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CH 17

Children between 1 and 3 years of age are referred to as

toddlers
By 1 years of age, children have generally ____________ their birth weight and gained control of
their ___________, ____________, and _____________.

tripled
head, hands, feet
The toddler is in Erickson's stage of _____________ versus shame and doubt, which is based on a
continuum of trust established during infancy

autonomy
Children are mastering many challenging tasks during the toddler stage, including:

- toilet training
- self-feeding
- self-dressing
- speech development
Parents need to maintain ______________ while allowing the toddler the opportunity for social and
physical independence.

safety
Define lumbar lordosis

the exaggerated lumbar curve that makes the toddler's belly protrude
As a parent, being sure that your child maintains a ___________ ________ ______________ and
_________ ___________ even in a child whose behavior is inconsistent and often frustrating.

positive self image


body image

CH 17
Toddlers test their __________ by ___________ _____ frequently.

power
saying no
When a toddler tests their power by saying no, this is called_______________.

negativism
_____________ is another characteristic of toddler behavior in which they increase their sense of
security by making _______________ ____________ of simple tasks, and so their rituals should be
respected

Ritualism
compulsive routines
The toddler's legs and arms lengthen through ______________ and growth in the epiphyseal areas
of the ______________ __________.

ossification
long bones
The height of a 2 year old is through to be ____________ of the potential adult height of that child.

1/2
Chest circumference in a toddler continues to ____________.

increase
______________ of the spinal cord is practically complete by age 2 years, allowing for control of
_______ and ____________ _______________.

Myelination (it takes longer in a premie)


anal, urethral sphincters
Bowel and bladder control is usually complete by ________ to ________ years of age.

CH 17

2.5, 3
The skin becomes tough as the epidermis and dermis bond more tightly, which protects the child
from _________ __________, __________________, and irritation

fluid loss, infection, irritation


The _________________ ________ continues to be shorter and straighter than the adult.
_______________, _________ ___________, and ________ _________________ infections are common
problems.

Eustachian tube
Tonsillitis, otitis media, upper respiratory
The blood pressure of a toddler may average ________; the respiratory rate slows to ________
breaths per minute, and breathing continues to be _____________.

90/56 mm/Hg
25
abdominal
Two year old toddlers _________, __________, __________, _________, __________, and __________
objects with their eyes.

reach, grasp, inspect, smell, taste, study


_____________ vision is well established by age 15 months.

Binocular
___________ ____________ is about 20/40 by age _________.

Visual acuity
two
Toddlers learn things through _________ and _________.

CH 17

trial, error
Separation anxiety, which consists of ___________, _____________, and _______________, develops in
infancy and continues throughout toddlerhood.

protest, despair, detachment


The concept of ____________ _________________ develops, and toddlers are able to fit square pegs in
a square hole and round pegs in a round hole.

spatial relationships
_____________ _________________ continues to develop, and the toddler becomes aware that there
may be fun items behind closed doors and in closed drawers.

Object permanence
The toddler begins to ____________ ____________ of _____________ as evidenced by saying "no-no"
when tempted to touch a forbidden object.

internalize standards of behavior


By age 2, toddlers have a recognition of ___________ differences.

sexual
Define temper tantrums

- uncontrolled anger reactions


- occur during the toddler years
- parent responses reinforce to the child either the desirability or the risks involved with such
behavior
Limit setting should include __________ for desired behavior as well as _____________ for undesired
behavior.

praise

CH 17
disapproval
Define time out

a period in a safe place that helps the child to develop the ability to tolerate delayed gratification
and self-regulation.
- timing should not begin until the child has settled down
- timing for time-out is usually based on 1 minute per year of age
Toddlers may confuse ______________ with _______________ body parts.

essential
nonessential
True or False: Expelling feces and flushing them down the toilet can be upsetting to some
toddlers because? Why or why not?

True
Because they may feel they expelled a part of themselves that has disappeared.
A toddler's body image and self esteem may be impaired if they are scolded in a way that makes
them feel _________ are bad rather than their _____________.

their
behavior
By age 3 the child has an extensive vocabulary of about _________ words.

900
Children first refer to animals by the ___________.

sounds the animals make


Example: instead of saying dog, the toddler repeats bow-bow
How can a parent concerned with their child's delayed speech receive guidance?

CH 17

they can discuss it with their health care provider during a routine physical exam so it can be
evaluated in light of total physical growth and development.
True or False: Many late talkers are perfectly normal children who prefer listening over active
participation.

True
The goal of guidance and discipline is to _________, not to ______________.

teach, punish
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