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Now a days people are very interested in technology and innovation.

Many gadgets and


electronic materials are being produced by famous and big companies that sells high technology
gadget which are very satisfactory to the needs of the people. In fact all of the major electronic
companies have their own specialization about a gadget and we think that they also produce
amplifiers that have a high power rating that gives a high and mind blowing intensity of sound.
An amplifier is an electronic device that increases the voltage, current, or power of
a signal (www.Whatis.com). According to Boylestad and Nashelsky (2009), an amplifier
receives a signal from some pickup transducer or other input source and provides a larger version
of the signal to some output device or to another amplifier stage. This input transducer signals is
generally small and needs to be amplified sufficiently to operate an output device. In general
there are many types of amplifiers and the most common is amplifying sound or the audio
amplifier.
Audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals to a
level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the final stage in a typical audio playback chain.
This device can be categorized in to low- signal amplifiers and power amplifiers. A low- signal
audio amplifier is designed to deal with exceedingly small input signals, in some cases
measuring only few nanovolts (techtarget.com). According to Boylestad and Nashelsky (2009),
low-signal amplifiers generates minimal internal noise. Therefore, the most effective device or
this kind of application is the field-effect transistors (FETs). On the other hand, power audio
amplifiers are designed to drive loudspekers. This kind of amplifier main purpose is to take a

Introduction

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weak signal and make it strong enough to drive a speaker ( Self 2009). Therefore this kind of
application must use a bipolar transistor (BJTs).
Audio amplifiers also have its own types. There are two types of audio amplifiers these
are the mono (single) and the multi-channel audio amplifiers. Mono amplifiers is a singlechannel amplifier, which plays back sound without distinguishing directionality (eHow.com). On
the other hand multi-channel amplifiers like the stereo amplifier, plays sound back through at
least two channels (left and right, at minimum). Multichannel amps do produce richer sounds
than mono amps. However, mono amps are used for certain and special applications.
As we had observed for the past years that we had been a student of University of the
Immaculate Conception and taking up the course of Electronics and Communications
Engineering the students are required to make a project as a course requirement and as an
application on how well did the student knows about the lecture. Students from the 4th year levels
whose taking-up Electronics-2 subject required to make an amplifier depending on the instructor.
In our case we were told to make a stereo power amplifier that has a power rating of 200
watts. And in that case we decided that we will make one that is safe, reliable and 100% working
as an application on the knowledge that we have learned from the lecture.

The research design of this study is experimental research. The lab experiments are
conducted in order to ascertain the cause and effect relationship between independent and
dependent variables. The researcher has a control over the experiment, who, what, when, where
and how. The researcher can assign subjects to conditions randomly. Random assignment is an
unbiased assignment process that gives each subject an equal and independent chance of being
placed in every condition. Control over what, where, when and how of the experiment means
that the experimenter has complete control over the way the experiment is to be conducted.
The study will be conducted at the University of the Immaculate Conception in Davao
City. The study will be done on the electronics laboratory of the school at the Bonifacio campus.
Materials
The following are the materials needed to produce the design intended for this study.
Capacitor. An electronic component having capacitive reactance. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Resistor. Component made of material that opposes flow of current and therefore has some
value of resistance. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Potentiometer. A variable resistor with three terhree terminals. Mechanical turning of a shaft
can be used to produce variable resistance and potential. Example: A volume control is usually a
potentiometer. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Power supply. Electrical equipment used to deliver either AC or DC voltage.
(www.hobbyprojects.com)
Transistor. Term derived from "transfer resistor." Semiconductor device that can be used as an
amplifier or as an electronic switch. (www.hobbyprojects.com)

Methodology

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Transformer. Inductor with two or more windings. Through mutual inductance, current in one
winding called a primary will induce current into the other windings called secondaries.
(www.hobbyprojects.com)
Diode. A two terminal device that conducts in only one direction. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Bipolar junction transistor. (BJT), A three terminal device in which emitter to collector current
is controlled by base current. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Zener Diode. Semiconductor diode in which reverse breakdown voltage current causes the diode
to develop a constant voltage. Used as a clamp for voltage regulation. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Speaker. Also called "loudspeaker." Transducer that converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy at audio frequencies. (www.hobbyprojects.com)
Trimmer. Small value variable capacitor, resistor or inductor used to fine tune a larger value.
(www.hobbyprojects.com)

The researchers will perform experiments for the following parts of their design in order
to make their 200 watts stereo amplifier .
Conceptualization
The researchers plan to design a stereo audio power amplifier that has a power rating of
200watts.

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Block Diagram

220V AC

POWER
SUPPLY

STEREO AMPLIFIER

LOUDSPEAKER

TONE CONTROL
MIC PRE-AMP

The tone control adjusts the low (bass) and high (treble) frequencies together with its volume and
balance.

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Schematic Diagram

Fig. 1 - Power amplifier schematic

Fig. 2 - Tone Control Schematic Diagram

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Fig. 3 Power Supply Schematic Diagram

Fig. 4b - 200 Watts Stereo Amplifier PCB Layout

Fig. 5a - Tone Control PCB Layout

Fig. 5b - Tone Control PCB Layout

Fig. 4a - 200 Watts Stereo Amplifier PCB Layout

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Fig. 6a - Power Supply PCB Layout

Fig. 6b - Power Supply PCB Layout