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Copyright 1937, 1944 by COLONEL A. J. D.

BIDDLE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

No portion of this book may be used without express permission of copyright owner.

Published by THE LEATHER E K

TL ,1 c.

PIeIN'I'111l IN II,S ••

Introduction to New Edition

THIS war has proven the value of training our Marines in the art of hand-to-hand combat, weaponless defense and profi(lJ n with the bayonet. In helping with this phase of our trainillg, Colonel A. J. Drexel Biddle has contributed greatly. Not onl has his manual "Do or Die" been a basic text, it has II, n b n the text book of a new kind of bayonet fighting. The 11111 hH onet style with his "parry, right step, hand cut, slash" 1110\ r-ment is being taught to Marines everywhere.

I n this new. edition, the basic text remains the same except 1'01' th changes necessitated in the use of the slash over the poilll system of fighting. We have attempted through more phoIOj.1;f'l1f h, to better show these movements.

'1111' author now directs, in his extensive individual teaching ,tI IIIe' IH' onet and knife, to slash at the throat instead of thrustill , ~\ 1111 III point. The slash is most effective used left to right, "" ('l'Ily I lIowing the left parry, right step and hand cut.

II i" important that we point out at this time that in combat, II \ 0111' l'ifJ i loaded, shoot a man rather than engage him in I II" \ o 11 I'! fight. Unless you are under orders for a bayonet , 11111 ~'t·. III(' bullet is quicker and more accurate than the bayonet. IloWI' PI' lit bayonet is an effective and dangerous weapon 1\ 11t'1I used orrectly by a well-trained Marine. Every Marine

hllirid hecom proficient in its use.

THE PUBLISHERS.

Foreword

THERE i greater need of training th e in divid ual soldier than ever before. The. tendency in modem warfare to utilize cover and to spread out more and more in the attack in order to es , pe the deva rating Are of the defender has forced the .inianrr man to rely primarily on bin own personal skill, agility and ruur g to get forward and close \ ith the enemv, The old lirll'st and rna attacks have been replaced by small groups I fkil'lui hers, working forward with calculated boldness and

II' lilt:; king out the defender's weak pots, in order to a ault Iii, ,'uilibal gto~ps. New method' of attack will require that the Iliftwll' man be II. skirmisher, marksman, athlete and fighter pH r x ellence,

Th fi hting powers of the individual soldier have increased ;11 import n while mere weight of numbers has lost much of II '.d,ll nu the fireswept battlefield of today. Not onl lUU t the III r 1111 t II n 'reate hi own opportunities, but be fill tIe im- 1.11 I III Ir than ever with an aggres ive pirit and a confidence 0' hi I WI'1 periority because he mu t depend on his own r r ntt re 'iuhlCS in battle.

\\ 11I'llIt'{' or not' e believe the bayonet is still worth retaining I 1 \ l'lll'un. bayonet fighting or its refinement, bayonet fencing I dill 11.III,d in tills manual, remains a pad and parcel of the indi ldunl training as heretofore. No other form of training

II I II gr H t r onfidence j n the prowess of the soldier or create- 111111 I -rl ~t rmination and overwhelming impul e to close with 1111 than i fostered b bayonet training. Herein 1 ies ,

Self-preservation remains the great law of ature, It i. the heritage of every soldier to know how to protect himself under all situations, The assault will often lead to personal .onta ,t with the enemy. when the individual must know how to destroy his opponent and at the same time protect himsel f.

Individual combat, whether it be in the form of boxing, knife fighting, hand-to-hand encounter, or the Greeo-Roman catch-ascatch- -an and Jiu-Jitsu wrestling, develop a .uppleness of body, an agility afoot II quickness of eye and a coordination of mind and bod}' that adds immeasurahly to the self-reliance and ·OUl'· age of the oldier in, the close-up encounter with the enemy.

Colonel. A. J. D. Biddle, US IC"'R with his extraordinary hackground of experience and ._ tudy, has contributed in this text a most valuable and practical analysis of individual COIllhat for developing the soldier's fighting and phy ica] attrilmte .. This manual combines the art of elf-defense and illustrates the methods ,r£ attack thai will enhance the individual s natura] powers 0 r destruction,

C. J. MiLLETt.

C()lonel~ U. ~. Marine.,.

Imprimatur

THE writer has heen an ardent student of the art of self-defense in all of its hranehes. During the past twenty-five years he .has pursued au intensive tudy and training in the u se of fencing blades. In the course of these studies he has sought ever opportunity to ohta iu instruction and personal training und r the most eminent authoritie: and experts in the Iuit d State and abroad. It j with the knowledge and experience so gained that he now undertakes the preparation, of this mauual.

Crareful reccgnition is accorded to a U who II 1\1' ('(illlribLLled to hi' kno ledge or iollahorated LU th prep- 1111111111 or ~his work. Special mention must be made of orne II h(., t "()lliriblilions are of outstanding value,

lit,· wrh 1 has heen trained by able word and hayon t in-

llWLI I: of the British Army, including Sergeant J. II. Dawkins IIIf' word instructor of the King's Royal Horse GUaJ·ds .in Lon- 111111: III' J!l~ received special instruction in bayonet combat at 1111 11111111\.1' training .ehcol of Gondrec01111, in France, and in

\lllId 111111 rlagger in several Portuguese. Spanish and FI' nch I tI, II' 1I'!-I.

I .• ~ 111' ill broadsword were received from the broadsword I h IIllpillJl. II. Thoruas, at the Cercle Hoche in Paris where the 'III I 111.11 I'e,' iv d instructions in general swordsman hip from I It r 11111 II" Iorm r international sword champion, M, urget, I 111111 it! truetnr at lhe Cerclc. Afterward: Ilie writer pursued

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his Ieucing studies under the celebrated fencing master, M!.

J. Martme'.t. Castello in ew York.

Many years ago the v riter began his instructions under the teachings of a former American fencing champion who, a few years since, 'Won the hayonet fighting championship of the world. Thi latter named gentleman - i Major William J. Herrmann, PM'fC La whom the writer is thankful for the knowledge oi some of the bayonet and knife movement- prescribed in this treati e. Major Herrmann conducts the famous William J. Herrmann Physical Cnlture Institute in Philadelphia where special attention is given by the major and his fine staff to the in truction of teachers in bayonet, knife and 'word Iencing,

In 1935 the Fifth Regiment of Marines commanded by Major General (then Colonel.) Charles F. B. Price, USMC, was stationed at Murine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia, as part of the Fleet Marine Force, under command of Major GeneTal Charl~ H, Lyman, now retired,

The enthusiastic mterest of the first and subsequent regimenta] commanders i the Fifth Regiment in training fOT individual combat Iirought about an invitation to the writer to come to Quantico personally to serve as instructor Lo the. Fifth Marjnes; it was his privilege to do this in Augu t and September of 1935.

The gratifying results attained during that period of training created the desirability of' developing this type of training further, and General Price uggested to the writer the preparation of this manual to be used a a guide in -future 'instruction.

The writer is partir-ularly grateful to the general fur that suggestion and for the encouragement and cooperation since ex·

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tended by valuahl sugge Lions and by personally directing the preparation of i.llustrations.

As thi manual would not have come into being save lor Cen tal Price' timely suggestions and valuable a - istance, and b ause the general is an outstanding commander and an enthusiastic advocate of training in individual combat in the Manne C01-1). it is a special plea ure to be allowed to dedicate thi manual to:

MAJOR GENERAL CH.ARLES F. B. PRICE United States Marines.

