Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Thisisthehtmlversionofthefilehttp://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf.
Googleautomaticallygenerateshtmlversionsofdocumentsaswecrawltheweb.

Page1

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam
Berlin,Germany
September2008

TechnicalGuidanceDocument:
ProceduresfortheMeasurementofCarryoverofBoilerWaterintoSteam
2008InternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam
Publicationinwholeorinpartisallowedinallcountriesprovidedthatattributionisgivento
theInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam
President:
J.R.Cooper
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

1/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

SchoolofEngineeringandMaterialsScience
QueenMary,UniversityofLondon
MileEndRoad
LondonE14NS,England

ExecutiveSecretary:
Dr.R.B.Dooley
StructuralIntegrityAssociates
2904SouthSheridanWay,Suite303
Oakville,Ontario,Canada,L6J7L7
email:bdooley@structint.com
Thisdocumentcontains11pages,includingthiscoverpage.

ThisguidancedocumenthasbeenauthorizedbytheInternationalAssociationforthe
PropertiesofWaterandSteam(IAPWS)atitsmeetinginBerlin,Germany,712September
2008,forissuebyitsSecretariat.ThemembersofIAPWSare:ArgentinaandBrazil,Britain
andIreland,Canada,theCzechRepublic,Denmark,France,Germany,Greece,Italy,Japan,
Russia,andtheUnitedStatesofAmerica,andAssociateMemberSwitzerland.
Thisdocumentoutlinestheconsiderationsforperiodicmonitoringofcarryoveressential
forchemistrycontrolandtheseparationofmechanicalcarryoverforguaranteepurposes.
Totalcarryoverisdeterminedbymeasuringthemassconcentrationofsodiumintheboiler
waterandinsteam.Themechanicalcarryoverrepresentsthefractionofwaterentrainedfrom
theboilerdrumintothesteamandisdeterminedbycorrectingthetotalcarryoverforany
contributionofvaporouscarryover.Thisdocumentgivesproceduresandcoverspractical
aspectssuchasthechoiceofthesodiumcompound,testconditions,analyticalprocedures
andplantparametersandoperatingconditionstobeconsidered.
FurtherinformationaboutthisguidancedocumentandotherdocumentsissuedbyIAPWS
canbeobtainedfromtheExecutiveSecretaryofIAPWSorfromhttp://www.iapws.org.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

2/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Page2

Contents
1NomenclatureandDefinitions
2Introduction
3Scope
4MechanicalCarryovervs.TotalCarryover
5DescriptionoftheMethod
6UseofSodiumtoDetermineTotalCarryover
7Sampling
8AnalyticalMethods
9TestProcedures
10TestConditions
11References
12TablesandFigures

2
3
3
3
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
9

1.NomenclatureandDefinitions

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

3/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

SymbolPhysicalquantity

Unit

TotalCarryover

MechanicalCarryover

VaporousCarryover

Cs

Sodiumconcentrationinsaturatedsteam(ppm)

mgkg

Cb

Sodiumconcentrationinboilerwater(ppm)

mgkg

MechanicalCarryover:fractionofboilerwaterdropletsentrainedinthesteam(massof
drumwaterpermassofsteam).
VaporousCarryover:fractionofsubstancesentrainedfromboilerwaterintothesteamby
thesubstance'svolatility(massconcentrationinsteampermassconcentrationindrum
water).
TotalCarryover:isthesumofmechanicalandvaporouscarryover,andisthemeasured
carryover.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

