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WCDMA RAN Overview

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Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. 3G Overview

2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Different Service, Different Technology


2G 1990s
Digital

1G 1980s
Analog
AMPS
TACS
NMT
Others

3G
IMT-2000

GSM
Technologies
drive

CDMA
IS-95

UMTS
WCDMA
Demands
drive

TDMA
IS-136

cdma
2000
TD-SCDMA

PDC

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers


Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

3G Evolution

Proposal of 3G

IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile


communication system

The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in

1985and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996

Commercialization: around the year of 2000

Work band : around 2000MHz

The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps

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Page5

3G Spectrum Allocation

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Page6

Bands WCDMA Used

Main bands

1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz

Supplementary bands: different country maybe different

1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA)

1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan)

890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia)

...

Frequency channel numbercentral frequency5, for main


band:

UL frequency channel number 96129888

DL frequency channel number : 1056210838

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Page7

3G Application Service
Error Ratio

conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Time Delay
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Page8

The Core technology of 3G: CDMA


WCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS
RTT: WCDMA

cdma2000
CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP

CDMA

TD-SCDMA
CN: based on MAP and GPRS
RTT: TD-SCDMA

RTT: cdma2000

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page9

Contents
1. 3G Overview

2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

Multiple Access and Duplex Technology

Multiple Access Technology

Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

Time division multiple access (TDMA)

Code division multiple access (CDMA)

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Page11

Multiple Access Technology


FDMA

TDMA

Power
Power

CDMA

Power

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Page12

Multiple Access and Duplex Technology

Duplex Technology

Frequency division duplex (FDD)

Time division duplex (TDD)

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Page13

Duplex Technology
Power

Time

USER 2

FDD

USER 1

UL

DL
Frequency

Power

Time

DL
UL
DL

TDD

DL

USER 2
USER 1

UL
Frequency

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page14

Contents
1. 3G Overview

2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page15

WCDMA Network Architecture


Core Network

CN

CS

PS

Iu-CS

CS

Iu-PS

PS

Iu-CS

RNS

Iu-PS

RNS
Iur

RNC

RNC

UTRAN

UE

Iub

Iub

Iub

Node B

Node B

Node B

Uu

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Page16

Iub
Node B

WCDMA Network Version Evolution

GSM/GPRS CN
WCDMA RTT

3GPP Rel99

2000

CS domain change to NGN


WCDMA RTT

MBMS
HSUPA

IMS
HSDPA

3GPP Rel6

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel4

2001

2005

2002

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Page17

WCDMA Network Version Evolution

Features of R6

MBMS is introduced

HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5.76Mbps

Features of R7

HSPA+ is introduced, which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO

Max DL rate: 28Mbps, Max UL rate:11Mbps

Features of R8

HSPA+ PhaseII is introduced, which adopts 64QAM+MIMO or 64QAM+DC in


downlink (Defined by 3GPP 25.XXX)

LTE is introduced which adopts OFDMA instead of CDMA (Defined by 3GPP


36.XXX)

Max DL rate: 100Mbps, Max UL rate: 50Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page18

Contents
1. 3G Overview

2. CDMA Principle
3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure
4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service
Signal

Service
Signal

Source
Coding

Channel Coding
& Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

bit

symbol

chip

modulated
signal

Source
Decoding

Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Receiver

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Page20

Transmission

Radio
Channel

Reception

WCDMA Source Coding

AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech

A integrated speech codec with 8


source rates
The AMR bit rates can be controlled by
the RAN depending on the system load
and quality of the speech connections

Video Phone Service

H.324 is used for VP Service in CS


domain
Includes: video codec, speech codec,
data protocols, multiplexing and etc.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

CODEC

Bit Rate (kbps)

AMR_12.20

12.2 (GSM EFR)

AMR_10.20

10.2

AMR_7.95

7.95

AMR_7.40

7.4 (TDMA EFR)

AMR_6.70

6.7 (PDC EFR)

AMR_5.90

5.9

AMR_5.15

5.15

AMR_4.75

4.75

Page21

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Transmitter
Service
Signal

Service
Signal

Source
Coding

Channel Coding
& Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

bit

symbol

chip

modulated
signal

Source
Decoding

Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page22

Transmission

Radio
Channel

Reception

WCDMA Block Coding - CRC

Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected

errors left after error correction.

The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of


block coding.

Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and
they are checked after the channel decoding.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

WCDMA Channel Coding

Effect

Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when


interference occurs

Provides better error correction at receiver, but brings increment of the delay

Types

No Coding

Convolutional Coding (1/2, 1/3)

Turbo Coding (1/3)

Code Block
of N Bits

No Coding

Uncoded N bits

1/2 Convolutional
Coding

Coded 2N+16 bits

1/3 Convolutional
Coding

Coded 3N+24 bits

1/3 Turbo Coding

Coded 3N+12 bits

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Page24

WCDMA Interleaving

Effect

Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error

Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay
Input bits
0010000 ... 10111

Inter-column
permutation

0
0

...

...
0

0
0
...
...
1

1
0
...
...
1

0
...
...

1
1

0
0

...

...
0

0
0
...
...
1

1
0
...
...
1

0
...
...

1
1

Interleaving periods:
20, 40, or 80 ms

000101001011

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Page25

Output bits

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service
Signal

Service
Signal

Source
Coding

Channel Coding
& Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

bit

symbol

chip

modulated
signal

Source
Decoding

Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Receiver

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

Transmission

Radio
Channel

Reception

Correlation

Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals.