:IHtrlg 01 command following the maneuvers with the Fleet in I 35 took Major General Lyman to command of the Marine nn cracks, Quantico, brought Colonel (now Brigadier General, "nli d James J. Meade to command of the First Marine Bri~1td , ! leet _. Iarine FOTce, took the then Colonel Price to exeeut 'v" lhal brigade and brought Colonel Bar ld L. Par ons to "11I11111Rnd or the Fifth Marines, The writer tenders heartfelt II! IIIk· I th e officers; the interest and encouragement they gave dttllllg lb entire period of the writer's service as instructor to 1111' F'i rth arines have proven most helpful in the \ rit -'8 cornpletion of hi undertaking.

uring the period of his service a in true or, the writer IllIjU ell the able assistance of Lieutenant Colonels James M,

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Masters, 1'., USMC, and William A. Keugla, USMC' then both lieutenants ). Th ese t\\ u I atter named gentlemen wereformerl y pupils of the writer ill individual combat at the United State. Marine Corps Basic School for Officer; they <Ire both fine swordsmen, Being of inventive genius, Colonels Masters and Kengla devised everal e rcellent nev l'orms or attack and defense. a -hO'w"1"1 in this treati se.

Not come the very latest developments in the art of Defendu (originaLed h the celebrated MT. W. E. Fairbairn a sistant comrnissioner, Shanghai Municipa! Police), and of Jiu-Jitsu as shown by Lieut. Col. Samuel G. Taxis, USMC, formerly tationed at Shangha,i: there, ill addition to his other mil itary duties he was in. tructor in these arts. Following a series of conferences with Colonel Taxi several of h is particulatly noteworthy a sanlts are d scribed i t1 Pa 1'1 [II 0 r Lhi. manit a1. MJ', Fairhairn is author of the booi., "Gel Tough,"

As instructor for the BUTeau of Investigation the U. . Department of J ustice, the writer instructs in individual combat under command of J. Edgar Hoover.

The writer owes an especial deht of gratitude to the worldfamous all-around athlete the late olonel C. J. Miller, former commander 01' the Fifth Regiment of Marines, nder Colonel Millet"s personal instruction, the war regiment". were trained and developed in athletic prowe . The colonel perscaally engaged in contests or strength and skill against the ~'plck 01 the men.' A, an American bayonet fightillg champion and as one of the boxing instructors of the Marine Corps, he discovered and trained several champions, The greatest of those whose tra iuing he encouraged proved to he the om p rp tually undefeated retired heavyweight world's champion in th history of the ring. the mighty Marine, Gene Tunney, now in the aV)

hut until recently captain in the Marine Corps Re erve, The friend hip 0 r Colonel Miller was an ever brilliant source of inspiration tc) the writer.

III the . ummer of ] 936 the writer wa signally honored by again erving as combat instructor under the eli tingui hed command of Colonel Miller, who had succeeded to the 'omiuand of the Fifth Reg] ment, uited States Marine Corps.

uring his term of service a~ combat instructor on til stafl !If lhe faculty of the Marine Corp Base Seho 1 for Student OLEI't'r [itp writer has had the privilege and advantage 0 erving, II!- eornhat in truclor, under the uccessive brilliant oornmands III Mujor General (then Colonel) Philip M. Toney, Colonel (linw r tireil) A. D. Rorex, Colonel (now retired) William I lilly mith, Major General (then Colonel) Julian C. Smith and

{ljO!' General (then Colonel) . H. Turnage, Owing to the

~I LlPirm personal interest taken by each of the particularly 11,1, officer"'. the writer as at all times accorded every advanI'IW 1)llubling him to develop and improve Iiis work, He ret'l i\t·d irlfin.ite inspiration and continual encouragement from the (,lll1l1tl mding Officer at Headquarters oJ the Marine Corps .'dwuls. the late distinguished Lieutenant l then Major) General I. ',Breckillridge.

Th writer hal'! sewed in the United States Marine COI]JS as ,Iltublll instructor du ting consecutive terms of office of the fllJlowing Corumandants: Major General George Barnett, Major I'('IH'I'UJ Jo1m ". Lejeune, Major General Ben H. Fuller, Major !~I'IIt'rnl J )M A. Rus1;ell, and General Tllomas Boleomb, and 1111\1 II Ita' th .ontinued honor to serve under the present Com~1l n udall I of the United States Ma ri [Ie OI'P, Lie ut. General

It·x.IIuJer Vandegri l].

A. J. D. B.

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Col .. A. J. D. Biddle, right, Master of the Bayonet, with a pupil.

Master of the Bayonet

By ROBERT H. MYER.

A rna t unusual man is Colonel A. J. Drexel Biddle, UuMCR. He j noted for heing kind, thoughtful, generous and graciouv. He is al 0 noted for hi. ability to snap a man's neck. break an opponent's arm 01' otherwise render him painfully useIe in a matter of split econds.

Thousands of United States Marines, old and new in the ~ I' ice, ha ve met he colorful .clonel, Many more will have the good fortune to meet him and see him in action as the months roll on. They will find him kindly, helpful and under-

tanding.

nd ten minutes later they may find themselves flat on their II i .ks with the colonel's knee jammed in their stomachs.

"Now here's another hold, • Colonel Biddle will Ray, perrnitting the pupil to get to hi feet. Straighten_ yOUI' hand like this." He will stiffen his hand into what he calls "the Japane e ri I." "Now bring it down like this ... " The colonel' hand \ ill b brought down in a sharp. blade-like manner on the stud nt ollar bone. • You. can break a man's collar bone with thai all blow." the colonel will explain.

r h student will have no difliculty understanding the feat 1I0t will he doubt its effectiveness. Colonel Biddle leave, no room £01' doubt, That" why he j recognized as one of the f-!r ales experts in the world in the art of hand-to-hand combat, u cience to which he has devoted 110t the leisure honn, of a It bb ,but the full year of a busy. productive life. Today this ruun with the broad heavy shoulders and finn jaw executes every

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movement of his art with confidence. accura 'y and incredible speed. H has learned thoroughly bow Lu use the tools of hj~ trade, the tools being th€' naked bayonet. the knife aud lli" two bare hands.

The career of Colonel Biddle, novel and varied. excite the imagination and challenges the adjective. Rie.h man. sportsman, society figure, teacher, preacher, boxer, publisher, adventurer: a mall who tore down convention and built a reputation-that ha been the l..ifu of Colonel Biddle for 10. these many years. He kept a box at the opera and a ringside seat at the fights; he shook hands with the intellectuals one night. and traded jah with pugilist the next. Debutante,' of the upper crust and the "dese and dose" guy' of the streets knew him a1-l"ectiollately a 'Tony" Biddle, and Tony Biddle could lead a cotillou or with his left with equal efficiency. lIe had the happy knack of keeping one foot firmly on the social ladder and the other in the sports ring.

You have heard of the CaboL. and the Lodges of Back Bay Boston who spoke to no one except the Cahots and the Lodges and God. Well~ the Riddles - the Main Line Biddles of old Philudelplria-e-had the same distinction, but Tony Biddle doesn't operate that way. He speak' to everyone, and e eryone Loves it,

Physical and spiritual development con becam Colonel Biddle is mission ill life. That wac why he declined to remain on the retired toll when World WaJ' IT came along; that is , hy today he carries on a vigorons day-in and day-out ohedule that would exhaus t the energy and enthusiasm. of a man much younger than himself. Teaching the secrets ofbi. knowledge to young Americans in general and Marines ill particular is Colonel Biddle's life.

He showed me a lot of holds and movements. hi. euthusiasm

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mounting. There 1'186 the trangle hold and the way it can be broken. After you break .it you indulge in a little play of your own, such a' gouging out YOUl' opponent' eye or jamming his nose in the general direction of his forehead.

"Dirty fighting?" He laughed. 'Call it that if you want to, hut !he dirtie:st £ghting in the world is Jiu-Jitsu. This struck a ignificant chord. 'Dirty fighting" is u ually as ociated with gouging, kicking a foe in the groin, yanking off an ear. Some pantywaists abhor' dirty fighting," even in a war against admittedly dirty fighter such as the J aps and Nazis. But Fiu-Fitsu, they reason. nol knowing a thing about it, is a olean. honorable combat science. Colonel Biddle agree that it is a highly d veloped science. bUI it isn't clean.

Llooked at his tw index fingers, The left one wa bent, but th right one looked like nothing e 'ept a cork- crew. "Clean. scientific" J aps were respon ible ior the breaks.

Colonel Biddle held the right one out and told its story,

"I got that in a match with a Jap. We were using rifles and bayonets.