4/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Page3

2.Introduction
Carryoverfromboilerwatertosteamisapathbywhichdissolvedandsuspendedsolids
inboilerwatercanbeintroducedintosteam.Steamdrumsareequippedwithsteam
separationdevicescapableofmechanicallyreducingthemoisturecontentofthesteam.
Thetotalcarryoverintosteamconsistsoftwoparts:amechanicalpartandavaporous
part.Themechanicalpart(MechanicalCarryover)involvesthecarryoverofboilerwater
droplets.Thevaporouspart(VaporousCarryover)involvesthepartitioningofdissolved
solids(salts,oxides,impuritiesandotherchemicals)betweenwaterandsteamand
representsthephysicalvolatilityofthesubstance.
Onlyaboveadrumpressureofabout16MPa(2300psi)doesvaporouscarryoverstart
tobecomesignificantformostofthesolidsdissolvedintheboilerwater.Belowthis
pressure,itisnearlyallmechanicalcarryoverwiththeexceptionofafewsubstanceslike
silica,thecopperoxides/hydroxides,aluminumcompoundsandboricacid,whichexhibit
significantvaporouscarryoverevenatrelativelylowpressures.Forboilersbelow18MPa
(2600psi),vaporouscarryoveristypicallylessthan0.1%.
Therearetwoimportantanddistinctaspectsassociatedwithcarryover.Thefirst,forthe
operatorsofdrumunits,istheconcernaboutpossiblecorrosionandfoulingaspectsin
superheaters,reheatersandsteamturbinesassociatedwiththetotalcarryover.Thesecond,
fortheboilermanufacturers,relatestotheperformanceofadruminrelationtothe
efficiencyofthesteam/waterseparationcomponentsandinregardtomechanical
carryover.Thusforoperators,itisimportanttoknowandmonitorthetotalcarryoverinto
steam.Incontrast,manufacturersneedtoprovideinformationonmechanicalcarryover.
Onerigorousmethodologytodeterminethemechanicalcarryoverisillustratedinarecent
publication[1].However,applyingthismethodology(describedbrieflyinSection4)has
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

5/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

beenfoundtoberatherdifficultbecauseacomplexcomputercodeneedstobeusedto
carryoutthecalculations[1].So,somemanufacturershavetheirownmethodsorusea
defaultvalueof0.1%carryoverforthevaporouscomponent.

3.Scope
Provideaprocedureforthemeasurementoftotalcarryover,andadescriptionof
mechanicalcarryoverfromsteamdrums(fractionofboilerwaterdropletsentrainedin
steam)andofvaporouscarryover.

4.MechanicalCarryovervs.TotalCarryover
Thetotalcarryoverofboilerwaterimpuritiesandconditioningchemicalsindrum
boilersdeterminesthechemicalpurityofthesteam.Carryoverisacombinationoftwo
factors:vaporouscarryover,duetotheinherentvolatilityoftheconstituentsintheboiler
water,andmechanicalcarryoverofdropletsofboilerwaterintothesteam.Oncethetotal
carryoverisknown,thenboilerwaterlimitscanbesettolimittheriskofinitiating
corrosionintheboiler,aswellassteamlimitstominimizetheriskofinitiatingcorrosion
anddepositioninthesteamcircuits,includingtheturbine.Thus,carryoverneedstobe
measuredtodevelopunitspecificcyclechemistryguidelines.

Page4

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

6/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Totalcarryoverofsodiumisdeterminedastheratioofthesaturatedsteamsodium
concentrationtoboilerwatersodiumconcentration.Mechanicalcarryoverisdetermined
bysubtractingthevaporoussodiumcarryoverinthesteamathighpressures.
T=Cs/Cb*100

(1)

M=TV

(2)

Mechanicalcarryoveristheentrainmentofwaterdropletsinsteamexitingtheboiler.It
dependsontheconditionofthewater/steamseparators,drumlevelcontrol,andsteady
stateoperatingconditions.Mechanicalcarryoverisafunctionofthedensitydifference
betweenwaterandsteamphasesataparticularpressure.Anexampleofhowmechanical
carryovervarieswithpressureisshowninFigure1,whichillustratesthatmechanical
carryovercanbesignificantforexample,atapressureof17.2MPa(2500psi),itmaybe
ashighas0.2%.Theboilermanufacturercansupplytheactualdesigndatatobeusedfor
therespectiveboilerandsuchanexampleisalsoshowninFigure1.
Vaporouscarryoveroccursduetotheinherentvolatilityofthecompoundspresentin
theboilerwater.Somecompounds,e.g.,ammoniaandamines,aredeliberatelyaddedto
thewater/steamcircuitasconditioningchemicals,becausetheyarevolatileandcan
protectvariouspartsoftheboilerwater/steamcircuitduringoperationandoffload
conditions.Exceptfortheseplantconditioningchemicalsandafewsubstanceslikesilica,
copperoxides/hydroxides,aluminiumcompoundsandboricacid,vaporouscarryoverat
pressureslessthanabout16MPa(2300psi)isnegligible.
Molecularimpuritiesinboilerwatercanevaporatewithsteam(vaporouscarryover).
Thedegreeofvaporouscarryoverisexpressedasadistributionratioofconcentrationof
thecompoundorimpuritiesinthesteamtothatintheboilerwater.Thedistributionratiois
afunctionof:
boilerdrumpressure
boilerwaterdissolvedsolidsconcentrations,and
boilerwaterpHandinteractionsbetweenthespeciespresent.
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