Identical and Orthogonal signals:

C1

+1
-1

C2

+1

-1 1 -1 1

-1 1 -1 1

Correlation = 1
Identical signals

-1
+1

C1

+1
-1

C2

1 1 1 1

+1
+1

-1 1 -1 1

1 1 1 1

Correlation = 0
Orthogonal signals

-1 1 -1 1

-1

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Page27

Orthogonal Code Usage - Coding


UE1:

UE2:

C1 :

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

C2 :

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE2c2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1 UE2c2

0 2

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0 2

Page28

0 2

Orthogonal Code Usage - Decoding


UE1C1 UE2C2:

0 2

UE1 Dispreading by c1:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Dispreading result:

Integral judgment:

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

UE2 Dispreading by c2:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Dispreading result:

Integral judgment:

4 (means1) 4 (means1)

0 2

0 2

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0 2

0 2

0 2

Page29

0 2

0 2

0 2

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading


Eb / No = Ec / No PG
Power

Ebit
Eb/No
Requirement
Max allowed interference

Processing Gain

Interference from
other UE

Echip

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Page30

Max interference caused by


UE and others

Process Gain

Process Gain

chip rate
Pr ocess Gain 10 log(
)
bit rate

Process gain differs for each service.

If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is smaller, UE


needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this

service will be smaller, vice versa.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page31

Spreading Technology

Spreading consists of 2 steps:

Channelization operation, which transforms data symbols into chips

Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal

Data
symbol

Chips after
spreading

channelization

scrambling

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page32

WCDMA Channelization Code

OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as


channelization code
Cch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1)

Cch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)
Cch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1)

Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1)

Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)

Cch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1)

Cch,2,1 = (1, -1)


Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)

Cch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1)
Cch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

SF = 8
Page33

WCDMA Channelization Code

SF = chip rate / symbol rate

High data rates low SF code

Low data rates high SF code


Radio bearer

SF

Radio bearer

SF

Speech 12.2 UL

64

Speech 12.2 DL

128

Data 64 kbps UL

16

Data 64 kbps DL

32

Data 128 kbps UL

Data 128 kbps DL

16

Data 144 kbps UL

Data 144 kbps DL

16

Data 384 kbps UL

Data 384 kbps DL

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page34

Purpose of Channelization Code

Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical

channels of one transmitter

For downlink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to


separate different physical channels of one cell

For uplink, channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate


different physical channels of one UE

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page35

Purpose of Scrambling Code

Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters

For downlink, scrambling code is used to separate different cells in


one carrier

For uplink, scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in

one carrier

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Page36

Scrambling Code

Scrambling code: GOLD sequence.

There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for
scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned
by RNC.

For downlink, 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

Primary Scrambling Code Group


Primary scrambling
code 0
Group 0
Group 1

Primary
scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels

Group 63

Primary scrambling
code 1

Primary scrambling
code 7
Primary
scrambling code
8*63

512 primary
scrambling
codes

64 primary
scrambling code
groups

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Primary
scrambling code
8*63 +7

Each group consists of 8


primary scrambling codes
Page38

Code Multiplexing

Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level


Scrambling code
NodeB

Channelization code 1
User 1 signal
Channelization code 2
User 2 signal
Channelization code 3
User 3 signal

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Page39

Code Multiplexing

Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level


Scrambling code 1
Channelization code
User 1 signal
Scrambling code 2
Channelization code
NodeB

User 2 signal

Scrambling code 3
Channelization code
User 3 signal

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page40

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Service
Signal

Service
Signal

Source
Coding

Channel Coding
& Interleaving

Spreading

Modulation

bit

symbol

chip

modulated
signal

Source
Decoding

Channel Decoding
& Deinterleaving

Despreading

Demodulation

Receiver

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Page41

Transmission

Radio
Channel

Reception

Modulation Overview
Data to be transmitted:
Digital Input

0
time

Basic steady radio


wave:
carrier = A.cos(2pFt+f)
Amplitude Shift
Keying:
A.cos(2pFt+f)
Frequency Shift
Keying:
A.cos(2pFt+f)
Phase Shift Keying:
A.cos(2pFt+f)

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page42

Modulation Overview

Digital Modulation - BPSK


1

1
1

10

Information
signal

t
NRZ coding

Digital Input

t
-1

High Frequency
Carrier

Carrier

BPSK Waveform

10

f=0 f=p f=0

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

fo

Modulated

Page43

BPSK
signal

BPSK

Modulation Overview

Digital Modulation - QPSK


NRZ Input

-1

5
1

-1

7
1

-1

10
-1

I di-Bit Stream

-1

-1

-1

Q di-Bit Stream

-1

-1

-1

I
Component

Q
Component

QPSK Waveform

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

8
Page44

10

Modulation Overview
A
NRZ
coding

Acos(ot)
I(t)

fo
QPSK
90

NRZ
coding
A

Q(t)
Acos(ot + p/2)

QPSK : A 2 cos(ot f )
f
1

p/4

-1

7p/4

-1

3p/4

-1

-1

5p/4

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Page45

Demodulation

QPSK Constellation Diagram


1

1,-1

-1,-1

-1

-1

10

QPSK Waveform

1,1

NRZ Output

-1,1

-1,1

-1

-1

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Page46

-1

WCDMA Modulation

Different modulation methods corresponding to different

transmitting abilities in air interface


R99/R4: QPSK

HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM

Copyright 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page47

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System


Transmitter
Service
Signal

Service
Signal

Source
Coding

Channel
Coding

Spreading

Modulation

bit

symbol

chip

modulated
signal

Source
Decoding

Channel
Decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

Receiver

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Page48

Transmission

Radio
Channel

Reception

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