"I disarmed him and his rifle fell on the ground. Quick as a flash he had the finger, gave it a twist and broke it." Biddle wrestled his opponent to the ground but the Jap judges called the match a draw.

Jiu·]itsu, he explained, i. 4.000 years old, and the Japs have arried it on as a national pastime. Universities are operated to teach the s ience exclusively, and young Nips get the £undarn ntals at about the . arne time they get a diaper.

But Colonel Biddle is very positive about Doe point: the Japs ar not as good as newly taught Yanks in the art. For one lhing. he de-dared, the Jap simply doesn't think as fast as we do. "That'. hen proven time and again on the battlefield and

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in the air." he observed, adding that fast thinking is imperative in .hand-to-hand combat such as this.

Then he told another story which was a distinct surpri €. Contrary 10 general belief, Jiu-Jitsu was a dead sport or science in Japan for several hundred years until, of all people, an IrishAmerican named O'Brien revived it some 40 or 50 years ago. o Brien was a seafaring man who ran across the science when he met an old Samurai warrior in Nagasaki. The J aps, whose ancestor. ha d .reveled in the port, readopted it.

O'Brien became quite. a figure in Nagasaki, hut later came back to this country. e01011e] Biddle mel him in Philadelphia and promptly engaged him as an instructor in the mid-twenties. He studied under O'Brie.n for a year and a half, and \ ith hi previously mastered training in the foil, bayoner.. boxing and knife fighting, soon became a master ot Jin-Htsu. Mrs. Biddle. incidentally, studied for ix months and knows some fine point!' of the sport herself.

'American boys take to this stuff like ducks [0 water. Tbey love it." The colonel beamed as he said thi . He beams every time mention is made of these things.

Anecdotes and information well from the colonel. His love of conta ,t sports dates hack to the years when he won numerous amateur boxing titles, fighting a- a heavyweight. He was a personal friend of Bob Fitzsimmons.

"What a master 01 science he was.' He paused to remove a wrist watch a present from Geoe TWIlley at the time thi, exMarine was training for the first Dempsey fight. "I'll show you the famed olar-plexu punch Fitz: nnmon used."

Perhaps you'd like to try it on, say a Jap. Here's bow it wa. worked, and Colonel Biddle should know. He boxed with Ruhy Robert enough times to learn it, He hawed it to me. hut

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luckily he pulled his punches. He throws a right that is almost a hook. II it lands well and good. If it doesn t-follo '{ on through your right foot tepping forward and somewhat behind your opponent s left leg virtually pinning it momentarily. Your left hand, meanwhile, held close to the hody, is well down, almost to the floor. Come up quickly, your right elbow barely missing your opponent s face and your left-a terrific punch following the momentum of the shoulder movement-lands in the solar plexus. This ought to drop your opponent dead as a

ack of cement, but if you lower your left and come up again quickly, you can smash Iiim on the point of the jaw as hi body falls toward you.

"This drives the jaw bones into the brain and you can kill a man . ." the colonel explained lightly.

It was Gene Tunney, incidentally, who once declared, "Colonel Biddle would have been a world champion il he had gone into the game a a professional." The colonel, returning the omplim nt term d Tunney "the best boxing fighter in the his. t ry I th ring.'

he colonel should know. He boxed with the be t in the world over a period of 51 years before retiring Irorn public appearances at the age of 60. His most notable appearances were

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against Fitz immons, Philadelphia Jack 0 Brien rugged Peter Maher, Jack J ohnson, Kid McCoy, Lightweight Champion Frank Erne and Georges Carpentier.

Interesting it is that the Frenchman, Carpentier, made hut three publi appearances ill the ring in thi country. One was against Jack Demp ey, another against Gene Tunney and the third prior to the other, was against Biddle. Many years later Champion Tunney told Biddle that it was as he watched his match with Carpel1tier that he planned his own fighting campaign if he should eve.t.:'uhsequently meet Carpentier in the rmg.

Of his match with the clever Johnson, Colonel Biddle remarked. "That was a tough bout, It took me a l' eek to get over it."

The colonel named James J. Corbett as the greatest boxer in the game, Fitzsimmons the greatest fighter and Tunney the greate t boxing-fighter. You can see the di tinctions.

Of cour e, one of the smartest men wa Philadelphia Jack O'Brien, an .intimate friend of Colonel Biddle. They boxed in public exhibition more than 100 times, and attracted a sell-ant crowd one time in Cincinnati, Colonel Biddle was a sparring partner for O'Brien for aU hi professional matche , and OIBrien helped him train over a 35-year period for his amateur engagements.

The colonel became inlerested in active sports long before he became an Intimate of the great names of sport-famous figure dating from the turn of the century on down through the Golden E.ra of the '20' . It seem that at the age of 10 he had to learn kn ife fighting.

"We lived on the Portuguese island of Madeira and knife £ghting wa a popular pastime such a boxing is to hoys in

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111 is country. By gum we had some fights in those days." One "f the colonel's strongest phrases is "By gum!"

lt was only natural that years later he became proficient in other types of knife work; types known as the Spanish Knife nnrl the Bowie Knife. He considers the latter, and teaches it to Marines, the highest form of knife fighting. He even went west, at th suggestion of his friend, the late Colonel C. J. Miller, t ISM , to study the technique of stoccata, in-quartata and pn suto sotto with the Bowie Knife.

'I'll career of Cnlonel Biddle embraces so many phases lU1-iJ

t Il't I' II ell. over So many years it is difficult to correlate them. Nor did 1'If> try to during the day I spent with him. People and inl'ld!\nt~ l'DWU the years. For instance, he showed me a sunken pinel' in hi chej£ He got it "sparring" with a 245'pomld I r H'lld during .8. bout in the garage of the Biddle mansion. (He "111' .Ie led" to see a physician about rue broken ribs, which , 01 ;,,11 Ihe uuken eondition.)

1\11 i rrt , ... ounds? Plenty of them. Bayonet wounds? Well, two " .11" ;'IM'0 all FBI agent got to him with a bayonet. "It just 1111 I'd ill intestines by one-seventeenth of all inch, if you can 1111, I ~ i Ilfl 11m ~ distance.

"\\flillt Wft, worse, though-it was a rusty blade." The colo':1' I 1.1 I I,dll:u.. They figured the wound would put him on the 1I!r·IILII·· fUl' six or seven weeks. "I was up and around in a \\1 I h ' Tlh'I"llfler. however, it was suggested that Colonel Biddl'II\\fI," It IIlmk and protector when instructing pupils.

II,· ri~U.l !O he bas schooled within the past several years, some I 10000 IlIPH in cqrnhat work. Most of them worked 'with bare IIII'!!" 1111' (~nlonelwi.th a scabbarded blade .. It's a wonder he

dlll'II1'1 11,'1 mere bayonet and knife scats,

lit 11." hi!l sr-leetions for the best bayonet, Jiu·Jitsu and Judo

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1

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men be has trained. He named them as Lieutenant Colonel Alan Shapley, Captain Stephen Sta ers, Captain Edward L. Katzenbach, Jr., Sergeant Tommy Loughran, the retired undefeated light-heavyweight boxing champion, Sergeant C. E. Zimmer Thierbach, Quigley and First ergeant Bill Crystal

How does Colonel Biddle keep up the pace? Enthusiasm! Eight years ago hi doctor told him he would have to give up this strenuous schedule, or at lea t cut down on .it, Biddle di agreed strongly.

"I love this work I have made it my Iife's work. It is recreation Ior me. It is my life. I told him I wouldn't want to Jive another day if I couldn t continue."

So the doctor placed the colonel on a strict vegetable diet.

"I cannot have any fattening vegetable, such a potatoes, and I haven t bad a drink of liquor .in eight years.' He smiled and commented, HJ never was a heavy drinker. I didn't get drunk, Bnt I took a drink whenever 1 'wanted it.' Today his only vice L cigar smoking. He keep. one going most of the day. "Funny that they don't seem to hurt me, isn't it?'~ he asked.