7/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Thus,informationisrequiredonthevolatilityofthesaltsandtheircorrespondingacids
andbaseslikelytobepresentinboilerwater,suchassodiumchloride,hydrochloricacid,
sodiumhydroxide,ammonia,ammoniumchloride,sulfuricacid,sodiumhydroxide,and
sodiumandammoniumsulfatesandbisulfates,overtherangeoftemperaturesofinterest.
Thiscanthenbeusedtomodelthechemistryaroundthewater/steamcircuitunderthe
chemicalregimeatanytemperature,pHorcompositionoftheboilerwater.Theallowable
impurityconcentrationsinboilerwatercanthenbecalculatedfromthoseofthesteamand
theamountsofmechanicalandvaporouscarryover.
Previously,thevaporouscontent(V)ofthetotalcarryoverwasestimatedfroma
distributionratiodiagram(commonlyreferredtoastheraydiagram).However,
monitoringinnumerousplantsshowedthattheraydiagramhadsevereshortcomings
andamorerigorousmethodwasrequired.Afterover15yearsofresearchinitiated
throughIAPWS,mostofthepartitioningconstantsfortheimportantboilerwater
compoundshavebeeninvestigated.Figure2showsonesuchcompilationwithothers
beingillustratedinreferences[1]and[2].Atthehighestpressures,thevaporouscarryover
4

Page5

canbederivedfromthepartitioningconstantsofthespeciesusinganappropriatesetof
equations.Manufacturershavetheirownmethodsforcalculatingthevaporouscarryover
or,becauseofthecomplexityofusingthepartitioningconstantsandacomputercodeto
implementtheequations,theysimplyuseadefaultof0.1%.
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

8/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

5.DescriptionoftheMethod
Asampleofsaturatedsteamiswithdrawnthroughanisokineticsamplenozzleinthe
connectinglinks(offtakes)leadingfromthesteamdrumtotheprimarysuperheater.The
steamsampleiscondensedandtheconcentrationofsodiuminthesampleismeasured.A
sampleofboilerwaterfromthesteamdrumisobtainedatthesametime,anditssodium
concentrationisalsomeasured.Thesteamsodiumconcentrationdividedbytheboiler
watersodiumconcentrationrepresentsthetotalcarryover.
Theboilerwatersampleisobtainedfromthecontinuousblowdownlinethatcomes
fromthesteamdrum.Theblowdownwaterisafairlyhomogenousmixtureofthe
feedwater(distributedalongthedrumlength)andthereturnedwater/steammixturefrom
theevaporatortubes/risersalsodistributedalongthedrumlength.Thefossilboilersteam
drumislongandrelativelynarrow,somixinghasn'tusuallybeenaproblem.Drum
internalsandcomponentscanbeinstalledimproperly,buttheseproblemsaretypically
discoveredandresolvedduringthecommissioningprocess.Usuallytherearesampling
devicesthatobtainwater/steamsamplesaboveandbelowthewaterlevel.Theseare
sometimes(andtemporarily)installedinnewunitstocalibrateorresolveproblemswith
waterlevelcontrollers.Thesecanbeusedtoobtainsamplesofwaterthatisinmore
immediatecontactwithsteam,butthedifferenceinthecarryovermeasurementshasnot
beensignificantenoughtowarrantthepermanentinstallationofthesedevices.

