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GCSE Examination Revision Guide for Papers 1 and 2:


AQA English B 3701 June 2010
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c
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Use of Language

ccc2 c
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c
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c
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c
cc
c
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cDefinitions
of some figures of speech in order to help you
when you are using PEE to comment on these aspects of a
writer¶s use of language/ a writer¶s use of words and phrases
c
c
* All of the three writing techniques which follow can also be referred to as
imagery or comparisons. The main sense that they tend to appeal to is the sense
of sight, hence the word imagery.

SIMILEc6c
c&
cc.cccc
*ccccc
c
c'c8c
:Ê  Ê 
   Ê   cccc
c
METAPHORc 6c
c &
c c .c c c c 
*c cc c .c c

 cc'c88c:Ê  Ê 
    Dc>Mc.ccc
*c
c c
c c *c c .c c 
 c 
c *'c 8c :Ê    Ê 
 
Ê  
c
PERSONIFICATIONcAc
c&
cc.c
c

c4675ccc


cc7c 
c2
c.cc
 c
c
7'c8c:Ê  Ê 

 
 Ê  


* The following are other figures of speech which you might refer to. They
appeal more to the sense of hearing as they are sound qualities and so could not
be classified as imagery ± which appeals to the sense of sight.

ALLITERATION ± ccc.*c
cc.cc
ccc *

ONOMATOPOEIA - c.*c
c
c
c *c488c6'c'c
5c
c

Other useful terms (especially for writing about poetry)


c
FREE VERSEcAc
c&c.c
cc 
c cc c
c
TONEc6cc
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'c
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c

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c


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c
Definitions of other key words and phrases used in
examination questions
c
c
c./c cc.*c
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cNc
c./c cc

cNc
c./c cc

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Essential exam tips


c
1.c )%c %=>c+c% LcPE% => c4>M)c J-3cMC 5cM%c>c
)%c" c 9%c>,c+>)c%Q==>c  %M cAc 9%c8cc
PLEASE DO NOT DO WHAT ONE STUDENT DID LAST YEAR -
FORGET TO TURN OVER TO THE LAST PAGE - PAGE 4!!!!!
8c 
c  c&c1
c c
cOc&
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c
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The 5 part formula ± an easy way of using PEE when


commenting on some of the above aspects of a writer¶s
use of language.c
c
àc All of the three writing techniques which follow can also be referred to as
figures of speech, imagery or comparisons.

If you are finding it difficult to explain why a writer has used a SIMILE,
METAPHOR or PERSONIFICATION, then you could try using the following 5
part formula.
c
c
c c c
c ./c c c
 c c cc
7c  c c &'c  c
 *@cc
c
4
5c & c cc cc&cc2 
c
Dcc
45c
c.c cc&ccDcc
45c 
c.
cc
ccc**cDcc
4*5c
c.
ccc
*ccc-
c4 =="%5'cc.
ccc
*ccc6cc
*ccc

c c *c 6c 4% )>M5'c c .
c  
c 2
c c c 
*c c &c
4 %M >=,==>5Dccc
45c *c
c 
 c &c
c &c .c 
7c c 
*c
 c c

cc c ccc cc&8ccc
c
By doing this you will, in effect, have used PEE.
c
EXAMPLE:

4
5c :c 
ccc
c.
c
c8;c
45c=cc
&'c
45c c
ccc**ccc 
ccc
8c
4*5cc.cc&
ccc
c8c
45c c &c 
*c
 c c  
c c c 
c  c c 
&c
c

@cc
cc7Dcc.
cc7 cc
*c
c
*'c'c
Dc
cc&
 c
c  c*
c. c
 cI8cc'cc.cc
c

c&cc'c&
 c
*c
8ccc
c
c
c

cccc

 c c