Do the Marines get "Black Death" schoo1ing? Yes. Plenty of it. And it might he added that his beloved Marine can get anything Colonel Biddle has including his life. if th y want it. He is profoundly proud to he a Marine. He drums into every listener the greatne s of the Corps. ills activities are multiple, and when the Marines aren't calling. be is and has been for many years individual combat instructor at the schools of J. Edgar Hoover's G-Men, teaching them his art· he doe the same for the National Police, whose members undergo three-month training periods under FBI sponsorship at Washington. Major General Hoyle Irad him train his entire Ninth Army Division in Individual Combat and concluded with a parade 01 the Divi-

sion in his honor. He has for years taught the police of Philad Iphia, To all gT'OUps he invariably makes such observations a3J "The Marines have perfected thi method ... ." It would be bard to heat the old boy for loyalty and pride in. !he Corp. He ven took time off to tell a waiter in Washington's Carlton Hotel dining room how fine the food was with the Marines up on the front line trenche in World War 1. He wasn't critical

I anything-s-he merely saw an opportunity to sound orr about It i beloved outfit.

His trophy room at home must he fined with cup and medals n in hi many fields of activity, and his memory 'hook must 1, overflowing with honors bestowed o.pon him in this country U nd ill Europe.

ills proudest possession, however is a Jett-er. "It is the great.. I honor 1 have ever received" he aid. "Yon may read it."

"Beginning with the first World War and ontinning almost unbrokenly to the present time, you have contributed in an outstanding degree to the training of Marine Corps personnel in It md-to-hand combat. Thi was made possible, first through the J1{ rlection .in, that art which you yours eli attained through years I r 'Oil rant study and application; second an unusual ability to Illlp rL I'D others the benefit of yOUl" expert knowledge and expt'] Hm 'r:; and third, a most generou. giving of yow: time and • III'. gi !I without expense to til government, and without regard III Ihl" r t'[ onal sacrifices and the long hours of intensive physif' d J'.' rlion involved .

.. I V 11 since your transfer to the Honorary Retired List in \1 '.m. r n reaching the statutory retiring age of 64 years you lUI I 11 rformed active duty for extended periods, at your own Il'qtl l and without payor allowances, as cornhat instructor to flllil'('l' and men of the Marine Corp, also without renmnera-

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tion to yon. The efficiency of your training and instruction has, I feel, been a definite contribution to the brilliant record of the COl'PS during the present war,

"It is a pleasure to commend you for this exceptionally meritorious service, and to place on record the department' recognition of its unusua 1 character and effectiveness. A copy of this letter will be made a part of your official record."

Th Ietter is signed by ecretary of the Navy Frank Knox.

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Fig. 1. Rifle stock should not be used to make the parry.

B AYONE~ fe~lc.iing is a refir:cment in the use o~ tim. bayo~et; more scientific and effective than bayonet fighting, The bayonet fencer does not look upon his piece as a combination pike and mace, but a. a "blade of which the bayonet is the _po ill t, For this reason the bayonet fencer carefull y guard' his rille against possible injury: he rarely uses his butt, relying habitually on his skill with the point. There are only four butt

trok that should ver be used: one is from the "Square

uard' position and another i the up stroke at the groin, dir etly following "Left parry" a ill the following command, "Left parry. butt strike, cut down, pass by.' The "oro s-eountel' ' , kick" of the rifle heel at the jaw is made by a traight arm blow' so is the bnu stroke at the chest directl:l delivered with the he J of the piece. None of these four butt stroke imperil the rille' good condition. The rifle head guard against clubbed rifle is eschewed. Such a guard tend to red uce one's rill Lo kindling W od a it i the assault of the dubbed rifle ';\fhich j wung from LII barrel, the stock thus becoming the striking weapon. The IHl. (met fencer should meet such an attack by slashing at the op· ponent's throat. Thus it will be seen that the bayonet fencer i more definitely instructed in marksmanship thar- the bayonet n ghte r. The bayonet fencer is ill tructed to keep h i ri fie clean and .in perfect condition for shooting at all times. He hould . me thrmrgh a bayonet charge with blood on the blade but with L11' rifle un ullied and u.nharmed. He hould. paTry with his bay· on t oiul not with his rifle (Figure I), and slash his point into II i pponent a the counter again t a swinging 01' clubbed rifle utack,

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The "On Guard" Position of the Bayonet Fencer

Wllile the stance of the bayonet fencer in the 'on guard' po sition is similar to that prescribed in the ordinary bayonet course, there is one distinct difference. The bayonet .:fighting position is rigid, Lut absolute elasticity IDl1S[ be had in the fencer's "on guard" position. Figure 3 and 4 show correct position herein prescril.ed. TIle bayonet poiut must he presented to lh opponent with the hlad Ilat and tbe edge directly to the righl (as blades of every type are scientificallj' pre ented towards an opponent}. Pursuant to the fencing blade position, the butt ui I he rifle rests Iaterally against the .holder s crooked under-elbow and Forearm. A Hade attack from this lateral po rtion is much more difficult and almost impossible to parry; it is the more powerful thrust. Furthermore, if th .hlade enter flatly between til e ribs it can berea dil y wi Lhd ra wn, wherea s, if it is driven into the body perpendicularly it .is apt to become caught or wedged between the rib and he difficult to withdraw, Close attention, i urged to the student studying Figures 3 and 4 to learn the necessary ease and grace of the bayonet fencer s position. If perchance, the extended left hand or arm i wounded and it i incapacitated the rille's position i still maintained by its secure h ld of the supporting right forearm and grasped right hand. The left foot i advanced about i teen inche in J'J ont of the right foot. As in sword fencing or boxing the feet mu t uot be too far apart to impede rapid movement in fencing,

hLf'ting front, or rear pacing or side stepping.

25

Fig. 3. Position of on guard: bayonet blade turned flat.

27

Figure 10, representing the "al the throat" defense, also show the atta ·ker using the old tyle h;yonet fighliJ1g position, with the blade edge pointed down. In all other pictures in this Look, the new position i'l used in the attack, It will be noted that all blades with a cutting edge as recommended in the pictured guard positions of the knife and bayonet are held with the Oat side up and the cutting edge directly to the right. This guard position of the bayonet directly follow" the stance of the French guard posiLion of the broadsword excepting that in the latter "on guard"

tance the right foot is advanced and the left foot is rear, while the word is correctly held in the right hand and with edge to the right. TIllS position 01 the blade in ure free withdrawal of the blade if it ha. been deeply thrust through the ribs and into the opponent's body, The writer stresses these instructions by return to the ubject of the bayonet fencer' "on guard' position (Figures 3 and 4), In any event, the throat is recommended as the ultimate target, although feints are more effectively executed to the body. Danger of entangling one's bayonet in the clothing of an adver 'aTY renders the thrust into the throat advi able, partitularly becau e the throat is uncovered and the thrust there instantly fatal. The first two .inche of the blade thrust is sufficient. Through thrusts even at the body or any part of the anatomy, should be forbidden by the instructor. There hould never be mol' than three inches of the blade thrust into the body, 01' two inches into the throat, to insure instant withdrawal.

Fig. 4. Low crouch is a variation for on guard position.

The "Square Guard" Position

Command: "Square GlLard' !

Thi is best taken from "On Guard" poaition; Forward foot step back, on line with stationary rear foot, to a straddle tance, and rifle is simultaneously carried with "On Guard' grip maintained to hori-ontal po ition four inches below chin barrel down. This should dear pace in a crowd.

Point and Butt from Square Guard

Commands: "Point ami butt'! Butt and point"! "To the left, point and butt"! "T 0 the right, brat and: po int" ! <r 0 the rear, butt and point".' or To the rear, pains an4 batt." Tn the latter two commands the turning direction is designated by the first named a sault. butt or point. A short step-in Of a short jump-in should be executed with each of the foregoing comrnand .

29

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"Left Guard"

At this command from the customary "On Guard" position, the left :foot teps sixteen inches behind the right foot as the rifle is quickly thrown to the left side; grasp or right hand at balance and left hand on small, of tack. Thu the left guard position, although oppo ite resembles the stance of the customIll)' "On Guard" position to the right and the left forward hand is relieved from being further band-cut.