6.UseofSodiumtoDetermineTotalCarryover
Sodiumsalts,suchasNa3 PO4and/orNaOH,areusedforboilerwatertreatment
(primarilyinfossilplants).Thesehavegoodsolubilityinboilerwaterandalowvolatility
insteam,whichmakesthemsuitabletracersfordeterminingthetotalcarryover.
Thesodiumconcentrationistypically15mg/kg(ppm)forphosphatetreatedboilers
andupto1mg/kg(ppm)forNaOHtreatedboilers.Theselevelsareusuallysufficientto
permitthecarryovermeasurements(primarilyanaccuratemeasurementofthetrace
sodiumconcentrationinthesteam),especiallyiftheconcentrationismaintainedtoward
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

9/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

thehigherendoftherange.Additionaldosingofsodiumisnotrequiredforboilers
operatedonNaOHoronphosphatetreatments.Forboilersonoxygenatedtreatment(OT)
orallvolatiletreatment(AVT),pressuredependentsodiumconcentrationshouldbestated
asthemaximumtolerableconcentrationofsodiumintheboilerwater.Theexperience
basewiththesetestsislarge,matureandcomprehensive.
Anyhideoutorothertransientbehaviorassociatedwithsodiumadditionshouldbe
normalizedbyperformingthetestsatstableandfixedoperatingconditions.Inother
words,thesystemisbroughttosteadystateconditionsandthensamplesareobtained.If
concernsariseastothetimelaginobtaining/analyzingsamples,otheroptionsexistsuch
asobtaining/analyzingsamplesatcloseproximitytothesteamdrum.

Page6

InnuclearsteamgeneratorswithAllvolatileTreatmentandlowconcentrationsof
alkaliintheboilerwater,radioactivetracersmaybeused.AcommontracerisNa24in
theformofNa2 CO3orNaNO3 ,appliedinverylowchemicalconcentration.
Otheralkalisuchaslithiumhydroxidecouldalsobeused,howeverthereisalackof
informationaboutthevolatilityoflithiumspeciesathighpressures.Theywouldbe
selectedonconsiderationofalowvolatility(vaporouscarryover).

7.Sampling
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

10/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Drumboilerscanhaveseveralsteampuritysamplenozzles(uptosixofftakes)located
intheconnectinglinksbetweenthesteamdrumandprimarysuperheaterinlet.These
nozzlescanbeindividuallyfittedwithsamplelinesandisolationvalves.Fornormal
operation,thesamplelinestypicallydischargeintoacollectionheader,andpassthrougha
samplecoolertoasinglemonitorinthechemicalsampling/instrumentationpanel.
Thepreferredprocedurewhenevaluatingsteampurity(especiallyforthefirsttime)is
toseparatethesamplenozzlelinesandanalyzeasamplefromeachline.Theinitial
performancetestsshouldincludeacharacterizationofthecarryoverbehavior.Therefore,
saturatedsteamsamplesshouldbeobtainedatleastateachquarterpointalongthelength
ofthedrum.Thiswillalsohelptoestablishsamplingneedsforfuturetestsand
requirementsforthecontinuoussteampuritysample.Thispermitsthesteampuritytobe
evaluatedalongthelengthofthedrum,andhelpstoidentifyvariationsthatmayexistand
maybethecauseforthesevariations.Aswitchedsamplingdevicethatcanrotatearound
thevariousofftakeswillensurethatafalseimpressionisnotprovidedbysimplytaking
samplesfromonlyoneofftake.Numerousexamplesexistofsteamturbineandboilerfeed
pumpturbinedamageinsuchsituations.
Thesteamnozzlesshouldbedesignedforisokineticsampling[37].Thenozzlesample
flowmustbecontrolledtoprovideisokineticconditionsatthenozzleinlet.Thissample
flowratemustbevariedtomatchthesteamvelocityvariationinthesaturatedsteamlink
withboilerload.

8.AnalyticalMethods
Onlinesodiumanalyzersforsteamandboilerwatersampleshaveproventobe
successfulwhensodiumsalts(orhydroxide)areusedforboilerwatertreatment[7].Itis
alsopossibletoanalyzebyionchromatography.
Inatypicaltest,thesodiumconcentrationintheboilerwaterisontheorderof1to5
mg/kg(ppm),andthesodiumconcentrationinthesteamistypicallyontheorderof2to
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

11/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

10g/kg(ppb).Insomecases,thesodiumconcentrationinsteamisaslowas0.4to2.0
g/kg(ppb).Inallcases,thesodiumlevelshouldbeinagreementwiththepressure
dependentsodiumlevelsinboilerwaterasspecifiedintheapplicableguidelines.
Contaminationofthesamplesbycontactwithambientair,samplebottlewalls,orthrough
manipulationcangiveerroneousresults.Theadventoftheselectiveionelectrodehas

