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CULTURE

is the way of life of the people.

EDWARD TAYLOR
English anthropologist
defined culture as complex whole which include
knowledge, beliefs, art, law, custom and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
member of society.

OTHER DEFINITION OF CULTURE:


Refers to the artificial or man-made environment as well as
the behavioral aspects of mans way of life. It provides
prescription and proscription for group life: the values,
custom, norms, rules, laws and sanctions for the evidence.
Refers to mans social and material inventions mans
artificial including the learned ways of doing things.
Comprises all the objects, ideas, beliefs, norms of a group
of people and the meaning that the group applies to each
culture element (Clark 1988).
Culture is the social heritage of the society. It refers to the
customary ways in which groups organize their ways of
behaving, thinking and feeling and which they transmit
from one generation to another.

SUMMARIZED DEFINITION OF CULTURE:


Culture is learned.
Culture is socially transmitted through language.
Culture
is a whole
social which
product.
Complex
consist of knowledge, beliefs, ideas,
Culture
a source of
gratification.
habits,isattitudes,
skills,
abilities values, norms, art, law,
Culture
is
adaptive.
morals, customs, tradition, feelings and other capabilities of
Culture
is the are
distinctive
way
of life of
a group
oftransmitted
people.
man which
acquired,
learned,
and
socially
Culture is material and non-material.
by man from one generation to another through language
Culture has sanctions and controls.
and living together as member of the society.
Culture is stable yet dynamic.
Culture is an established pattern of behavior.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE:

4. NORMS - guidelines
people
are supposed to follow in their
COMPONENTS
OF
CULTURE:

relation with one another; they are shared rules that


specify what is right or wrong and the appropriate and
inappropriate
behavior.
1. IDEAS,
BELIEFS
AND VALUES
IDEAS are non-material aspects of culture and
SOCIAL NORMS ARE:
embody mans conception of physical, social and
cultural world.
a. FOLKWAYS everyday habits, customs,
BELIEFS persons
about a people
certainobey
idea,
traditionsconviction
and conventions
it embodieswithout
peoplesgiving
perception
realityto
and
much of
thought
the matter.
includes b.
theMORES
primitive
ideas are
of the
these
theuniverse.
norms people
VALUES are
abstract
concepts
what
is important
consider
vital
to their of
well
being
and most
and worthwhile.
cherished values; they are special custom

with moral and ethical significance which


are strongly held and emphasized. Mores a
coercive and compulsory due to their
strong moral and legal sanctions. They are
societys code of ethics, moral
commandments and standards of morality.
2. MATERIAL CULTURE refers to the concrete and tangible
KINDS
OF MORES:
objects produced
and used
by man to satisfy his varied
needs and wants.
1. Positive mores or duty or the thou shall behavior.
DUTY refers to the behavior.
2. Negative mores of taboo or the thou shall not
behavior.
TABOO refers to the societal prohibitions
3. SYMBOLS to an objects,
gesture,
sound,
color
orbe
design
on certain
acts which
must
not
done
that represents something
than
itself.
People both
in a
becauseother
they are
not
only illegal,
society must agree unethical
on the meaning
of symbols if they have
and immoral.
to be understood.
3. LAWS formalized norms enacted by people
vested with legitimate authority.

CATEGORIES OF CULTURE IN THE


PHILIPPINE SOCIETY
1. BASED ON NATIONALITY
FilipinoEPOCHS
culture OF
3. BASED ON HISTORICAL

PHILIPPINE CULTURE
Before the coming of the
Spaniards
2. BASED ON ETHNOLIGUISTIC
GROUP

SpanishIlokano,
Period Kapampangan,
Tagalog,
American Period
Waray, Bisaya, Manobo, Maranao
Japanese occupation
New Republic
Pre-Martial Law
Martial Law
Post Martial Law

4. BASED ON

5. BASED ON

6. BASED ON

ECONOMIC MEANS
Agricultural Culture
Fishing Culture
Business/ Commercial Culture

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
Lowland Culture
Upland Culture
Rural Culture
Urban Culture

RELIGION
Christian
Roman Catholic
Protestant
Muslim
Iglesia ni Cristo
Jehovahs Witnesses
Pagan

7. BASED ON TECHNOLOGY
Advanced/ Modern Culture
Primitive/ Traditional Culture

8. BASED ON AGE
Teenage Culture
Culture of the Retired and the
Aged

9. BASED ON ECONOMIC STATUS


Elitist Culture
Mass Culture

10. BASED ON RESPONSE TO COLONIALISM


Mainstream Culture
Indigenous Culture

SYMBOLIC USES OF CULTURE


CULTURAL CHANGE culture is not static while culture is
preserved, it is always changing with the passage of time due
1.
CULTURE
POVERTY refers to the learned ways of life
to number
of OF
causes.
of the poor.
2. CULTURE OF OPULENCE refers to the ways of life of the
rich and the famous.
3. CULTURE OF CORRUPTION established patterns of
illegally amassing wealth and obtaining power or
concessions in the government or private office.
4. CULTURE OF SILENCE OR CULTURE OF SABUTAGE
1.individual
DISCOVERY
process to
of finding
a new
or an
group attitude
keep silent
as place
a resigned
object, artificial
or anything that previously existed.
response
to authority.
GILLIN
(1948)
also refers
the initial
5. POP CULTURE
popular
ways, practices
andtointerest
of
contemporary society.
awareness of existing but formerly
6. CULTURE OF APATHY
lack
of interest of elements
the peopleofin
unobserved
relationship
regard to the issues
and
which need attention and
nature
toconcerns
human life.
resolution.
7. CULTURE OF CONPICUOUS CONSUMPTION - ways of
practice of the super rich in buying goods and obtaining
services in excess of they can actually consume and use.
8. CULTURE OF EXPLOITATION AND DEHUMANIZATION
entrenched patterns of abusive and exploitative practices
by moneyed and power-wielding member of the society.

CAUSES OF CULTURAL CHANGE


2. INVENTION implies a creative mental process of
devising, creating and producing something new, novel
or original.
Invention could be either:
a. SOCIAL (Invention of number
system, government, language,
religion).
b. MATERIAL (Invention of the wheel,
machines, etc.).

3. COLONIZATION political, social and political policy of


establishing a colony which would be subject to the rule of
governance of colonizing state.

4. REBELLION AND REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT aim


to change the whole social order and replace the
leadership.

5. DIFFUSION spread of cultural traits (EX. religious


beliefs, technological ideas, language forms).
ACCULTURATION cultural borrowing and
cultural imitation.
ASSIMILATION blending or fusion of two
distinct cultures through long period of
interactions.
AMALGAMATION biological or heredity
fusion of members of different societies.
EX. marriage between a Filipino and an
American
ENCULTURATION deliberate infusion of a
new culture to another. EX. teaching of
American history

SOCIETY and CULTURE with


FAMILY PLANNING

Submitted by:
Margielyn B. Parungao
BSE-II

Submitted to:
Mr. Erick S.M. Tolentino R.N.
Professor