Command: "Leit PaTry-Butt Strike-Cut Down-Pass By" I This movement is especially prescribed for an advancing wave in a bayonet attack at close quarters.

Each particular movement is more violently made with a stepin or a leaping shif] of the feet. Example: The left parry is executed from the "On Gua;,.d' po ition, with the body tationary. The' Butt Strike," immediately following, is made directly at the groin and is a hart, direct uppercut of the butt. This i better executed by a right step-in or a leaping shift of the feet "Cut Down"! directly 101101.. with a left loot step-in, or-better s.till-another leaping foot shift. In practice, the three sets of movements can be consecutively taken: namely the £1. t set of movements with the feet stationary- econd set. with a step-in with each consecutive movement; the third set of movements, which are the best, are each taken with a leaping shift of the fe t.

31

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Fig. 6. Follow-up, move in, gain and poin t is to th roa t.

Bayonet "Gain and Point'

This is the new movement in bayonet fencing adapted by the author from the "Gain and Point" of the epee. * It will be found a highly effective bayonet movement. The initial movement i taken from the stance of "Ilr: Cuard" by an exaggerated violent point at the opponent's lower front middle ection, (Figure 5). The subsequent success of this preliminary move will be principally due to bringing, at the moment of the feint the right foot forward directly back of the left unnoticed by the adversary. Thi can be done by riveting the adversary s attention on the 'low jioint" by the violence of this feint thru L The right foot was concealed by the still stationary left or forward foot, and the opponent who aims to parry the low thrust will scarcely realize that he is menaced hy an impending throat thru .. l (Figure 6). The latter is speedily acomplished by avoiding blade contact hom the attempted parry and making an inslantaneou forward lunge step '01 the left foot, accompanied hy a gliding thrust at the throat as shown in Figure 6. Theu 'cess of thi movement actually depends upon th prop r final execution of th gliding blade, because it is required that no final jerky ind ication of the throat thrust shall. be given a thi would immediately bring the opponent's blade up to the high patry_ The entire execution of the final move, after the attacker's feint thrust ha drawn but avoided the parry, if instantaneous, will fmd a clear road to the throat, Left arm is stiff throughout action.

"This sword movement. taughl hy Iajor WIl'iam J. Herrmann, P}!ITC, re Mrs. Dewar was repeatedly applied by that lady in lu'r match in NI'w York against the wcmeu's world (oil champion. Mrs. Dewar defeated the champion by repeated application of the "Gain and Point!'

33

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In and Out

This hould be the slogan of every bayonet fencer, and the bayonet should he thrust and withdrawn with rapid successive movements ill order that the bayonet fencer may be instantly prepared lor attack or defense against other adversarie ,

The Hand-cut

The chief movements prescribed for the bayonet and for the knife fencer are patterned from the sword, and are identical. In the bayonet "hand-cut' (Figure 7) and the knife "hand-cut" the attacker takes a step to the opponent' ~ front ide then parries the opponent's Iilade with the edge of his own Hat blade in-

tantly thereafter turning the sharp edge downward and cutting the opponent s front .hand. The attacker follow this with a slash into Lhe throat. The three movements preliminary to the "kill" are «right step, left pa;rry hand em," Or "lei: step, right parry hand cut."

The Parry

Thi i executed with a powerful blade rap of the opponent 8 blade to right or left (Figures 8 and 9). or above or below. The parry may he made in any of these directions hut in a duel should he mixed up so a to confuse opponent. Avoid constantly parrying in arne direction.

35

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Fig. 10. Col. Biddle, right, in jab guard defense in trench.

A.t the Throat

This defense, as recommended with reservations, is primarily prescribed as the best guard against the bayonet in the trench, The rifle is held in the a J ab Guard" position (FigUl'e 10) and the blade and stock of the piece, held point up perpendicularly, furnish a full length guard to confront 'an enemy's bayonet attack. In any event, this stance is recommended for the trench «On. Guard" position. Firstly, hecause the nan-ow confines of the trench preclude free use of the piece in the customary 'On Guard" position. .. Secondly. because the "lab Guard" stance is most effective, at intimately dose combat, [rom which [:0 deliver a telling thrust upwards under the chin. The "Jab GlJ,aTd'~ position is the safest against a bayonet attack at the throat Present the nat blade, and parry with the edges; a more powerful pal-ry is thus ensured. It is recommended that this guard he frequently practiced against a blunt or scabbarded bayonet. This is a comparatively easy and safe defense; even against a series of thrusts at the throat. It should also be horne in mind that the offensive bayonet is almost always held in the old time bayonet fighter's position. This renders the blade particularly easy to parry when it is thrust as a top and bottom edged blade, as shown in the picture of the old time guard position: it is much easier to JJarry than the Hat hlade as presented with sharp edge to right and recommended in this new bayonet course,

39

Throw Point

In bayonet combat or duel thi old fencing movement cannot l:e improved upon to reach an opponent too far distant fOJ: a thrust from the guard position, & shown in Figure 11, the J·jght foot is advanced in front of the left and the point i thrown, with the blade flat al:ove and below, sharp edge to right, into the adverPU(Y. At the same time the left arm .is extended with the left hand free in the air beneath the middle of the stock, so that when the throw is accomplished (Figure 12), the extended stock of the piece n ay be ea ily aught and the rifle restored to the necessary balan ie of the "On Guard" position,

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Juggling the Piece

Commands:. "Guard"! "Short Guard"! "Jab Guard"!

"Guard" !

From the < On Guard" position, the rifle .i quickly thrown by both hand simultaneously into the grasp of "Short Guard ~ position. The rifle i again thrown into the grasp of "lab Guar-d' position when the right foot i brought up directly to the rear of the advanced left foot, and a slight crouch is taken. FmID this po ition the rifle is quickly thrown back into the grasp 01 "On Guard," and the crouch is changed to the <COn Guard" position with the right foot about ixteen inches rear.

Command: "Pass, Shift-Parry and Point'.' The foregoing described shifts in guard are each in turn executed under a repetition of the latter command, each part of the command being executed as each particular part of the command is given. The ' pass" here ordered i a "[ron: pass" de. crihed. later in "Steps' and is repeated with each shift in "guard.'

Croise

An excellent method of defense and a ttack prescribes that a right or left parry becomes a downward pany: this by an adroit wrist turn down of one's rifle-holding front hand. This "turn down" must not be telegraphed, but applied only at contact: it should imprison the opponent' blade then cut hi hand and make way for one's "riposte" into the throat.

43

Fig. 13. Knocking down opponent is a simple matter.

The Knock Down

To knock down an opponent, parry right and in tantly step in with the right foot, bringing the tsck of your piece again t your opponent's; then press forward against his tock and carry your left Ioot in the air outside and behind his forward left leg and kick iolently, heel first, into the back of the calf of his left leg (Figure 13) thu making him 10 hi footing and fall hackward.The hutt stroke at the chest, a described all the first page of this chapter, hould also be carried through to a • knock down."

The Defense

Colonel Miller devi ed the following defense: the prostrate one can avoid a death thrust Irom his standing adversary if he successfully encompasses with his left instep the attacker's ankle behind the heel of the Iatter's forward :foot, and set his own right foot fumly against the uppeT front shin bone of the attacker directly below the latter' knee (Figure 14).

45

Fig. 14. To defend self from ground, use push into leg.

Steps

Adv3Ilce.--· This commands a single left step and right step forward, retaining the ""On. Guarrl" position.

Retire.-Opposite of the "advance" movement, prescribing a right step and step rear, retaining the forward "On Guard" position.

Left Step.- This is most effectively made with an accompanying preliminary right parry. but :in any case this is a left foot step left, instantly followed by bringing the right foot back of the left to "On Guard" position.

Right Step.-A step to the right with the Iight foot followed by a coordinated step to the tight with the left foot to "On Gu,ard" position.

Fron,t Pass.-This commands a forward step of the right foot twelve inches to the front of advanced left foot. immediately followed hy the advance of the left foot beyond the Tight foot to the "on guard" position.