Page7

improvedthemeasurementoftheselowconcentrations.Thesamplecanbewithdrawn
throughtubingdirectlytothemeasurementstationwithoutsignificantcontaminationfrom
externalsources.Asecondimprovementinthemeasurementabilityistheconnectionof
themeasurementstationtoaPCdataacquisitionsystemthatdisplaystrendsofthe
concentrationwithtime,permittingtheoperatortodeterminethatanequilibriumcondition
wasachievedwhendecidingwhethertoincludedataasatestpoint.
Theisokineticsampleflowusuallydoesnotmatchtheflowrequiredbyasodium
analyzer.Generally,sodiumanalyzerstypicallyrequirelesssamplethananisokinetic
nozzlesamplecandeliver.Forthisreason,thesodiumanalyzershouldbeoperatedina
bypassthesamplesurpluscanbesenttodrain.
Asecondsodiumanalyzerisrequiredfortheboilerwatersamplefromthesteamdrum.
Theresidencetimeneedstobecalculatedforthesamplelinesizeandlengthtodetermine
thedrumsampletimeforwatercomparedtothesampletimeforthesaturatedsteam
sample.Thesesampletimesshouldbewithin5minutesofeachother.Thesampleflow
fortheboilerwaterandanalyzeraresimilartothoseofthesteamsamplethusrequiring
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

12/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

thesamearrangement.Itisalsopossibletoanalyzethesodiumintheboilerwaterbyother
methodsthananonlineanalyzer,becausethehigherconcentrationsmakethesampleless
susceptibletoerrorsbycontamination.

9.TestProcedures
Inordertofullycharacterizethebehavioroftheboiler,samplesshouldbetakenover
anextendedperiod.Forthefirsthourafterestablishmentofanewoperatingcondition
(load,drumwaterlevel,etc.),thedatamaybesubjecttotransienteffectsandmaynotbe
fullyrepresentative.Majorchangesincarryovercanoccuratsteadyloadinsomeboilers
ifthisisobserved,thenthoroughinvestigationofthecausewillberequired.Continuous
flowselectiveionanalyzerswillpermitanobservertodeterminetheexactflushtime
requirement.Thesamplesshouldnotbetakenforonehouraftersettingtherequired
boileroperatingconditionstopermittheunittoreachequilibrium.Thesampleflowrates
shouldbeadjustedtoanisokineticsampleflow.Ifgrabsamplesareusedforthe
measurements,thentheblowdownandsteamsamplesshouldbeflowingforatleastthree
hoursbeforethesamplesaretaken.

10.TestConditions
Theperformanceofthesteamdruminternals(andtotalcarryover)isprimarily
dependentonload(steamflowrate),operatingpressureandwaterlevel.Thesteamflow
rateandpressureaffectthefluidvelocityandthustheperformanceoftheseparators.
Carryoverisusuallyfairlylow(considerablybelowdesignlimit)andconstantuntilthe
steamflow(foraparticulardesignpressure)approachesfullloadconditions,atwhich
pointitbeginstoincrease.Thisincreaseisusuallyprogressive,butinsomeboilersitcan
occursuddenlyand/orintermittently.Itisimportantfortheoperatorstobeawareofthe
druminternalsperformanceasafunctionofdrumwaterlevel.Anincreaseinwaterlevel
abovethenormallevelreducestheheightbetweenthewatersurfaceandfinalseparators
(dryers)thusreducinggravityseparationofwaterdropletsfromthesteam.Thiscanhave
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

