkajviilii ~a~tal}. Paricchedal}. Samkhyatattvavataral}.,
Part II. Uttarapak~a (a) vv.5-7." Bulletin of the Tsurumi College: Studies in Humanities
and Social Science, vol.20, pt.4 (1983): 1-3.
"Japanese Translation of the Madhyamakahrdayakiirikii 6, vv.5-7 and the Tarkajviilii
on 6, vv .5-7 (On Atman of Samkhya School in Comparison with that Introduced in
Paramiirtha's Chinese Version of the Commentary on the Mahayiinasamgraha) (lfl
Wl,C.,~o:J51im:t\m1i ~m-t n- 1J n- s J: Ll"~J'!!l.O) *= W~-f 0)= c1'~
:;1\JI~~ifJ\Wfl:l:l 0)~ i!tililiJJ~J![S{~~O)m OJtt.Jttl(l'""C ))." Bulletin of the Tsurumi
College: Studies in Humanities and Social Science, vol.20, pt.4 (1983): 4-7.
Nakamura, Hajime. "The Tibetan Text of the Madhyamaka-lJrdaya-vrtti-tarkajviilii (Dbu-maJ.ll
Siiiil-poJ.ll I;Igrel-pa Rtog-ge I;Ibar-ba): Corresponding to Prof. Gokhale's Translation."
Indo-Iranian Journal, vol.II, no.3 (1958): 181-190.
"The Vedanta as Presented by Bhavya." Journal of the Oriental Institute, vol.16,
nos.3-4 (1965): 287-296.
"Recent Studies in Early Vedanta Philosophy (f}] Mr'f :r.. - lf- y lJ $.Ji]f~ 0) 9ff
)[in Japanese]." Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, vol.16, no.2 (1968):
10-22.
"The Vedanta Thought as referred to in the Texts of Bhavya." Prof Hiriyanna Birth
Centenary Commemoration Volume. Mysore: Univ. of Mysore, 1972. 174-176.

iii

S.S.BAHULKAR

will b1ing out a critical edition with an annotated translation in the


near future.
In the meanwhile, Prof. Gokhale breathed his last on December 5,
1991. Almost bedridden in his last days, Prof. Gokhale presented
me with the hand copy of the MHK and expressed his wish that the
copy should be made available to scholars. Recently the photographs
of the original MS of the MHK was published by Prof. Jiang Zhongxin
in his article "Sanskrit Tarkajvala-Siitra Manuscript Copy" (in
Chinese) in Papers in Honour of Dr. Ji Xianlin on the Occasion of
His 80th Birthday, Jiang Xi, China, 1991, pp. 212-217. (+12 pages
containing photographs of the MS). One can notice that the portion
of the text available in Gokhale's copy is still preserved in the MS
even after such a long time. The condition of the MS seems to be
the same as before. According to Prof. Jiang Zhongxin, the folios of
the MS have been wrongly numbered. He therefore gives a chart
showing the pagination in the MS and the proper pagination (p.
212). The proper pagination he gives is the same as found in Gokhale's
copy, with only one exception of folio 3. In Prof. Jiang Zhongxin 's
chart of pagination, folio 3a should be numbered as 3b, and 3b as
3a.
Since the photographs of the MS have been available, Gokhale's
hand-copy may not be of much use to scholars. Nevertheless, the
hand-copy might facilitate the reading of the MS written in the
Raiijana script. The corrections and suggestions made by Prof.
Gokhale may also be helpful in ascertaining the reading of the text.
It is my pleasant duty to express my deep sense of gratitude
toward the late Prof. Gokhale who was extremely generous in giving
away this research material. I am thankful to Mr. K. Endo, Research
Associate, University of Nagoya, who helped me make a
bibliographical note of the studies of the MHK.

Project Director,
Rare Buddhist Texts Research Project
Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Varanasi
"The Vedantic Chapter of Bhavya's Madhyamak:aJJrdaya." Adyar Library Bulletin,
39 (1975): 300-329.
"The Madhyamaka-hrdaya, the Vlii Chapter and its Significance in Early Vedanta (
r:plJl:,L.,~~J t :fJJM 7 .r.- 7'- Y 7'
[in Japanese]." Journal oflndian and
Buddhist Studies, vol.24, no.2 (1976): 17-22.
Shoki no Vedanta Tetsugaku <1JJ:M 0) 7 .r.- 7'.- / 7' Tff~)[in Japanese]. Tokyo:

m)

lwanami, 1989 [rev. and en!. 4th impression].

iv

THE MADHYAMAKA-H{WAYA-KARIKA

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