Rear Pass.-·· This is a directly opposite movement to the front pass, viz. the passing of the left foot twelve inches to the rear of the right foot immediately followed by the passing of the .right foot to the rear of the left foot so that the proper "guard"

position is resumed. . -

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leaps

A leap i taken directly from the "gua rd , position with the rifle bearing bayonet thrust violently forward into the opponent' middle section. The spring-off of this leap can he well taken from the rear leg when jt takes the second step ill an "adoance," The FRONT PASS ~"ll LEAP is by far the best and most effecti e, and most terrifying to the adversary, and the leap should be taken directly following and from the forward step 01 the right foot.

Volts

Each 'Volt' ommand is preceded by the words, "Right" "Left," 'To the Tear right' or 'To the rear, left: The volt is executed all the ball of the forward foot, carrying the rear Ioot around to conform with the «On Cuard" position. Drrring every 'volt the rifle barrel must be raised perpendicularly (in order to clear intervening obje its) and lowered for point attac-k instantly on arrival in Lh new 'On GU(J;rrT po ition [Figure 15 and 16).

50

Part II KNIFE FIGHTING

CONSIDERABLE space in thi treatise is given to kni.£e fighting hecan e Mru'in 'erve in many knife fighting countries and are frequently called upon to capture 01' fight against the dagger, machete or bolo. There are countries in Asia, Europe, Central America, Africa, and S011 th America where the knife is a chief fighting weapon. While the military police in such countries if they he Marine. a is sometimes the case can hardly attempt to match skill in the use of the bolo machete. dagger or other type knives of the native, they can draw the bayonet and apply the hand-cut wh it:h is an unknown art to the native knife men. The hand-cut is particularly prescribed for use with the bayonet a' knife and is an exqui itely scientific movement, taken from the sword and known to few other than scientific swordsmen. The skilled epee fencer or dueU i t lhrusts at the sword hand and arm of an opponent; the scienced broad-swordsman cuts or thrusts at the sword hand and arm. When. time does not permit the attachment 01 the bayonet to the rifle OT when the bayonet i worn in the belt and no .rifle is carried, it is prescribed to use the bayonet as a disarming wea pon against the armed adversary. In fact, with a quick cut to the opponent's knifeholding hand, it is possible for the bayonet thus u ed to disarm several in a group of attacking knife men. 'Ihere are various

52

method" of , ielding the kni e in the many respective countries where the dagger is publicly and generally recognized as a standard weapon. and the overhand guard and stroke and the underhand guard and stroke are separately eharacteri tic. to particular races and are standardizedand correct. Notwithstanding the infin:itely superior tance and method of the truly scientific knife duellist trace directly back to Roman. Amphitheatre day ; then. the dagger duellist fought to the death. The be t of these knife fighter ar recorded to have been Caul • who had been made laves, as the gladiators were in ancient Rome_ These old-time gladiators used what is till today the accepted method of the larger majority of professional or champion knife duellists. The names of the movements are Gaelic-Roman. Underhand or overhand dagger contestants confronting the cool skill of the prescribed clagg r duellist would be at a disadvantage like the amateur boxer facing the professi onal. Hand cutting is a practically unknown art to Lhe underhand or overhand dagger fighter, and the straight knife-hold lance of the skilled duellist pla es th underhand or overhand dagger lighter at a disadvantage.

But, while the Gaelic-Romall names for the knife movements al-e stillu ed the following com e of in truotion teaches the use 01 the knife as prescribed by the late Colonel J allies Bowie USA. The Bowie knife has proved the IDO t complete knife fighting method, While the colonel traced his method of attack and defense through the line 01 knife history a recited ill this brief preamble. the following course o£ instruction i after the teachings of the Bowie knife as prescribed by the colonel himself: he was a celebrated sword duellist Th knife had its inception when Colonel Bowie broke his SWOTd in a duel and continued his fight by closing ill and killing hi' opponent

53

with the shortened broken blade which he stiJl held at the hilt. Thus his newly found weapon wa fashioned a a straight blade of the precise length of the broken blade with which he killed his enemy_ Not only did he prove with his newly found blade to be the greatest knife fighter of his time, but it is related that when .he was ill in bed he was attacked by some nine Mexican snldiers, who stole in upon him to take his life with tomaha wks and knives, From Ius sick bed Colonel Bowie met their united attack with his Bowie knife; with this he killed seven before he himself succumbed with Colonels Travis and Crockett during the battle of the Alamo. He took a foremost part in the Texas Revolution. He opposed the lexicans in battles during the year 1835 and eventually commanded his troops as colonel,

As is elsewhere recounted in this manual many graduates from the U. . Marine Corps Student Officers Basic School continue their stndy and practice in individual combat. They frequently return to the chool and tell of subsequent experiences. An outstanding example was related at the basic schcol by a prominent .Marine aviator, He said that he and a fellow officer had continued their individual :fighting practices and that each always carrie a bayonet in his belt.

In Nicaragua the two drew their bayonets against an attack of the enemy and successfully hand-cut their way to safety through this force of some twenty machete fighter. He testified that the knowledge of knife science saved their live. Thus two Marine skilled knife fighters defeated twenty machete :fighting opponents.

In Germany the Army officers, the police and the Hitler Storm Troopers are now all armed with the knife which they use as either knife or bayonet.

54

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Outside Parry and Grab

To execute this movement the opponent s blade is parried toward the outside (Figure 17), and instantly afterwards the wrist of his knife hand is grasped from the outside by the di - arming (leI) "grab hand" of the defensive opponent who par· Tied (Figure 18).

Inside Parryand Grab

This movement i not pictured but is the opposite of the "outside parry and grab" a shown in the accompanying illu tration, The wrist of the opponent's knife-holding hand is gra ped from the inside in imilar fashion immediately following a pa:rry of Iris blad toward the inside-s-it is the opposite ide

'parry and grah' of the pictures here shov n.

The Parry and Grab Follow-up

Wrist grabs are taken with fingers up thumb down. And .immediately following hi left hand grab. the defense steps in with left foot advance.

57

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Blade Position

As prescribed in the bayonet stance, the knife. is also held with the Rat wide above and below and the cutting edge facing outward to the right (Figure 19). The knife hold i correct when, palm down, the forefinger of the knife-holding hand encircles the bayonet button at the handle. W_hether held with the left hand Or the right hand the blade should b held outward that in either case the fOl'efinger of the blade-holding band pl"ess· es against the burton at the bayonet handle. The position of the blade as a detached knife or a a bayonet on the l'iBe is identical with the position of the blade of the French broad word guard position. As the hand- or ... vrist-cut or thrust is the basic plan of attack in. botb bayonet and dagger 0 it i the basic attack of the epee wordsman and it is also a particularly effective attack of the broadswordsman. In point of fact, it i the pa:rticularly scientific attack known to best swordsmen and rarely known to bayonet fighters or knife men. The ordinary bayonet fighting course does not teach the hand-cut, and the usual tab and lash dagger man knows nothing of this scientific play. The natural skill and celerity of the bolo or machete in native hand is definitely off et by the hand-cut which i a swordsman', SCIence.

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On Guard

Command: "On Guard'!

The correct guard position of the dagger is shown in Figure 17 at tart of a. parry. It will he seen that the left hand i ever ready to. a.pply the grab a . hown in Figure 18. This picture represents the tart of what is known as "Outelde Parry and GralJ.'

Extend Left Arm Rear in Right Thrusts

Always IOUOW the swordsman' method of throwing out your left arm straight rear when making a right hand thrust; it adds velocity and balance. ee Stocciuo, Figure 2.0.

61

I n-quartata

Command: "In-quartata-T i me-Thrust" !

To accomplish the Tn-quartata thrust, step with the left foot to the rear and right of the right foot as shown in the foot position of Figure 21. Bat in the precise in-quartata movement the left step right rear is accompanied, by a quarte thrust at the lower 110dy of e opponent which the changed ihru t po ition ha placed unguarded 'out 01 line. '

The opposite of the in-quartata movement i called Stoccata and consists of a left step to left and thrust to lower right body as shown in Figure 20,

62

Fig. 21. ln-quartata thrust follows the feinting movement.

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Passata Setta

Command: "Passata Sotto--Time-Thrust"!