13/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Page8

adetrimentaleffectontheeffectivenessoftheseparators.Mindfulofthewaterlevel(i.e.,
lowwaterlevel)impactonboilerperformance,thewaterleveltargetsforthecarryover
testsshouldbeselectedtobewellwithinsafeboundariesestablishedbylevelcontrol
alarmsandexperience.
Anumberofaspectsaboutcarryoverneedtobeconsidered:a)adrummayshow
distinctperiodslastingafewhoursatatimewhenseriouscarryoverisoccurring,
interspersedwithperiodsofacceptableoperationb)smallchangesofload,burnerpattern,
ordrumwaterlevelcanallinfluencetheperformanceofthedrumc)inlong,narrow
drumsitisknownthatcarryovertakingplacealongpartofthelengthcanoccurandd)
anychemicalspresentthatinfluencesurfacetensioncanhaveamajoreffectonthe
carryover.
Thesteampuritytestscanthereforebeperformedatvariousconditions.Anexampleto
showtheimpactofvariousfactorsisshowninTable1.However,forthepurposeof
determiningthedesignorpredictedperformanceofthesteamdrumorseparatorsystem,
thecarryovertestsshouldbeperformedatfullloadconditions.
Carryovertestingconductedbetweeneverysixandtwelvemonthsisasatisfactory
intervalforboilersnotexperiencingcarryoverrelatedproblems.Greatlypreferableisto
performcontinuousmeasurementsusingcontinuousonlineinstruments,switched
betweenofftakesamplingpoints,especiallyduringperiodswhenload/pressurechanges
areoccurring.
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

14/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

11.References
1.R.B.Dooley,M.Ball,A.Bursik,M.Rziha,andR.Svoboda,WaterChemistryin
CommercialWaterSteamCycles,Ch.17inAqueousSystemsatElevated
TemperaturesandPressures:PhysicalChemistryinWater,SteamandHydrothermal
Solutions(D.A.Palmer,R.FernndezPriniandA.H.Harvey,eds.),Elsevier,2004.
2.D.A.Palmer,J.M.SimonsonandJ.P.Jensen,PartitioningofElectrolytestoSteam
andtheirSolubilitiesinSteam,Ch.12inAqueousSystemsatElevatedTemperatures
andPressures:PhysicalChemistryinWater,SteamandHydrothermalSolutions,
(D.A.Palmer,R.FernndezPriniandA.H.Harvey,eds.),Elsevier,2004.
3.P.Srisukvatananan,D.H.Lister,R.Svoboda,andK.Daucik,AssessmentoftheState
oftheArtofSamplingofCorrosionProductsfromWaterandSteamCycles,.
PowerPlantChemistry9,613(2007).
4.StandardPracticeforSamplingSteam,ASTMD1066.
5.StandardPracticeforFlowControlandTemperatureControlforOnLineWater
SamplingAnalysis,ASTMD5540.
6.StandardGuideforEquipmentforSamplingWaterandSteaminClosedConduits,
ASTMD1192.
7.StandardTestMethodsforContinuousDeterminationofSodiuminWater,ASTM
D2791.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

15/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Page9

12.TablesandFigures
Table1.AnexampleoftestconditionsforthemeasurementoftheTotalCarryover
(MCR=maximumcontinuousrating)
Test
No.

Unit
Load
%MCR

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

100
100
100
100
100
100
105
(peak)
75
50

Drum
Operating
Pressure
MPa

WaterLevel,
Deviation.from
Normal
mm

Maximum
Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Nominal
Nominal

0
0
+100
+50
50
100
0

Corresponding
Corresponding

0
0

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

16/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Page10

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

17/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

Figure1.Exampleofpercentageofmechanicalcarryoverasafunctionoftheboiler
pressure(solidline)[1].Informationforaspecificboilerthatismoreprecisecanbe
providedbytheboilermanufacturer:thedottedlineshowsanexample.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

18/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

10

Page11

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

19/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

K
10

log

Figure2.Partitioningconstants(KD)forsomespeciesplottedagainstreciprocal
temperature(kelvin).Itshouldbenotedthatthevolatilityofneutral(N)compoundscanbe
compareddirectlywithotherneutralcompoundsonthisfigure,1:1compoundswithother
1:1compounds,and2:1compoundswithother2:1compounds.Butneutralcompounds
cannotbecompareddirectlywith1:1or2:1compounds[1,2].Otherexamplesof
distributioncoefficientscanbeseeninreferences[1]and[2].

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

20/21

2/22/2016

TheInternationalAssociationforthePropertiesofWaterandSteam

11

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.iapws.org/techguide/Carryover.pdf&gws_rd=cr&ei=rFTKVq7eI5KVuATjtaGYDw

21/21