This movement is executed on an opponent who lunge forward with a high thru L. It is so graphically illustrated in Figure 22 that a deLailed description seems unnecessary. Here the more skilled knife fighter avoids the thrust of an adversary by stooping to his own Ief under his adversary's outstretched arm and bringing the dagger point to the middle ection of his adversary

64

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Unarmed Defense Against Overhand Dagger Assault

The accompanying illustrations show how the unarmed mall may successfully defend himself against the overhand dagger thrust. This particular defense is prescribed by Major William J. Herrmann PMTC, former Wmld's Bayonet Fighting Champion. The laster and more violent the attack, the easier this defense is of accomplishment, A quick upward jolt with the left hand aL the elbow of the attacking arm completely deflects all d throws aside the attacker (Figures 23 and 24).

The writer especially recommends the favorite unarmed defense which the late Colonel Miller prescribed against the overhand dagger assault. TIle follm ... -mg is Colonel Miller"' own celehrated in true lion in this movement: "Catch the hlow of the opponent descending right forearm all your left hent forearm, step in quickly and pass your right arm in rear of the opponent's right upper arm (knife arm) so that your right hand or fist rests :in front of the opponent's Light forearm just above the elbov.then bend the opponent backwards, hreaking the arm."

66

fig. 23. Unarmed man. stops thrust with left forearm.

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The Chair Sword Contest

The word is the master weapon of all the blade. complete

defense can he had by skillful wrist movements 01 the seated sword scientist; he must score his point with the riposte ..

At the Cercle Hache in Paris where the author frequently fenced with men many years older than himself, he r calli th

pecial kill of a Mousieur Priam, an elderly gentleman mar than seventj -two years of age who, at the time, continued to be one of the great Ioil profes ional of France. In hi. fencing bouts he scarcely ever found it necessary to take a single step, for he could hold an adversary at bay with ex-qui, ire word play from his scientific wrist, and he scored his point with a "riposte • from his parry of the opponent lunge.

69

Part III JIU-JITSU and SAVATE

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THE selection of the very few Jju-Jit II moveme~ presctihed, in this course is particularly made along the line 01 least effort; arid the movements are uch that require little or no Rtrengtb, but only quickne of thought and action. In fact, they are all Jiu-Jitsumovements nch as a quick-thinking, ahle-hodied woman can readily be taught to use, For instance, when one i attacked by a double-handed gra p on one's throat the intended victim's own hands hould b immediately clasped and brought violently up together between the extended arms of the throttler. Thi will instantly disengage the throttler's grasp and throw hi arms out of line- then the defense cups his hand and simnltaneously claps the ears of his assailant, Such a counter-attack will likely break the ear drums of the marauder. Another defen e i to seize a finger of the throttler and break it.

An jill-jitsn wrestling movements that require particular science in trying for complicated hold or grasps are avoided. The Jiu-Jitsu movements herein shown are strongly advocated for u e at close quarter either when weaponless and confronting an armed opponent or when holding a weapon in one s own

*Jiu·Jitsu-Japa.neSG, Iuliasu: freely translated, skill I)l" "",xlertLy (.IuIlIU) employed without fighting instruments (J n).

Fig. 26. To make eyes out attack, use entire hand.

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hands. Two particularly effective Jiu-Jitsu movements are shown in the pictures on "breaking the windpipe" (Figure 25), and "Eyes Out" (Figure 27).

The point of the drive should come entirely from 111e forward thrust from the biceps and shoulder. The delivery of the blow in this way is .required to make it successful. The fingers .. and wrist must he rigid. Delivering the throatattaek, as prescribed in Figure 25. will sever the windpipe; and in the "Eyes Out" assault, illustrated in Figure 27 the firstand -second fingers are passed illto and through the eyes ..

The defense against "Eyes Out" prescribes one's own wide open hand held perpendlcularly, outer edge forward, thumb in and against the nose .hetween the eyes.

Defendu and Jiu-Jitsu

Lieutenant Colonel Samuel G. Taxis, whose initialIessons in Jiu-Jitsu were taught him by the writer, brought to the Marine Corps the science of the celebrated Mr. W. E. Fairbairn, originator of "Defendu." Colonel Taxis has instructed a Lattalion of the Fourth Regiment of Marines in Jiu-Jitsu and Defendu. This the colonel did in China where he trained and managed the Marine boxing team that won the boxing championship of China.

Colonel Taxis also took part as an instructor with Mr. Fairbairn, in teaching JiU-JitSll and Defendu to 200 Sikh police. There were few defenses against Iiu·Jitsl1 attacks before Mr. Fairbairn entered the field. hut Colonel Taxis now shows a perfect defense against every one of the innumerable JiLl·Jitsu "holds" and "blows."

In the "Eyes Out" attack, the movement of Colonel Taxis requires Iesaaccuracy than is needed La execute the attack .in

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Figure 27. (The heel of either right or left hand is placed against the opponent s chin, and the :fingers are pressed or scratched into the opponent's eyes.) This movement can be most adroitly accompli hed by applying it to the upper hand in the Colonel Miller attack (see Figure 26).

Colonel Taxis delivers all his De£endu and Jiu-Jrtsu blows from the outer edge of the wide open stiffened hand, which he uses like a weapon.

He prefers this attack at the throat instead of the straightened finger attack as shown in 'Break the Windpipe' (Figure 25).

By striking a person witb the outer edge of the hand a smart blow in front, directly below the ribs, the solar plexus is reached (Figure 28) i a similar 511Lal't blow from above between the neck. and boulder call break the collar bone (Figure 29); the vital blow is delivered at the point over the thinnest bone where the nose joins the head between the eyes (Figure 30). The hone here is a thin as paper, and a blow downward directly breaking this bone causes a brain hemorrhage which brings blood poison il1 the brain and death within sixteen to twenty hours.

Lieut. Col. William A. Kengla, who was a former pupil of the author in indi idual combat, has become all expert in Jiu· Jitsu. He has shown geniu in the application of Jiu-Jitsu movemerits: and, along the line of Jiu-Jitsu he has developed several movements. Figures show graphically the mariner ill which an unruly person can be effectively handled. The man who would take another man captive catches, with hi own right hand fingers up and thumb down, the other's left hand fingers from behind, and hrings the hand forward so that the now

fig. 29. Hard blow at neck can break enemy's collar bone.

78

unruly' arm is bent at right angles. He grasps the biceps above the elbow with hi left hand and brings the unruly's bended elbow-joint dire tly into and against the receptacle of hi own bent right arm. Retaining his grasp 01 the outstretched finger he can then completely control the further movements of a captive or lead .him to a place of detention by bending the captive's wrist inward with hj captur finger hold. (See Figure 31.)

Fig, 31. A finger hold will tame an unruly opponent.

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Pistol Disarming from the Rear Situation.- Y au are caught by an opponent behind you, with the barrel of his pistol in your hack. Your bands are up at his. command, "Hands up. or I'll shoot"! or "Move. and I'll shoot"!

Action.-Keep the elbows closely touching the sides of the body and elevate the hands. Under no circumstances let the elIJO"w"S leave the body or elevate the hands higher than in the il· Iustratien of "Pistol Disarming from the Front" (Figure 32). Turn quickly to the left hitting the opponent's wrist with the Ieft elbow. This must not be in any manner a push, but must be an actual blow of the elbow. Make this hlow a distinct movement, instantly following it by a left arm revolution of the opponent's right arm. The revolution of the arm will reverse the elbowjoint so that good pressure will break the ann and, in the strain suflered by the opponent, his pistol can he easily taken by the right hand 01 the defense.

Pistol Disa.rm1ing from the Front

When the assailant presses the muzzle of his pistol in fronL against his intended victim's middle and says, "Hands up, or I'll shoot"! the intended victim is strictly cautioned to elevate his arms precisely as shown in Figure 32, and no higher, elbows pressed against sides. In spite 01 the enemy' further warning, "Move and III shoot' ! the intended victim is then advised to whip his left hand down. fingers up and thumb down. to a tight grasp of the enemy's pistol-hand wrist (Figure 33), and sweep the hand along to his own right in order La deflect the shot of the attacker. Many tests of this move have proven it to be completely effective. The enemy will invariably pull the trigger, and is rarely successful in shooting the victim. Figure 34 shows

Fig. 32. Sta rt of pistol disarming from the front.

Fig. 33. Deflecting path of bullet is the second phase.

Fig. 34, Disarm an adversary with a blow at the wrist.

the intended vienm about to smash at hand and di arm the: marauder, A better follow-up movement, which Ia directly p .escribed in liu-Jit:;u is, with left grasp still on wrist, to take an instant grasp with one's .righr hand on the opponent's pistol-holding hand. Take the gra p , i ~1 the forefinger placed directly on top of the as ailant' trigg r finger. By bending the pistol-holding hand inward at the wrist, and suddenly pressing the trigger finger of the enemy, .he is made to shoot himself. Figure 35, of this front pistol di arming series presents thi excellent follow-up movement, devised by Lieutenant Colonel Kengla ; in addition the knee may be brought instantly up, J iu-Iitsu fashion, into the crotch of the adversary.

An excellent rebuttal to the Jiu-Jitsu disarmament of the pistalon .laught is furnished by Maj. Gen. Julian C. Smith, United States Marine. He suggests:

In holding up a man with a pistol, keep at least three paces distance from him. If this is not pas ible, and the pistol must Le held within his Teach, instead of attempting to pull the trigger at his first movement, draw the right (pistol) hand smartly to the rear, avoiding the. weep of the opponent's left hand, and step hack quickly with the right ioot; bring the right forearm to a horizontal po. ilion "nth the wrist against the right side, keep the pistol pointed at the assailant (continuing the backward DlO ement if necessary) and pull the trigger. At this close range the o-called 'hip shot, ' which is really a waist bot, should he effective. The left hand is tree to guard again t the right hand punch to the jaw. Even if the pistol hand is grasped the backward movement will tend to keep th pistol pointed at the opponent so the shot cannot he evaded; it also deleats the knee into the crotch movement.

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Fig. 35. You can make enemy shoot himself like this.

Arm Break

Of the almost innumerable effective movements in Jiu-Jitsu and Defendu, none other can urpass in immediate effectiveness the arm breaking movement. Left hand palm downward gra p with inner left thumb knuckle pressing, between opponent s right hand outside second and third finger hand knuckles and with one' second finger grasped around and pressing inside of opponent's thumb. With this grasp, hi forearm mu l be brought into a position directly at right angle with his upper arm, Now hy applying pressure the opponent's wrist mu t be bent inwardly at an outside angle to opponent s Iorearm, With one left hand second finger and thumb applied in positions as prescribed, the opponent' right hand wrist and arm at the elbow-joint 'will he broken unles he i quick enough to prevent the hreak by falling to his right instantly to the ground.

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Fig. 36. Breaking an arm is one of best Jiu-J itsu movements.

Gentle Grasps

Be certain to always take gentle grasps with your left hand and distract the opponent' attention by right band ge itures until you have brought the opponent's right hand into position [()I' the final twist.then put instant pressme into yom execution.

Hand Shakes

To subjugate a man with the hand shake and with the deception neces ary in Jju-Jitsu, take an e :p cially tight grasp of hi right band and elevate It and slip the left hand underneath his right ar111 to. a grasp on the top of his left houlder t Figure 36). Straighten your left arm so that it comes directly below your opponent' right e1 bow and be carefu 1 to hold his palm up. Thus by exerting pressure downwards in your gra p of your opponent's right hand you can readily break his arm at 11 is elbow.

Or. by retaining your tightened grasp you can subjugate your opponent by quickly stooping and passing your head either to the Tight Dr to the left under the hand clasp. In either position to which you then a:rrive by straightening up, with your still retained hand clasp you have your opponent in an imprisoned po ition through the twists of hi arm which have been brought about through your own movements.

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Defense Against a Hand Push

If 1I. man places the palm of his hand against you to push you backward ; place either or both of your hands against his hand and hold it. and bend forward, Thus you can break his wrist (Figure 37 .

The Finger Subjugation

When an opponent ha grasped you around the middle to bend you backwards with his hands clasped behind yon, traighten YOlIT forefinger and second finger and pre them on hi upper 01' lower lip. Here the nerve-centre around the lower and upper gums of the teeth are super-sensitive, and direct finger pressure will cause the strongest man to drop hi hold. But all such Enger pressure must be executed w ith the fingers straightened parallel with one s hand and ann. Pre sure from bent fingers from a bent 'wrist is not effective.

To Lead a Person at Will

With your left hand grasp the first 1111'00 fingers of another's right hand, thumb inside of hi fingers and Iift his hand with his palm upwards with pressure downwards in your grasp on his fingers (Figure 38). He will submit to your authority,

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Arm Thrust and Belt Hold

This is one of the Lest movements for disarming or taking prisoner, and it is comparatively easy of accomplishment. In the Arm Thrust or Belt Hold the assailant or unrulv offender is grasped quickly with the left hand under the front ~f the belt 01' the upper front of the trousers, while the heel of the right hand at th arne time is :instantly pressed upwards against the opponent s chin (see Figure 26).

Savate

Following a life's study of various standardized sy terns 01 Individual Combat among the world's peop1es, certain movements appear noteworthy. Frenchmen fight with their feet :in Saoate: the toe kick is "taboo,' and hlow deli-very i from the sole of the .foot. One such blow is herein pre crihed Figure 39) ; it is aimed at the front hin bone directly below the adversary' knee. It breaks the knee-joint. Such a blow is recommended in a fist fight when the a, ault drives one backward: then duck down Lending backward to the right and deliver the sale of the forward left fooL as a b1ow.

If threatened or attacked when seated, thi identical foothlow with right or leIt foot on the standing adver aJ-y i instantly followed by a right or left "hook" punch to hi open jaw: his mouth invai .. iably opens as the man careens forward with invective surprise or renewed attack. The open jaw i easily broken. Several other Sauate attacks are prescribed with JillJit u in this manual.

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Knee in the Crotch or Break the Instep

This is [iu-Iissa or Dejendu. When the assailant imprisons one's hands and arm , lift the knee violently into his crotch (Figure 40) or, again, stamp on his instep; a heavy stamp will break the ill tep,

Frisking

This is another effective "foreign" assault. Straighten and stiffen the finger and scrape their tip rapidly back and forth aero s the eyes and nose bridge of your intended victim. (Also see Jiu-Jitsu attack, "Eyes Out" Figure 27.)

Remember!

You are ne-ver defenseless. The as ailant's eyes are an easy mark. At close range a handlul of gravel or any handy article might be thrown at the eyes or a hat whipped into them.

Lt. Col. Taxis prescribes that a handkerchief worn .in the upper left-hand coal pocket can he loaded with a few buckshot ewed, in small bulk, into one corner. Such handkerchief can he seized out at the top edge by the right hand, and the loaded corner can be deftly flicked into the eyes of an assailant.

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Fig. 40. Lift knee into crotch with force to disable.

THE only death-de.aling play devised in boxing wa invented by the late Robert Fitzsimmons who, until Gene Tunney. was perhaps the greatest genius in ring history. Tunney was at all times merciful. AlLhough himself a. middleweight. Fitzsimmon held three world Championships being middleweight, light-heavyweight, and heavyweight champion.

As the writer was privileged to be one of the sparring partners of Fitzsimmons, that mighty fighter took especial pain to carefully :instruct the writer in the .intricacies of the boxing movement of his own invention. These were supremely remarkable but b:angely enough the knowledge of them has not generally been carried down to po. terity.

He developed one punch which was sure to kill if landed with killing intent, but. 'with such dangerous knowledge Fitzsimmons had an unusually kind and sympathetic nature which forbade undue cruelty. ]11 an encounter he was Iong-suflering to a fault. In spite of this, few fighters withstood the Fitzsimmcn punch, and he fought, in all, 328 ha ttles, of which he lost but five two of these being to the same man. the great James J. Jeffcie .

Fig. 41. Start of a knockout punch is a right hook to chin.

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